Degrees of arthrosis

Do not despair! Treatment of arthrosis of 3 degree is still possible

Osteoarthritis of 3 degree Arthrosis of various severity is a very common joint disease, which occurs both in the elderly and in very young people. Arthrosis of the third degree is a neglected form of arthrosis of the joints, the treatment of which was not carried out or was performed incorrectly.

Degrees of disease

In different sources, different degrees of development of arthrosis can be found. As a rule, they give 3 or 4 degrees of arthrosis. To understand what kind of stage of arthrosis in a patient, you need to know the symptoms of the disease.
At the first stage, osteoarthritis manifests itself in a change in metabolism in the joints. At this stage it is highly desirable to begin treatment, since it will be most effective. Alas, only a few pay attention to fatigue in the joints and weak initial pain( during the onset of movement).
The second stage of arthrosis has much more pronounced symptoms. There is a crunch and pain in the joints, which can not be overlooked. There is also some deterioration in the movement of the joints: it becomes more difficult to bend and unbend them. With this degree of development of arthrosis, a much larger number of patients are already addressing the doctor. Treatment with conservative methods is possible, although more complex than at the initial stage. Such osteoarthritis can appear with trauma, and manifest somewhat later. For example, when the treatment for a knee joint meniscus tear has already been completed and the patient has completely returned to normal life, thinking that the injury is cured.

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And, finally, the third stage, launched osteoarthritis( the fourth, last, - complete immobilization of the affected joint and disability).For this degree, permanent pains in the area of ​​the affected joint, a significant decrease in mobility and, most important characteristic of this degree, deformation of the joints are characteristic. Let's consider features of the given degree more in detail.

The third stage of the disease

Of all the stages of the development of the disease it is at the third degree that patients feel the strongest pain and talk about constant discomfort. Sharp pain is felt almost all the time, not only during the movement, but even when the person is resting, and the joints do not strain. For this degree, the meteosensitivity of the joints is also characteristic, the patients say that the joints "twist" about it.
With this degree of disease, the joints still move, but the changes that caused osteoarthritis greatly reduce the amplitude of motion.
Treatment of this degree must be carried out comprehensively, only in this way it is possible to achieve a positive effect. The treatment includes:

  • medication;
  • massage and manual therapy;
  • physiotherapy.

In the diagnosis of osteoarthritis, visit the following physiotherapy procedures: electrophoresis, UHF, diadynamic therapy, magnetotherapy, laser therapy, microwave resonance therapy and electrosleep.
It is also important to monitor your diet. Diet for joint pain should provide the body with all the substances necessary for its normal functioning. Food should not be salted, since too much salt negatively affects the periarticular ligaments.
Treatment should also be symptomatic, that is, not only affect the cause of arthrosis, but also remove unpleasant symptoms. For example, if the knee is aching, it is necessary to treat both the swelling of the knee joint and the removal of pain.
Unfortunately, the treatment of such a neglected degree of disease requires a lot of time and effort. Conservative therapy for such neglected osteoarthritis is not always effective enough, so the disease can reach the last, fourth, degree, when it can be cured only through the operation of endoprosthetics, that is, replacing the affected joint with a new artificial one.

Prevention of

Exercises for the prevention of arthrosis As with any other disease, osteoarthritis is much easier to prevent than treat. To understand which prevention of osteoarthritis will be most effective, first consider the causes of arthrosis.
What can provoke arthrosis?
  1. Age changes( slowing metabolism in joints, cartilage abrasion during aging, etc.).
  2. Heredity( for example, features of the structure of the joints).
  3. Excess body weight( extra pounds exert additional strain on the joints, especially on the joints of the legs).
  4. Metabolic and hormonal disorders.
  5. Taking certain medications.
  6. Prolonged frequent hypothermia.
  7. Lack of movement( hypodynamia), as well as a prolonged stay in an uncomfortable position( sitting at the computer for a long time, a long standing, etc.).
  8. Various injuries of the joints.

Different causes cause arthrosis of different locations. Osteoarthritis can appear in any of the joints of the human body, but most often affects the following joints:

  1. knee;
  2. of foot and ankle;
  3. elbow;
  4. vertebrates;
  5. brushes of hands.

If it is practically impossible to protect yourself from injuries, as it is impossible to foresee them, all other reasons can be excluded to some extent.

What should I do to protect myself from arthrosis?

First, to treat injuries of joints in a timely manner. So, for example, the terms of treatment of hemarthrosis of the knee, which arose as a result of a bruise, if promptly seek help, are from one to two weeks.
Secondly, maintain body weight is normal. This will not overload the joints of the legs, which withstand an already considerable load.
Third, the body needs regular moderate exercise to maintain muscle tone. Moreover, the cartilaginous tissue of the joints receives nutrients for the most part precisely during movement. This is due to the fact that there are no blood vessels in the cartilage, and the tissue feeds through the articular fluid, which is produced in a larger amount when the joints move. However, do not overexert yourself. Excessive loads increase the risk of injury, moderate - on the contrary, reduce it by strengthening the muscular corset.
Fourth, in the winter time it's worth dressing for the weather. The main thing that was warm! Joints are afraid of the cold, so it's important not to overcool.
Fifth, wear comfortable shoes. Inconvenient not only directly provokes arthrosis of the joints on the toes, but also contributes to an incorrect distribution of the load on the muscles of the body, which can provoke osteoarthritis in other joints.
It is also important to remember that if there are suspicious symptoms in the area of ​​any joints( fatigue, crunch, pain, etc.), do not delay the visit to the doctor. Remember that the earlier you detect osteoarthritis, the easier, more efficient and faster it will be to receive treatment. Take care of yourself.

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Features of joint arthrosis 2 degrees

Osteoarthritis can affect joints in people of any age. In the age group over 60, the disease is more common than in every second. Often the first stage of the disease does not manifest itself symptomatically, therefore, in most patients, already diagnosed with arthrosis of the 2nd degree.

What causes pathology?

Osteoarthritis or osteoarthritis is a pathological deformity of the joint caused by the destruction of cartilaginous tissue and subchondral bone in it. Subchondral bone is a plate of bone that is located between the bone and cartilage.

Most often, pathology affects the joints of the feet, knees, hips. Sometimes pathology can affect elbows, brushes, vertebrae in the cervical region. The development of the disease can be triggered by one of the following factors:

  • metabolic disorder;
  • disease of an infectious or autoimmune nature;
  • traumatic lesions;
  • hereditary predisposition;
  • age changes.

The cause of development of arthrosis of the second degree is the absence of treatment of the disease at an early stage. Ineffective or untimely begun treatment of the disease leads to the same result - its aggravation and diagnosis of the second degree of arthrosis.

If you take the necessary therapeutic measures, when the thinning of the cartilage has just begun and it has lost its damping properties to a small extent, then the progress of the disease can be avoided.

In the second stage of development of arthrosis cartilage destruction is already significant. In this case, the basic bones are bare and subject to constant friction.


The second degree of arthrosis is the period of the development of the disease, in which a characteristic symptomatic pattern appears:

  • joint pain caused by their deformation;
  • crepitation - crunch when moving;
  • joint stiffness;
  • decrease in the amplitude of motion( insignificant).

The most common symptoms are when a person performs certain physical activities and uses a sick joint. After rest, the symptoms disappear. As a rule, in the second stage there is still no severe pain, which does not stop.

Roentgenography of the knee
The diagnosis of the disease is quite easy: the radiograph shows a decrease in the joint gap and a change in the subchondral bone of the sclerotic nature( the formation of connective tissue instead of the bone)

Symptoms of arthrosis of various joints

When the knee joint is affected with arthrosis, pain develops in the knee. At the second stage of the development of the disease, the pain is quite pronounced. Appear when running, walking, sometimes even at rest. Particularly severe pains occur after walking, if they were long, or after lifting weights. Pain passes if you stay for a long time at rest. But with new physical exertion they return. At the 2-nd degree of arthrosis, there is already a characteristic sharp crunch when bending the knee. At this stage of the development of the disease, the processes that lead to the immobilization of the joint begin.

With arthrosis of the elbow joint, most patients turn to the doctor at the second stage, because during this period the pains begin to deliver a noticeable discomfort and accompany the patient even at rest. As a rule, the pain no longer allows the patient to take his hand back or completely bend it at the elbow. When bending, dry crunch appears. Atrophy of muscles begins.

Coxarthrosis( defeat with arthrosis of the hip joint) is characterized by intense pain in the second stage of development. Even if the patient does not make any movements, the pain can pursue him, giving the hip and groin to the thigh. The joint operates with certain restrictions. It is difficult to remove the hip, limping occurs when walking.

With the defeat of other joints, the same tendency remains: the joint ceases to fully perform its functions and hurts even at rest.

The main methods of treatment of

At this stage of pathology development, the main goals of treatment are to restore joint mobility, reduce soreness and stop the development of the disease. In the absence of treatment and the progress of the disease, even disability is possible.

Treatment can take a long time, only with a comprehensive approach can achieve its main goals.

Medical treatment

The main groups of drugs that are traditionally prescribed to patients for the control of arthrosis are:

  • analgesics( Denebol, arthrosan, paracetamol);
  • non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs( aspirin, ibuprofen, diclofenac, ortrofen);
  • preparations for vasodilatation( euphyllin, trental).

Treatment of arthrosis of the 2-nd degree requires obligatory reception of chondroprotectors. At this stage they still give a pronounced effect. With the further development of the disease, their effect is either short-term or completely absent.

An injection in the knee joint
In most cases, injections of hyaluronic acid directly into the joint cavity of

are prescribed. Hyaluronic acid is able to partially replace the synovial fluid. It activates the regenerative processes in the cartilaginous tissue. At the third and fourth stages, this method is ineffective.

Physiotherapeutic procedures

At any stage, physiotherapy is needed to effectively eliminate arthrosis. As a rule,

  • electrophoresis is prescribed;
  • magnetic therapy;
  • laser procedures;
  • microwave and ultrasound therapy.

It is also important to conduct regular exercises of exercise therapy that help restore joint mobility and its full functioning.

Nutrition rules

Diet occupies an important place in the complex treatment of arthrosis. Under a categorical ban, any canned products, broths, fatty meat, smoked products, corn oil. Patients are advised to include in their daily diet fresh vegetables and fruits, seaweed and any other foods high in pectin. This polysaccharide has an effect similar to the effect from the use of hyaluronic acid, since it is its derivative.

Red fish
You need to eat fish, lean meat, sour-milk products. Meat and fish are desirable for steaming

Physical exercises for patients with arthrosis

Depending on the localization of the disease, patients are offered different complexes of exercise therapy. If the knee joint is injured, such exercises will help:

  1. Sit on a high chair or countertop and chatter with your feet. Exercise should be done at least 5 minutes.
  2. Pull out your leg in front of you, while the article should be perpendicular to the floor, and the leg is parallel to it. In the muscles of the thigh and lower leg should be felt tension. Hold the leg stretched 3 min. Then the exercise is repeated with the second leg.
  3. The buttocks need to rest against the countertop or the seat of a high chair. Legs in the knees should be slightly bent and spread apart. The back should be kept straight, while doing the inclines forward.
  4. Lying on your back, raise your legs and perform movements like when riding a bike.
  5. Lying on the stomach, you need to bend your knees, lifting them to a position perpendicular to the floor. Do not tear the pelvis off the floor.
More article: X-ray of the elbow Treatment of arthrosis of the elbow joint folk remedies

With coxarthrosis, such loads will help:

  1. The uplift of the legs lying on the stomach. In the knee, the leg should be straightened, it should be raised slowly, about 15 degrees from the floor.
  2. Lying on the floor on the side, the lower leg is bent at the knee, and the upper one is straightened and raised about 45 degrees. Hold it up you need 30 seconds. The same is repeated on the second side.
  3. Lying on the back, perform pelvic lifts.

If arthrosis touched the shoulder joint, you can perform such exercises:

  1. With the legs spread apart, it is necessary to lift one arm up and bend at the elbow, her fingers should touch the scapula. The second hand should be gently pressed on the elbow, so that your fingers could reach as far as possible.
  2. Putting your hands on the opposite shoulders, you need to hug your shoulders. Elbows should be tried to lift as high as possible, and reach the spine with the palms.
  3. Putting the palm of one hand on the elbow of the second, you should try to take the second hand as far back as possible.

To create the optimal set of exercises in each individual case can only the doctor taking into account all the individual characteristics of the patient. The general rule for doing any exercises is the absence of pain. Do not exercise any discomfort.

If arthrosis is not treated, it will destroy the cartilage tissue until the cartilage is completely destroyed. This can lead to complete immobilization of the joint, in which the only possible method of treatment - prosthetics. To avoid the consequences of the disease, it is very important to consult a doctor in a timely manner.

Osteoarthritis of 2nd degree - symptoms and effective treatment

  • 4.4 Diet

Causes of arthrosis

The main cause leading to arthrosis is incorrect and untimely treatment of the primary stage of this disease. At the same time, only a certain thinning of the cartilage and loss of its working properties are observed. The second stage implies a significant destruction of the cartilaginous tissue, as a result of which the bones become bare and experience unwanted friction.

To a greater extent such organ damage is attributed to age-related manifestations, but young people are also susceptible to it. Specific factors cause arthrosis.

  1. Injuries - posttraumatic arthrosis.
  2. Disorders in the metabolic processes of the body.
  3. Some diseases that are infectious or autoimmune in nature.
  4. Heredity.
  5. Flat-footed, as well as continuous static loads.
  6. The problems that arise in the vessels of the lower limbs, which causes a deficiency in the supply of cartilaginous tissue.
  7. Irreversible age changes.

Symptomatology of arthrosis diseases

To treat arthrosis of 2 degrees is quite difficult. In this case, time is already lost and the appeal to the people's means becomes hopeless. The disease progresses, and the joints begin to significantly deform. The characteristic signs on which it is possible to determine the presence of the disease can be identified:

  • joint pain;
  • feels some stiffness or stiffness of the joint;
  • the amplitude of the necessary movements is limited.

Symptoms occur more often under stresses, weakening and receding after sufficient rest. For the present there is no constant sharp pain. Diagnosing the disease at this stage is not difficult. An x-ray examination clearly shows a decrease in the joint gap.

The main types of arthrosis

Since this lesion affects all the joints of the body, it can be observed in specific joints.


Osteoarthritis 2 and the subsequent degree of the shoulder joint can be determined by impairing the freedom of movement of the hands. For the first stage only painful sensations are characteristic, the second is manifested by persistent strong pains and complete limitation of movements. It is impossible to raise a hand to try to get something or just scratch it.

Pain can continue even in the static position of the hands. The most dangerous and severe form of this disease is arthrosis deforming.


Symptomatic of arthritis of the foot is similar to manifestations of arthritis. But arthrosis at 2 degrees of foot has its own peculiarities:

  • in joints, a characteristic crunch may appear;
  • physical activities are accompanied by unstable blunt pains, which can intensify in wet and cold weather;
  • awakening can be accompanied by stiffness of movements, and mobility of joints is limited during the day;
  • gradually deforms the joints, which is caused by bone growths;
  • changes the gait and position of the body due to the desire to relieve the diseased part of the foot;
  • area of ​​the affected area is periodically swollen;
  • the temperature rises;
  • appear specific calluses, working capacity decreases;
  • function of the joints are broken, and their thickening occurs.

If untimely treatment will degenerate processes that will form a permanent pain syndrome.


Osteoarthritis in the 2nd degree of the hip joint is characterized by severe pain manifestations. In this case, pain is observed not only in the joint itself, but also in the thigh and in the groin. Unpleasant sensations can occur even if the body is in a static state.

Continuous walking can cause lameness. The femoral joint bends poorly and unbends, and the muscles are markedly thinned. The second stage of the disease sometimes involves treatment with surgery.


This type of arthrosis is the least common. Most often it occurs as a result of injury - a fracture or dislocation. The course of the disease is accompanied by a crunch and pain during the bending or extension of the joint until it stops.

Mobility of the joint is reduced by 30-50%, and external manifestations are practically not observed. The hygroma of the wrist joint in the photo is very similar to the manifestation of arthrosis. But this is only outward, and the deformation becomes noticeable only on the condition that it appeared due to a fracture with displacement.

People with certain occupations may also suffer from arthrosis. This is especially true for workers who constantly handle jackhammers or vibrators.


Arthrosis of the second degree, striking the knee joint, accompany pain in any movement. They cease only when lying down. Especially painful are the first steps after a night awakening or after a long stay in one position. This type of pain is given the name of "starters".

The friction between the surfaces of the joints contributes to the painful manifestations, and the constant tension of the shin and thigh muscles impedes the normal bending of the knee. Muscle tension also causes pain and a feeling of fatigue in the leg, which limits the mobility of a person. Requires the use of support when walking.

Treatment method

The patient diagnosed with arthrosis of the 2nd degree treatment is long and rather complicated. Its main tasks are:

  • relieving the patient's suffering;
  • localization and arrest of the disease;
  • prevention of the onset of disability.

The main means of treatment can be divided into medicament, physiotherapeutic and diet. If the conservative treatment is ineffective, a situation may arise that a surgical operation will be required.


There are traditional tools used to treat arthrosis. These are:

  • analgesics;
  • preparations from the group of non-steroids that relieve inflammation;
  • preparations that dilate blood vessels.

Chondroprotectors are also very effective. They contribute to the restoration of cartilaginous tissue. Good results are observed when hyaluronic acid is injected into the joints. It is able to partially replace the synovial fluid and stimulates the regeneration of the cartilage.


This type of treatment is more often used for arthrosis of the knee joints. When the violation of their function is clearly expressed and the cartilage is completely destroyed, surgical methods are used:

  • endoprosthetics - the damaged area is replaced by an artificial one;
  • osteotomy - bone deformities are removed;
  • arthroscopic manipulations - removal from the joint cavity of particles of the destroyed cartilage and the introduction of medications.


Arthrosis of the second degree can be treated not only medically or operatively. It is possible to alleviate pain symptoms with physiotherapy methods. Widely used and very effective:

Arthrosis is a fairly widespread joint pathology, which is associated with degenerative changes in the cartilage that is in the junction. The disease very often attacks the hip and knee joints, as well as articulations on the big toes. Less often the ailment covers the ankle and fingers. Even more rarely other joints are affected.

The initial stage of arthrosis for each species has its own characteristics. But there are generalized symptoms that can be attributed to the lion's share of arthrosis:

  1. Painful sensations. This is the main symptom of the disease. They are characteristic of most joint diseases. However, they have peculiarities that allow one to pinpoint exactly what causes arthrosis. For example, with knee joint damage, pain increases with motor activity and subsides with rest or comfortable limb position. This is the main difference from arthritis, the anxiety from which manifests itself at night. The initial stages are manifested by weak painful sensations, which occur under heavy loads. Therefore, at such stages, patients rarely seek help, and in the meantime, arthrosis 1 2 degrees develops. In this case, the pains have the property of increasing even from weak loads and after them. With further development of the ailment, unpleasant sensations cause anxiety even in a state of rest.
  2. Crunch. Is an important symptom. Its appearance is associated with increased friction between the surfaces of the joints. However, healthy joints can also crunch. The tone of the affected joints is significantly different, having a dry and coarse crunch. The initial stages of the disease are not so strongly expressed by characteristic sounds, but the arthrosis of stage 2 and above has a distinct and loud crunch.
  3. Reduces the mobility of the joint. In other words, a decrease in the amplitude of the action of the affected joint. The initial forms of the disease have a not very pronounced limitation of mobility. But progressive arthrosis reduces the effect of articulation to a minimum. This is associated with the growth of osteophytes, muscle spasms, narrowing of the joint space.
  4. Deformation of the joint. This phenomenon is associated with several reasons. First of all, the formation of growths( osteophytes).Deformities and pathologies of the joint bones are also possible. And finally - a congestion of excess fluid, which occurs due to inflammatory processes in the tissues of the articulation.


These are substances that nourish and stimulate the restoration of cartilaginous tissue. These drugs are excellent for the early stages of arthrosis. In addition to restorative functions, the agents improve the process of articular fluid production and normalization of its properties. To achieve a noticeable result in stages 1 and 2, several courses of this drug will be required, which will require 6 months to 1.5 years.

Stages of arthrosis

Medicine treats arthrosis in three stages. Patients who suffer from this disease, very much. Therefore, it is not difficult to establish a degree. The most important thing is not to get confused with the symptoms. Arthrosis, the initial stage is characterized by a metabolic disorder, the second - with injuries and infections, the third - irreversible changes in the joints.

The most frequent culprit of arthrosis is excessive overload of articulations, as well as reducing their recovery capabilities. This is provoked by injuries, metabolic disorders, infections and the like. The main prerequisite for the emergence of an ailment is the disruption of metabolism in the cartilage, which reduces its elasticity, regenerative functions, depletion and disruption of the surface. The subsequent pathological process causes disorders of the synovial membrane, ligaments, tendons and other elements located close to the joint.

Common reasons for the onset of the disease include excessive body weight, hypothermia, physical overload, beriberi, hereditary factor.

First degree

Is it possible to cure arthrosis of 1 degree? Unfortunately no. But stage 1 arthrosis keeps the mobility of human joints, however, only in a single direction. X-ray photography rarely helps to identify deviations, because at this stage they are almost not there. Identify the disease can be on the damaged surface in the area where the joints themselves and by their hardness. The onset of arthrosis may not cause swelling, a rise in temperature, a discoloration of the skin. But the patient at the same time feels a slight crunch and aching pain in the joint. Most people do not even pay attention to such manifestations, because they do not cause significant concern.

How to treat arthrosis of 1 degree? First of all, the patient is prescribed medications that have anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. It can be ointments, pills, injections. The complex of measures also includes various methods of physiotherapy.

Treatment of arthrosis of the 1st stage is accompanied by a change in diet and daily regimen. The patient is strictly prohibited from drinking alcohol. Special physical training and balanced nutrition are recommended. Diet is the most important factor in treatment, as it leads to a reduction in body weight, which is beneficial for the mechanical stress experienced by the joints. However, a special diet for the first stage is difficult to isolate, so a balanced and varied diet is recommended that does not lead to an increase in body weight.

Second degree

People who do not follow their health and do not treat arthrosis 1 degree, risk getting a heavier form of ailment. Install the second degree is not very difficult. This will be done by any orthopedist or surgeon, since the articular disorders are quite obvious after external examination. This stage of the disease does not attack the patient actively, but already seriously warns. Indirect signs: slight fatigue, a feeling of high pressure on the joint after heavy loads.

The danger of the second degree is the beginning of partial deformation of the joint. If treatment is not started in time, the disease will accelerate its progression. In the articulations appear painful sensations with a small amplitude of movements. They are accompanied by an obvious crunch, and the actions of the limbs are difficult from day to day.

Osteoarthritis stage 2 is much more difficult to undergo treatment. In this case, people's funds, as a rule, are useless. However, modern medicine has stepped far ahead in the fight against the disease. Patients are assigned chondroprotectors and agents that normalize the blood flow. In addition, it is necessary to apply exercises of physiotherapy exercises and physiotherapeutic manipulations. Only with such a complex of measures, arthrosis 1 2 degrees treatment will be successful.

Third degree

Ignored treatment of the initial stage of arthrosis leads to this stage of the disease, which is characterized by severe soreness. The patient has sharp pains not only during movements, but also at the deceased state. In addition, the sensitivity of affected joints is directly affected by weather changes, in which pressure drops are not uncommon. This causes disturbances in blood flow in the joints, which causes discomfort. But how to relieve pain with arthrosis 3 degrees? Such a question is often asked by patients suffering from this ailment. Therefore, the treatment is based on the maximum reduction of the inflammatory reaction and a decrease in the pain syndrome. In addition, the complex treatment includes physiotherapy procedures in the intervals of remission: laser, magnetic, microwave therapy;UHF, phonophoresis, treatment with mud and mineral waters in the conditions of resorts and sanatoria.

But sometimes it happens that the symptoms of ailment are expressed so much that complex treatment proves to be ineffective. Therefore, the most radical method is used - surgical intervention. Often performed surgery to replace the affected joint endoprosthesis. Orthopedists only recently started using this method. Thanks to endoprosthetics, the patient restores most of the articulation functions, which helps him to lead a normal life and get rid of pain. This method involves removing parts of the joint with their replacement by metal or polymer analogs. Often complete replacement of the affected joint is performed. Patients who have undergone this procedure note its high reliability and effectiveness.

Treatment of 1, 2, 3, 4 degrees of knee arthrosis

Discomfort, tenderness, knee crunch - these symptoms can be a sign of developing arthrosis of the knee joint( gonarthrosis).In this disease, the cartilages lining the articular surfaces of the bones become thinner, crack or just wear out, which leads to a disruption of the normal functioning of the joint.

At the heart of the development of arthrosis are degenerative processes, and not inflammatory, in contrast to arthritis, although quite often inflammation becomes the trigger mechanism for the subsequent destruction of cartilage.

Causes of arthrosis of the knee joint

There are five groups of causes of this disease:

Excessive strain on the joint. This is a problem with overweight, and some sports, and physical labor associated with the transfer of goods or a long stand.
  • Knee Injury. These include frequent, but small stretches when doing sports, as well as more severe injuries when falling.
  • Deformations of the skeleton. For example, O and X-shaped deformations of the lower extremities, flat feet. With these pathologies, the biomechanics of the knee joint is disrupted, and as a result there is an inadequate contact of the joint surfaces, their friction against one another, compression and cartilage damage.
  • Violation of self-renewal of cartilaginous tissue, which leads to its rapid wear. Such a state develops with endocrine diseases, problems with blood circulation of the lower extremities, inflammatory processes in the body, and a lack of nutrients in food. In addition, the lack of normal physical activity also worsens the regenerative processes in the cartilage, since they do not have their own vessels, and absorb everything they need as a sponge from surrounding tissues. It is clear that for this cartilage, like the sponge, should shrink and unclench.
  • Violation of the formation of synovial fluid and changes in its properties. This fluid serves as a lubricant for articular surfaces, so it is very important that it is sufficient, then there will be no friction and premature wear of the cartilage. The ability of the synovial fluid to fully "envelop" the articular surface affects its composition, in particular, the presence of glucosamine and chondroitin. With a shortage of these substances, even a sufficient amount of synovial fluid can not cope with its tasks. Often the blame for such changes is inflammation of the knee joint.
  • Degrees and symptoms of gonarthrosis

    There are three stages of the course of the disease. Each of them has its own clinical picture.

    First degreeTak, for 1 degree of gonarthrosis is characterized by the appearance of pain and discomfort in the knee after a long walk, physical work. After rest, these symptoms usually disappear. Degenerative changes in the cartilage at this stage are still insignificant, so when examining the knee X-ray, doctors detect only a slight narrowing of the joint slit. The second degree is the development of arthrosis in the knee joint, in which severe pain, stiffness of movements occurs regardless of physical exertion. These symptoms do not decrease after rest. The patient begins to spare the joint, which gradually leads to atrophy of the muscles of the lower limb. Radiologically at this stage, there are obvious signs of arthrosis - areas of cartilage destruction, bone growths, joint deformation, an even narrowing of the joint slit. Third degree In stage 3 of the disease, any movements in the joint are accompanied by intense pain. The patient has to take a forced pose, and to use crutches for movement, because at the reflex level, he simply can not walk normally on the aching leg. Visually, the violation of the limb axis and pronounced deformity of the joint becomes noticeable. The fourth degree is the extreme degree of development of this pathology, called ankylosis, that is, the fusion of articular surfaces and complete immobilization of the joint.

    How to treat gonarthrosis?

    In the initial stages of this disease, mainly conservative treatment is used. It includes medical therapy, physiotherapy exercises, physiotherapy.

    Drug treatment for arthrosis of the knee is aimed primarily at eliminating pain( the patient is prescribed various analgesics).Then, the restoration of the cartilaginous tissue is stimulated. To do this, prescribe drugs that improve microcirculation, as well as specific drugs containing chondroitin and glucosamine. Apply such medications not only in the form of tablets and ointments, but also as intra-articular injections. Treatment of gonarthrosis with chondroprotective agents usually lasts at least a year.

    Physiotherapy in gonarthrosis is based on the principle of dosed load, that is, the doctor suggests that the patient should perform movements that do not damage the cartilage, do not burden the joint, but contribute to the improvement of cartilage tissue nutrition and, as a result, to its faster and more efficient recovery.

    With 2 degrees to treat arthrosis of the knee joint, some conservative methods are not enough, so patients are minimally invasive operations using optical technology. During such interventions remove fragments of damaged cartilage, bone growths, that is, they do everything to improve the mobility of the joint. At the third stage of gonarthrosis, it is impossible to restore movements in the joint without a full-fledged operation, such a replacement shows the replacement of articular surfaces with special prostheses.

    Prevention of the disease

    In the development of this pathology, excessive weight plays an important role, therefore its normalization is a priority preventive measure. Also, one should not forget about motor activity: it is recommended to walk 5-7 km every day on foot.

    In addition, it is necessary to take care of a variety of nutrition. It should contain enough protein, calcium and healthy fats. That is, in the diet should be present low-fat sour-milk products, lean meat, fish, vegetable oils, dishes based on gelatin.

    Degrees of arthrosis of the knee joint

    If such a disease as arthrosis affects the knee joints, then in its development, 3 degrees are distinguished, successively flowing one into another.

    Osteoarthritis of the knee joint of the 1st degree

    At the very beginning of the development of the disease, there are no external signs of pathology: the skin above the knee remains normal color, normal temperature, there is no swelling. However, the process has already begun, as evidenced by the short joint pain that occurs in the morning after getting up from bed. Here we are talking about the so-called "starting" pain. Their peculiarity is that they appear after a long rest with the beginning of the movement, the person paces - and the pain subsides. A characteristic feature of the pain syndrome with arthrosis of the knee joint is its provocation by ascending or descending the stairs. The whole point is that at this time the center of gravity of the body is transferred to the knee bent in the knee and the articular cartilages thus converge and rest against each other.

    Patients can also complain about the arisen joint limitation in movements, but also insignificant. On the question of when complaints first appeared, they can not give a concrete answer, because the development of the knee arthrosis takes a long time and gradually.

    In general, there are no significant changes in their daily lives. The prognosis of the outcome with 1 degree of arthrosis of the knee joint is most favorable, since the cartilaginous tissue of the knee joint is slightly affected, but this is only in case of timely access to the physicians.

    Diagnose 1 degree of knee arthrosis based on the clinical picture and radiography: the picture shows a slight decrease in the distance between articular cartilage.

    In the treatment of knee arthrosis 1 degree adhere to several principles: eliminate pain syndrome, reduce the burden on the affected joint and prevent the progression of the disease. First, to comply with these principles, the patient is recommended to get rid of excess weight, if any, so that the joint is easier to perform its function. Secondly, do not neglect exercise therapy and therapeutic massage. Thirdly, it is necessary to take chondroprotectors( glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate) to restore the structure of the cartilaginous tissue, as well as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the form of tablets( ketonal), injectable solutions( diclofenac) and ointments( ibuprofen).

    "I assess the stage of arthrosis of the knee based on the clinical picture, the severity of the symptoms, the data obtained during the direct examination of the patient and the results of radiography. On the first visit, it is important for me to obtain true information about the state of human health in order to subsequently compare the available data withthose that were earlier, and to determine the degree of progression of gonarthrosis. From the stage of the disease depends the choice of therapeutic tactics: confine to taking medications and physiotherapyshe or plan a surgery on her knee. "

    Osteoarthritis of the knee joint of the 2nd degree

    There is already a sharp thinning of the articular cartilage. The load on the affected joint is distributed unevenly, it takes over the bone tissue in places where there is no cartilage left. In this regard, the bones begin to expand, they appear on the growths - osteophytes.

    At this stage of the disease, patients are more likely to suffer from pain in the affected joints, they are more intense, appear after a long walk or static load, weight lifting. The degree of physical activity, which provokes the appearance of pain in the knee, is lower compared to what was before. Also, patients complain of fast fatigue, a crunch heard during movements. At first, there are problems with unbending in the knee joint, then it becomes more difficult to bend the leg in the knee. In addition, these people have a meteorological dependence: changes in the weather affect well-being, the aches in joints increase.

    The results of radiography are sufficient to determine the correct diagnosis: a pronounced narrowing of the joint gap, marginal bony proliferation.

    With 2 degrees of arthrosis of the knee joint it is important to quit the pain syndrome. Doctors in this regard prescribe painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs: paracetamol, tramadol, voltaren, etorikoksib, nimesulide, etc. Effectively combine medical treatment with courses of massage and physiotherapy.

    Osteoarthritis of the knee joint of the third degree

    A sharp pain syndrome is a characteristic sign for this stage of the disease. The pains are constant, worrying day and night, breaking the habitual mode of work and rest, the patient can not sleep for a long time until he finds a comfortable position for the sore leg. The function of the knee joint is significantly reduced, joint blockage may occur - a condition where the leg can not be bent or unbent at the knee. At this stage of the disease, gait disturbance in patients due to deformation of the affected joints is often encountered.

    Unfortunately, progression is inevitable: with time, the cartilage in the affected knee joint is completely destroyed - and the lesions affect the bone tissue. Osteophytes become more and more, the articulation gap is practically absent, as seen on the radiographic image.

    Drug treatment is the same as in the previous stages. With a pronounced pain syndrome, intra-articular injections of steroid hormones are indicated. However, the analgesic effect is short-lived. If conservative methods do not work, the only way out for patients with arthrosis of the knee joint of grade 3 is surgical intervention. Most often, an arthroscopic operation is performed to remove osteophytes and replace the worn joint with an artificial prosthesis.

    Such operations in the medical center of GarantKlinik are performed by a doctor of medical sciences, a professor. The presence of modern equipment in the clinic allows not only prescribe conservative therapy, but also, if necessary, resort to complex surgical interventions, and the state prices set in our clinic make our services truly attractive.

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