Ankle dislocation is a displacement of the ankle joint due to a rupture of ligaments. It happens that the joint is not displaced in full, and the ligaments are not completely torn. Such a condition in medicine is called subluxation. It happens that the ligaments are completely intact, but the joint is displaced, this condition is called a dislocation without muscle rupture. Dislocation of the ankle - the situation is quite common. In the risk zone are people of retirement age, which is due to the fragility of bones. Also, athletes suffer from dislocations due to their professional activities and women who prefer wearing high-heeled shoes. But no one is immune from receiving such a trauma both at home and at work.
Types of dislocation of the ankle
In medical practice, it is customary to distinguish the following types of ankle sprains:
Incomplete or partial rupture of ligaments. Most often, the anterior fibular muscles are injured, but sometimes deltoid, and heel peroneal, and intercostal muscles suffer.
Ankle ankle is strong. This type of dislocation is characterized by the fact that the mobility of its leg does not lose, but nevertheless a swelling develops, when feeling the damaged area, a person complains of painful sensations. Most often, blood accumulates in places of damage.
Complete rupture of ligaments with joint dislocation. This condition is accompanied by severe swelling and painful sensations. A man can not step on his foot. In the ankle area, internal bruising is clearly visible.
For any and these conditions, the injured person should be shown to the doctor as soon as possible.
Also because of the appearance, the dislocations can be divided into two groups:
The acquired ones, which are post-traumatic( those that were formed due to the trauma), pathological( those that result from the pathology of the joints), paralytic( those that result fromsevere muscular paralysis), habitual( those that occur regularly).
Reasons for dislocation of the ankle
Among the direct causes leading to dislocation of the ankle can be identified as follows:
Sloppy landing on the foot.
But in addition there are a number of other factors contributing to the formation of such an injury:
High arch of the foot.
Weak ligaments, which are "diluted" with age due to the lack of regular training.
Underdevelopment of the peroneal muscles.
The presence of even a small sprain.
Disturbances in walking. If the foot is incorrectly set, the muscles become weaker over time, which can lead to dislocation of the joint.
Also, some diseases can cause loosening of the ligaments, reducing bone density, and increasing the load on the foot:
Obesity, and as a consequence-diabetes mellitus.
. Oncological diseases.
Osteomelitis and arthrosis.
Inflammation of ligaments and tendons.
Paresis of muscles.
Congenital pathologies, which lead to the fact that during fetal development in the fetus the correct formation of the ankle is broken. But it is worth noting that such dislocations are extremely rare.
Symptoms of ankle dislocation
Symptoms of dislocation very much converge with the symptoms of an ordinary bruise. That's why you need to see a doctor, for setting a more accurate diagnosis.
But with the dislocation, all the symptoms are more pronounced:
Acute unremitting pain. It increases with palpation of the damaged area. However, the pain may not appear immediately, or be not too intense. But after a while it will grow.
The inability to stand up due to strong pain.
Significant swelling and swelling in the legs and feet.
When you receive an injury, you can hear a characteristic crack or click.
The formation of a bright hematoma, located not only on the shin, but also on the foot.
Diagnosis of ankle dislocation
When referring to a traumatologist of a patient complaining of characteristic pain in the ankle area, the doctor will firstly perform a visual inspection and palpate the damaged area.
To clarify the diagnosis, the doctor, most likely, will assign an X-ray, or ultrasound - diagnosis. The picture is taken in two projections. Sometimes, when there is a risk that a dislocation has formed in the dislocation, arthrography of the ankle may be prescribed.
Treatment of ankle dislocation
Naturally, when there is a dislocation, a doctor near the most often does not happen. Therefore, it is worth knowing how to provide first aid on your own. To begin with, you need to remove shoes and socks from a sick leg, in order not to squeeze the formed swelling. After this, put the injured limb on the pillow or roller and fix it in one position with any bandage or bandage.
Even an ordinary scarf can do this. If a bandage is applied, it is better to wrap the patient's joint first with a layer of cotton wool. Do not over tighten the bandage. It should fit snugly to the leg, but do not block blood flow in it. With a periodicity of a couple of hours, ice can be applied to the joint to alleviate symptoms and relieve swelling.
The complete list of measures for the treatment of ankle dislocation consists in the imposition of an immobilizing bandage, which allows the limbs to rest in one position. In the first three days, you can apply cold, after using warming compresses. For this purpose, you can always use special ointments from bruises and sprains. In addition to the therapeutic effect, it to some extent relieve pain and reduce swelling. They can include any analgesics, methanol( for cooling) and alcohol( for heating).
Sometimes it may be necessary to correct the dislocated joint. It is necessary to understand that this is a complex and responsible event, which can be carried out only in a medical institution. In order to put the joint in place doctors use local or epidural anesthesia. When the bone is repositioned, another radiograph is needed, which is performed for monitoring purposes. Sometimes, in order to perform manipulations on the correction, you need to make a small incision. If the dislocation is repeated repeatedly, this can lead to the patient requiring a complete replacement of the joint.
If the repositioning of the bone was successful, but an incision was made for this, the patient is discharged from the clinic on day 5, when the swelling subsides. But thus on a leg the plaster which will be necessary to wear not less than a month will be imposed.
After the painful sensations pass, you can start to visit the pool. This is very useful for strengthening the muscles of the ankle.
But even if the dislocation seems quite insignificant, you still need to show the injured place to the doctor. Precisely the prescribed therapy and examination by a professional will give a positive result together. If the pain is not well tolerated, then ibuprofen or ketoral can be used to eliminate them. It is advisable to take it twice a day, at a dosage corresponding to body weight and age.
Analgin, pentalgin, aspirin and amidopropine may also help. It is worthwhile to understand that serious stretching of ligaments is several times more terrible than a fracture due to its consequences. That's why every experienced doctor, before assigning this or that treatment, always determines the degree of their damage. If in easy stretches there is enough imposing of a usual bandage in heavy - a leg immobilize. The duration of dressing can be up to a month. If the leg is not treated, the ankle may become chronically unstable.
As an auxiliary means for the treatment of dislocation, the following procedures can be distinguished:
Purpose of electrophoresis.
Application of paraffin applications.
Reception of foot baths with radon.
Effective folk remedies, which help to restore the aching leg more quickly.
For treatment you can use the following tools:
Receiving foot baths, as a filling for them use broths of various herbs. Quite good tonic celandine and calendula.
You can make an effective compress at home and take in equal shares of laundry soap, ammonia, oil and camphor dry. Apply to a sore spot and stand for at least 15 minutes.
You can make lotions with apple cider vinegar, diluted in half.
It is also recommended to apply grated fresh potatoes and do wrapping therapeutic clay.
Recovery and lifestyle after dislocation of the ankle
For the restoration and strengthening of ligaments, physicians are recommended to practice physical therapy.
To the extent possible, the patient should perform active movement with his toes.
Rolls with socks on heels and back.
Walking, with directed heels in and out.
Roll the cylinder or any of its replacement items.
Exercises on a stationary bike.
After the muscles of the ankle are strengthened, you can move on to more active exercises - to running and jumping.
In any case, before giving the affected leg a heavy load, you should first consult the doctor, whether it will harm the joint. As physiotherapeutic procedures, UHF is most often prescribed. Treatment with an electric field is carried out in 10 sessions, lasting for a quarter of an hour.
Depending on the degree of injury of the joint, a full load of the leg can be given in mild cases in a month, and in severe cases - in three months. Naturally, it's rather problematic to remain so long for a person, so it's possible to use crutches. It is desirable to wear special shoes or insteps, for up to a year.
Preventive measures that must be followed in order to protect yourself as much as possible from an ankle joint dislocation are as follows:
Wearing as much as possible firm footwear, on a small heel.
Observance of safety in sports and workplace and caution when moving on a slippery surface.
Use of bandages, elastic bands and other devices during exercise.
Doing sports, to strengthen the muscles of the lower limbs.
If you suspect a dislocation of the joint - an immediate request for medical help.
Timely treatment of diseases leading to the risk of ankle dislocation.
As for the forecast, with the rapid application for professional help - it is favorable. If you accurately follow all the prescriptions made by the treating doctor, then the restoration will take place in the shortest possible time. With easy stretching, the sick leave sheet is usually closed within a week's time. If the ligament is severely damaged or torn, and the joint has to be inserted using surgical methods of treatment, the doctor leaves the patient on sick leave until the end of the rehabilitation period.
Consequences of an ankle sprain
It often happens that the ankle injury is accompanied by a complete separation of the ligament and fractures of the ankle. In such cases, timely application for medical assistance to the crane is important, because delay or self-treatment can lead to the fact that the tendons and ligaments do not merge properly, the foot deforms, which guarantees its instability.
Against this background, the following problems may occur:
Regularly repeated dislocations of the ankle joint.
Progression or onset of development of diseases such as arthrosis or arthritis.
Formation of scar tissue of dense consistency.
Formation and growth of bone osteophytes.
Difficulty in mobility of the damaged joint after healing.
Inflammation of soft tissues surrounding the ankle.
Hemarthrosis, which is chronic.
Complete or partial muscle atrophy, impaired blood circulation in the limb.
It should be understood that neglected cases can be rehabilitated only in an operative way, otherwise a person can forever remain disabled.
Ankle dislocation: symptoms and treatment
The ankle is the joint that connects the shin and foot. This joint performs a very important function - when moving on it, our weight is transferred. Its anatomical structure allows you to easily carry out this difficult task: the joint from the outside is, as it were, braided by a multitude of muscles that make it more resistant. These muscles are very elastic and elastic from nature. But in the process of his life, a person can strengthen them or, conversely, make the muscles weaker, and the ankle - more fragile. To make the ankle less sturdy can be an inactive way of life, sedentary, inactive work, non-fulfillment of elementary physical exercises. And, on the contrary, it can be strengthened by regular physical activity, mobility, physical exercises. But in our time, few people find the time to maintain an ankle in the form. As a consequence, more and more people are faced with such problems as ankle dislocation, ankle injury, ankle ligament rupture. Let us dwell on the most common and dangerous injury: dislocation of the ankle.
What is an ankle dislocation?
Ankle dislocation is an ankle joint displacement with ligament rupture. Sometimes this displacement occurs not completely, that is partially, then a dislocation is called a subluxation. But the bundles do not necessarily have to burst. There are cases when the muscles remain unscathed, then the dislocation is called a dislocation without a rupture. Often, dislocation is a consequence of a leg injury. Dislocation of the ankle is a problem not only among athletes, but also among ordinary people - it's enough to just take a bad step.
Symptoms of ankle dislocation
If you have an ankle dislocation, the symptoms are likely to be as follows:
• sharp, sharp, severe pain in the ankle region;
• change in the shape of the joint, which is noticeable even from the outside;
• severe walking pain;
• swelling or swelling of the foot.
The above are the main symptoms, depending on the characteristics of the body, they can vary. There is still such a form as the habitual dislocation. Often this happens when the muscles near the ankle are weak and the joint is unprotected. It is habitual because it happens quite often. The only difference from conventional dislocation is that with the habitual dislocation there is no severe pain. But if you feel that you have a joint shifted, know - you have an ankle dislocated.
Treatment of ankle sprain
Treatment of dislocation should be urgent and correct. When the joint is dislocated, it should not be fixed for more than two hours. In this case, it is worth hurrying, because the dislocation of the ankle is accompanied by severe pain. Do not try to fix the joint yourself and do not trust anybody else. Only a doctor can correct it. Therefore, your main task is to be at the traumatic point as soon as possible. It would be nice to take painkillers, since suffering pain during dislocation is difficult and unsafe. To correct an ankle is much more difficult, than any other, and it occurs under anesthesia or anesthesia. After this operation, the doctor must impose a plaster bandage on the toe to the top of the thigh. A few weeks after this manipulation you need to be like a plaster cast. To accelerate the process of recovery, it is recommended to use massage and physiotherapy. Usually, doctors write out anesthetizing, warming ointments. But in the first three days it is necessary to apply ice to the leg, this will help to remove the edema, if it is, to calm the pain, to avoid the appearance of a hematoma. After the gypsum is removed, it is necessary to save a sick leg for several months from blows or sudden movements. The joint is fixed, but the muscles are weakened, possibly not yet fully fused.
Ankle dislocation is a pathological condition in which there is a complete displacement of the articular surfaces of the bones forming the ankle joint. Full dislocation of the ankle is rare and is usually observed in combination with a fracture of the ankles. In everyday life, dislocations, tears and lacerations of the ankle joint are often called dislocations, in which subluxation may occur-partial displacement of joint surfaces. Dislocation and subluxation of the ankle usually occur when the patient podvorachivaet leg on a slippery or uneven surface. They are accompanied by pain, swelling, movement and support disorders. The diagnosis is established taking into account the examination data and radiography. Sometimes CT or MRI is additionally prescribed. Treatment of subluxations is conservative. When the dislocation is completely dislocated, an attempt is made to close the repositioning, if it is impossible to compare articular surfaces and bone fragments, an operation is performed.
Ankle dislocation - displacement of articular surfaces of tibial, talus and fibula with respect to each other. Complete dislocation of the ankle joint is rarely observed, is a serious trauma, combined with intraarticular and periarticular fractures. Incomplete dislocations( subluxations) can occur with damage to the ligaments( both isolated and with simultaneous fractures of the ankles).Usually the cause of the injury is turning the foot. Less commonly, dislocation occurs in accidents at work, road accidents and falls from a height. When turning it is usually observed isolated damage, with other injury mechanisms it is possible to combine with fractures and dislocations of the bones of the skeleton, open wounds, chest damage, blunt abdominal trauma and CCT.Treatment is carried out by traumatologists.
Ankle joint is a complex block-shaped joint, formed by three bones: talus, peroneal and tibial. The lower surface of the tibial epiphysis is attached to the upper part of the talus. The outer ankle, which is the extension of the fibula, as well as the inner ankle formed by the distal part of the tibia, cover the talus bone from the sides, forming a semblance of a fork that limits the mobility of the joint in the lateral direction. Movement in the joint is carried out, mainly in the frontal axis( extension and flexion of the foot).At the same time, in spite of the restricting fork joint, there is also a slight mobility in the sagittal direction( retraction and reduction of the foot).
The bones are held by the joint capsule and the ligaments located along the lateral surfaces of the g / foot joint. On the external surface is heel-peroneal, as well as the posterior and anterior talon-peroneal ligaments. Damage to these ligaments occurs when the foot is pivoted to the inside. On the inner surface of the g / foot joint, there is a delta-shaped ligament, which can be damaged when the foot is turned outward. The mechanism of bone damage is similar to the mechanism of ligament damage, however, for the development of fractures of the shin bones and fractures, a more intensive effect is required.
Lesions of ligaments
There are three degrees of damage to ligaments:
1 degree - sprain of ligaments. In fact, the ligaments are an inelastic formation and can not stretch. At 1 degree, micro-ruptures of the ligament( damage to individual fibers) occur. However, the phrase "sprain" was so closely adopted in everyday life that it is sometimes used not only by patients, but also by representatives of official medicine. With such a trauma, there is a slight swelling and swelling over the damaged ligament. The support is retained, the movements are moderately limited. Palpation is painful.
2 degree - tearing of ligaments. It manifests a pronounced edema on the outer or inner surface of the joint. Swelling rapidly builds up, within a few hours or the first day usually there is a bruise over the damaged ligament. Pain persists in a state of rest, intensified by movement. Support and movement are difficult, but possible.
3 degree - ligament rupture. Puffiness and bruising spread along the lateral surface of the ankle joint, encompassing the dorsal and plantar part of the foot. There are sharp pains in rest. The support is impossible, the movements are sharply limited.
If such symptoms appear, it is necessary to apply cold to the affected area, give the foot an elevated position and immediately deliver the patient to the trauma center so that the traumatologist can conduct the examination, exclude more serious injuries( fractures, fractures) and prescribe the appropriate treatment. The diagnosis is made on the basis of external signs and the data of an ankle x-ray. To clarify the degree of damage to the ligaments, the patient is sometimes referred for MRI of the joint. Treatment of 1 and 2 degree of ligament damage is performed on an outpatient basis, at grade 3 hospitalization is necessary.
When stretching the ligaments, the patient is recommended to limit the load and apply a tight bandage during walking. In rest, the bandage should be removed. In the first two days, cold should be applied to the affected area, then dry heat is shown. The patient is given a sick leave sheet and sent to UHF.When tearing ligament shows the imposition of a plaster bandage, walking on crutches, as well as UHF.A complete rupture of ligaments is an indication for surgical treatment in a hospital.
Subluxation and dislocation of the ankle
There are four types of dislocation and subluxation of the ankle:
- External .The most common. Usually combined with a fracture of the external ankle.
- Internal .As a rule, it is observed in combination with a fracture of the inner ankle.
- Rear .Usually combined with a fracture of the posterior edge of the tibia.
- Front .It is rarely observed, it can be combined with various joint injuries and a fracture of the lower third of the tibia.
It should be noted that with subluxations and especially in case of dislocation of the ankle joint, severe combined injuries often occur: two- and three-fold fractures, rupture of interstice syndesmosis, multiple tears and ligament ruptures, as well as ruptures of the joint capsule. In case of incorrect or untimely treatment, such traumas can lead to severe consequences in the form of impaired support, constant pain during walking and development of ankle arthrosis. Therefore, when suspicion of subluxation or dislocation of the ankle is categorically prohibited to attempt self-correction. It is necessary to fix the leg with a tire, apply cold to the damaged area and immediately deliver the patient to a specialized honey.institution.
Examination and treatment are carried out in conditions of traumatology department. The patient complains of severe pain. In the joint area, significant puffiness and cyanosis of the soft tissues are revealed. Possible bruising. At subluxations moderate deformation is determined, with complete dislocations a gross violation of anatomical relationships is observed. Support is not possible. Palpation is sharply painful, with fractures can be determined crepitation and pathological mobility. With subluxations, movements are severely restricted due to pain, with complete dislocations impossible, when trying to passive movements, springing resistance is revealed.
For the clarification of the diagnosis, an ankle is photographed. The indications are MRI and CT of the joint. Then a closed reduction is made and a plaster is applied with the obligatory subsequent x-ray control. After five days, the X-ray images are repeated to make sure there is no secondary displacement, the gypsum is circulated. The period of immobilization is determined by the type of damage. Two unsuccessful attempts at closed repositioning, as well as the inability to retain fragments in the correct position, are an indication for surgical treatment. Depending on the nature of the lesions, along with the open reposition, osteosynthesis of the posterior edge of the tibia, restoration of the distal intercellular syndesmosis, osteosynthesis of the external ankle by the plate, osteosynthesis of the external and / or internal ankle by screws, and also transarticular fixation of the ankle joint can be performed. In the postoperative period, exercise therapy and thermal procedures are prescribed.
The degree of dislocation depends on how tightly the ligaments "hold" the ankle joint. The nature of damage caused by a traumatic event affects the degree of damage to the joints, ligaments, muscles and bones of the lower leg:
- I degree. A slight tearing of individual fibers is characteristic.
- II degree. There is a partial rupture of ligaments. Stability of the ankle joint is normal.
- III degree. Full gust of ligaments of the ankle joint, lack of normal functionality.
Based on the cause of occurrence, all dislocations are divided into:
- Acquired, incl.habitual( occurring regularly against the background of previous ankle joint injuries).
Tension of ligaments with rupture of individual fibers
This degree of ankle joint damage is characterized by microfractures of a small number of connective tissue fibers. Preservation of motor functions is due to the integrity of the ligament, however, with such a dislocation, swelling in the ankle region is noted, palpation painful sensations, walking causes a feeling of discomfort.
Tear of the ankle
The second degree of dislocation is characterized by partial rupture of the ligaments of the ankle joint. Edema is pronounced, it covers a significant part of the upper surface of the foot. There is a lot of pain when trying to move the foot, walking, at rest. The place of dislocation accumulates blood, forming hematoma. The mobility of the ankle remains, however, it is difficult.
Complete dislocation of joint and rupture of ligaments
With complete rupture of ligaments, displacement of the ankle joint surfaces is observed, the pain is very acute. The foot becomes immobilized, and walking, and any movements of the injured limb, are impossible. Violated blood circulation: subcutaneous hemorrhage becomes the cause of a large hematoma, and swelling spreads to the entire foot, including the sole and ankle.
injury Partial displacement of articular ankle surfaces without a complete rupture of the ligament is called subluxation. It often occurs in the case of rupture of connective tissue between the small and large tibia. It is characteristic for people with excess weight. Repeated subluxations sometimes lead to destruction of the cartilaginous body of the ankle joint, which causes arthrosis.
Ankle dislocation - ICD-10 classification
The International Classification of Diseases of the Tenth Revision is a document that provides a unified practice of approaches, therapeutic techniques, comparability of data on an international scale. It is reviewed every ten years at the WHO meeting. For unification, a four-digit alphanumeric codification is used.
Dislocations, subluxations, tearing of the ankle joints belong to the class of diseases XIX "Trauma, poisoning and some other effects of external causes" section S, which includes the encoding of injuries to a particular part of the body. Block S 90-S 99 is dedicated to injuries of the foot and ankle. In the medical practice of the Russian Federation, ICD-10 is of great importance: it is used in conducting forensic psychiatric examinations.
Main symptoms and signs
Symptomatic of ligament damage in case of dislocation, fracture or bruise of the ankle is similar. To exclude a fracture, contact the emergency clinic for diagnosis. Complex dislocation with the displacement of articular surfaces, rupture of the ligament in the next 2 hours from the moment of injury requires immediate intervention of a specialist for correcting the ankle.
Signs of ankle injury:
- Presence of pain syndrome. Tearing ligaments I or II degree, habitual dislocation cause discomfort rather, while an open dislocation, accompanied by an ankle fracture, is signaled with acute severe pain even in a state of rest. Palpation in this case is very painful, unpleasant sensations go on increasing.
- Edema formation and swelling of the foot in the ankle and foot area. Progresses in the next 24 hours from the moment of dislocation. The higher the severity of ankle injury, the larger the foot, shin, ankle area swells.
- Joint stiffness. Impairment / failure of the ankle: in attempts to move in the event of complete rupture of the ligaments of the ankle, the foot is not obeyed, frozen in an abnormal position.
- Discomfort / inability to stand up. If the dislocation refers to the third degree, then attempts at least to move the foot fail.
- When the ankle surfaces are displaced, a typical click or crunch is heard.
- Increases local, sometimes general temperature.
How to treat ankle and ankle dislocation - first aid to
To minimize the consequences of an ankle injury, it is necessary to perform certain actions for first aid in case of dislocation:
- . Relieve the damaged leg from socks, narrow shoes in order to normalize blood circulation and reduce edema. Examine the ankle and the site of the dislocation. If the victim is shod in boots or boots, in order to avoid deterioration of the ankle joint, doctors are not recommended to take off shoes. In this case, contact the emergency department immediately.
- Ensure the immobility of the limb in the condition it is after dislocation. Give an elevated position by placing a pillow, roller or folded towel under your foot.
- Apply a bandage: an ordinary, elastic bandage, even a scarf will be an excellent tool to fix the ankle joint.
- Apply ice to reduce swelling and pain.
- Take painkillers. Then always consult a doctor to determine the degree of damage to the ankle after dislocation.
The faster and more professionally rendered first aid for dislocation, the less time it will take to rehabilitate and restore the functionality of the ankle. The answer to the question: "How much is the ankle sprain?" Depends on competent treatment;physiological characteristics of the organism;the effective performance of exercise physical therapy:
- With microdamages of connective fibers, subluxation or "habitual dislocation" on the 5th-7th day, puffiness decreases. On day 10, the mobility of the ankle joint is restored, painful sensations are released when walking. Wearing an elastic bandage must be at least two weeks after the dislocation. For a complete recovery in this case, it takes 20-30 days.
- After restoring the ankle joint by a doctor without tearing the ligament, wearing a special gypsum will take at least 15 days. Then special exercises are scheduled for the restoration of joint functions for a period of 10-15 days. It is recommended to wear an elastic bandage or a langet. Rehabilitation takes from a month to a year and a half.
- How long does an ankle sprain with a complete rupture of the ligaments and the displacement of the articular surfaces? After surgery in severe cases, the patient is discharged for 5-7 days. The leg is in the cast before the bone grows together, not less than 20 days. In this case, the recovery treatment takes 40 to 60 days.
Video: application of the correct dressing
To keep the foot in a fixed state after dislocation, it is necessary to place an ankle bandage on the ankle joint. You will need an elastic bandage. The dressing should not be squeezed by the bloodstream. The procedure starts with wrapping the upper leg, centimeters 10-15 above the ankle joint. The technique of crossing is used, and the bandage is superimposed on the entire surface of the ankle and foot to the phalanges of the fingers according to the scheme given in the photo above. To review the process and understand the mechanism of action you can by watching our video:
In the first minutes after dislocation, attach ice to the injury site. Home cryotherapy helps relieve swelling and numbness. Cold treatment is effective in the first two days after the dislocation. The duration of the procedure should not exceed 15 minutes per session in order to avoid frostbite. Do not allow direct contact of the skin of the ankle and ice, use a cotton towel.
To reduce pain and inflammation, take an anti-inflammatory non-steroid drug( NSAID) tablet at a dosage appropriate to your weight, age:
- Analgin, Ketanov, and Pentalgin are powerful anesthetics that will take away pain;
- "Ibuprofen", "Nyz", "Nimesulid" - will help to remove puffiness, take away the inflammatory process;
- "Troxevasin" - will accelerate the healing of the hematoma.
Trip to the emergency room for joint repositioning
Regardless of the degree of swelling and pain, any ankle joint damage requires an orthopedic consultation to establish an accurate diagnosis. In detail, describe to the doctor the circumstances in which you were injured. Then the doctor will examine and hold the palpation of the injury site. To make sure of the integrity of the bones, the specialist will send for X-ray or MRI.
The displacement of the articular surfaces requires manual or surgical correction. By traction of the foot, the orthopedist specialist corrects the ankle joint. If the dislocation is complicated by a fracture, hospitalization is required. The surgeon cuts the fracture site, corrects the joint, and fixes the bone with titanium plates or screws. In this case:
- local anesthesia( incomplete displacement): blockade of "Novocaine", "Lidocaine";
- general anesthesia.
Treatment and rehabilitation of the ankle in the home
If the ankle injury is not dangerous, the doctor allowed to be treated at home, the recovery procedure is as follows:
- Cold treatment 2-3 days.
- Admission of NSAIDs for the first 5 days after dislocation.
- Use of special ointments.
- Application of traditional medicine.
Ointments for removing edema
Reduce edema, remove the hematoma will help preparations of external use - ointments. At the beginning of the treatment of the ankle joint, it is better to use gels: they are absorbed more quickly, and after a week they switch to cream:
- "Bystrumgel", "Fastum-gel" are shown at first. The main active ingredient is ketoprofen. Refers to NSAIDs, therefore long-term use has contraindications and side effects. After consulting a doctor, it is better to switch to natural preparations with a similar spectrum of action:
- "Comfrey Dr. Tayse";
- "Badyaga Forte Gel".
- "Heparin" is the most effective preparation for the treatment of ankle bruising. Heparin ointment has an antithrombotic effect;expands blood vessels, improving blood flow;anesthetizes the site of the dislocation. Term of treatment - up to 15 days. It can be replaced with ointments based on troxerutin or dexpanthenol:
- Heating preparations: "Efkamon", "Finalgon", "Apizatron" are used, starting from the second week after the dislocation. Improve the metabolic processes of the connective tissue of the ankle joint, contribute to the rapid restoration of ligaments.
- Separately it is necessary to allocate a homeopathic preparation "Arnika".Ideal for the treatment of the ankle. It has a regenerating, restoring, anesthetic effect.
Therapeutic ankle massage is one of the methods of recovery. Light longitudinal, circular strokes of the ankle zone should be neat. They take about 2-3 minutes. Then, for a couple of minutes, rub the place of the dislocation with the ribs of the palm, performing transverse movements. Proceed to a spiral and longitudinal grinding of the pads of the fingers for a minute on each ankle. At the end of the massage, pay attention to the arch of the foot, stretching and stroking it. Repeat the complex 3 times. Details of doing self-massage you can find out by watching the video:
Warm baths and compresses
Effective means for the early regeneration of the ankle are:
- Scrub 2 medium-sized potatoes on a small grater. The resulting gruel overlay the site of the dislocation. Cover with a cotton cloth, leave overnight.
- Heating. Saturate the dressing with medical alcohol or vodka. Wrap around the ankle, wrap with cellophane, then woolen scarf.
- Herbal. Brew 3 tbsp.l.flowers tansy 200 ml of water. Leave to infuse for 1 hour. Saturate the dressing with infusion, attach to the injury site and leave for 2 hours. Good broths based on calendula, chamomile, mother-and-stepmother, celandine. Alternating warm( 45 ° C) and cold compresses will reduce pain.
- Apple cider vinegar diluted with water( 1: 2 ratio).Apply the moistened tissue to the site of the dislocation for 10 minutes.
- Birch buds, St. John's wort, mother-and-stepmother( 1 tablespoon) brew in 1 liter of water. Cool to 50 ° C.Do such a bath every day before going to bed for 5-7 days.
- Paraffin wax - warms the ligaments, improving blood circulation and speeding up regeneration.
Complications of foot dislocation
Chronic dislocation is the most common complication of abnormal ankle joint treatment. Noticing that there is a lump in the ankle, urgently consult an orthopedist: this is a signal about violations of articular cartilage, leading to arthrosis and arthritis. When deciding on self-treatment, note that puffiness should go to decline 3-4 days after dislocation. When there is no swelling a week or more - it's time to see a doctor. Very dangerous dislocation is a violation of the circulation, in some cases leading to thrombolia or stroke.
How to treat an ankle dislocation, what to do if you have a foot injury
- First degree - there is a small puffiness, resulting from the tearing of individual ligaments. Signs of dislocation are weak. The patient can continue to walk, although he will feel pain and discomfort.
- Second degree - a bunch is broken partially. An ankle tumor complicates normal movement and extends over the entire length of the foot. Pain syndrome is felt in the place of rupture.
- Third degree - the ligament of the joint is broken completely. Pain syndrome is felt both at a palpation, and at a load on a leg. There is a hemorrhage, edema of the foot.
Subluxation of the AnkleIce on the Joint Subluxation is a type of injury in which, although a partial displacement of the joint occurs, the integrity of the ligament and tendons is not impaired. In this case, it is quite easy to remove the edema even on its own. To do this, you will need to apply an ice pack to the damaged area. The danger of the condition lies in the fact that sometimes subluxation is not appreciated, ignoring the need to visit a surgeon - a traumatologist. Another extreme that leads to problems is the independent adjustment of the joint. In this case, inept manipulations lead to the final rupture of the ligaments. The aged dislocation is much harder to fix. After 3-4 weeks, the patient develops a so-called false joint. To eliminate the consequences of such a trauma, a complicated surgical operation will be required.
Ankle dislocation in a childOne of the most difficult injuries of the musculoskeletal system is the dislocation of the foot in the child. The difficulty of therapy is that afterwards it is difficult enough to avoid re-injuring the joint. The discomfort of the child is complicated by the fact that the muscle tissues have not yet acquired sufficient strength and simply can not keep the joint in a normal anatomically correct position after the injury. The time of rehabilitation in childhood significantly increases. Treatment for dislocation of the ankle joint of the child includes providing the necessary conditions to prevent relapse.
What to do if the ankle joint is dislocatedfirst aid in case of dislocation When an ankle is dislocated, it is necessary to contact the nearest department of traumatology as soon as possible. First aid will be required. The injured leg is immobilized. For convenience, a roll or a small pillow is put under it. You can take pain medications before visiting a traumatologist. Reduce the pain syndrome during transportation of the patient with conventional ice. First aid for dislocation of the ankle joint should be provided as early as possible. To get an appointment with a surgeon is necessary no later than 1-2 hours. A surgeon or rheumatologist will first of all find out the degree of damage to the joint. If necessary, appoint additional tests. To determine the degree of damage, an X-ray image must be made. After this, the joint is set, an ankle is applied on the ankle. The joint is guided under local anesthesia. Injections of ice medicine continue to make in 2-3 days the whole period of rehabilitation.
How to fix the ankleFrom the surgeon or trauma surgeon who conducts the correction procedure, precision and coordination of movements is required. Therefore, just before the procedure, the patient is sent for radiography. The picture shows the extent of the lesion. The results of radiography determine the further steps of therapy. Further treatment of the habitual dislocation of the ankle passes as follows:
- Ankle is anesthetized with injections of ice medicine.
- The surgeon directs the joint.
- The patient is sent for re-radiography.
- Install the ankle retainer.
How to smear the ankle dislocationAfter repositioning, the patient is prescribed a medication, including taking medications that remove puffiness, as well as ointments for quick healing. Traditionally, the following tools are used:
- Ointments based on NSAIDs - help to remove swelling, while also have an analgesic effect. Some formulations include menthol and eucalyptus oils, which have a cooling effect on the injured joint.
- Anticoagulants. The recovery time of the ankle dislocation can be reduced by the rapid elimination of bruising resulting from injuries to the ligaments.
Restoration of ankle after dislocation ofAfter providing professional assistance, the treatment for dislocation of the ankle joint will continue at home. At the same time, the patient will be recommended to visit the physiotherapy room. A set of exercise exercises will also be developed for the dislocation of the ankle joint. Ankle fixation The folk methods of treating the ankle dislocation are aimed at combating the symptoms of trauma: the removal of puffiness and anesthesia. To this end, use propolis tincture, compresses made from the roots of elecampane and cabbage leaves. To effective methods of treatment of ankle dislocation, folk remedies include the reception of warm baths with the addition of aromatic oils, as well as the application of paraffin applications. One of the popular recipes is:
- The root of elecampane is ground, a tablespoon of the formulation is poured into 250 ml of boiling water. Marl is dipped in the resulting broth. Apply as a compress.
- A mixture of onion and sugar - the product is suitable after restoring the joint. The onion is ground and added to the resulting mashed sugar 1 to 10. The composition is used for lotions. Change the bandage every 5-6 hours.
Treatment of ankle dislocation
A sedentary lifestyle causes weakening of muscles and ligaments, which can lead to problems of the musculoskeletal system. Most often, an ankle joint is damaged, which keeps the body mass when moving. In case of incorrect leg position, there are increased loads on the ankle, as a result, it may not be able to cope with them.
Ankle joint is anatomically complex, as the articular surfaces of three bones take part in its formation: talus, tibial and peroneal. Outside they are covered with hyaline cartilage, which serves as a shock absorber, and from the inside - filled with synovial fluid, reducing the degree of friction during movement. On all sides the joint is braided with ligaments and muscles, thanks to which it becomes firm and durable. With muscle weakening, the joint does not provide the necessary strength, which leads to an increase in its fragility and susceptibility to injury.
The most common ankle injury can be called its dislocation, in which the joint bones are displaced, which causes damage( tearing) of the ligaments.
Usually, this leads to walking on an uneven or slippery surface, falling or simply unsuccessful movement.
Ankle injury can be of three severity levels, each with its own symptoms:
First degree( rupture of individual ligament fibers):
- slight swelling;
- discomfort and minor pain during walking and palpation with preservation of motor function.
Second degree( ligament rupture partial):
- swelling of the entire external surface of the foot;
- strong pain at the place of rupture in a calm state;
- obstructed walking with preservation of motor function.
Third degree( ligament rupture complete):
- acute pain both in palpation and in a calm state;
- hemorrhage and severe edema of the entire surface of the foot, including the plantar area;
- impossibility of loading on a shin because of strong painful sensations.
If the shin is damaged, the victim should be provided with immediate first aid, namely: to ensure that the leg is completely at rest with a pillow or roller resting under it. To the place of injury should be attached ice, which will help reduce pain. If the pain is very severe, then you can take an anesthetic, and then the injured person should be taken to the hospital to be provided with qualified care and appropriate treatment.
Methods of treatment
Before you understand what to do with a dislocation, you need to determine how seriously injured the shin. Categorically not recommended self-medication! The doctor must diagnose and prescribe the appropriate treatment course. Treatment involves a comprehensive technique that will have the most effective effect.
In case of minor injuries, dislocation of an ankle joint can be treated at home as follows:
- First time several times a day for about 15 minutes apply special hypothermic packages, ice or ordinary packages of frozen vegetables or fruits that will cool the injured area, which will help to reduce pain and remove swelling. It is not recommended to apply ice to bare skin, it is better to use a towel or gauze for this.
- Fix the damaged joint with a tight bandage, which can be used as an elastic bandage or even an ordinary handkerchief. It is important to make sure that the foot is fixed at a right angle, and the dressing applied to it would not be too tight and would not violate the circulation( this bandage should be worn for at least two weeks).
- Ensure peace or minimal strain on the damaged leg.
- On the second or third day, you can start using warm baths, apply warming ointments and compresses, do paraffin baths and light massage until the final recovery.
- For more serious damage, the joint requires repositioning, which should be performed no later than 2 hours after the injury. In no case should you try to do it yourself. The correction should only be done by an experienced specialist with the use of an anesthetic, which the patient will later have to take every two to three days.
- The second degree of injury involves the imposition of a gypsum langete, which will need to be worn until the pain disappears completely. In parallel, therapeutic exercise, massage and thermal physiotherapy are prescribed, during which the langette will need to be removed. Approximately in three weeks there should come full recover.
- When receiving a third degree dislocation, a circular gypsum dressing should be applied to the area starting from the fingertips to the upper third leg. Also, the patient will need to undergo a course of physiotherapy, thermal physiotherapy and massage. The time of complete recovery after such an ankle dislocation usually takes about four weeks. In order to prevent re-trauma, it is recommended to wear a fixation bandage for one and a half to two months after recovery.
Use in the treatment of traditional medicine
How to treat a traumatized ankle, can suggest and folk medicine:
- Prepare an infusion of tansy flowers, marigolds, stripes and celandine, which you need to brew and insist for thirty minutes. Then, in this infusion, wet a bandage or a piece of linen cloth and attach it to the injured part of the shin. Change the compress as it dries.
- Add to the grinded soap powder of camphor powder and ammonia. Mix the mixture with lamp oil and white turpentine, then apply the obtained ointment on the injured leg.
- Add a little apple cider vinegar to grated garlic( two or three heads), then allow the mixture to brew for five to six days. After this time, rub the infusion into the damaged area.
- Mix half a cup of vinegar( 9% concentration) with half a tablespoon of rock salt, then moisten the bandage in the resulting solution and attach it to the dislocated leg section.
Damage to the ligaments of the ankle joint is a trauma that requires serious treatment and rehabilitation period. However, with the timely access to the doctor and the exact observance of all the prescribed recommendations, there comes a one hundred percent recovery with the full return of the original mobility of the foot.