Joint rheumatism: symptoms and treatment of the disease in children
Rheumatism of the joints in infants is rare, 15-20% of those with rheumatic fever are children 1-5 years old, up to 80% children 10-15 years old.
Joint rheumatism: symptoms in children
Joint rheumatism, of course, has an infectious nature, but the causative agent of the disease has not yet been identified. Infection often affects the lymph nodes of the nasopharynx. Often rheumatism is associated with previous angina. In some cases, the disease is a consequence of focal infection( caries, sinus inflammation and other inflammatory processes).
The most common is the infectious-allergic theory of the onset of the disease. According to her, rheumatism is a consequence of an allergic reaction of the body. Reorganization of the organism occurs during the incubation period due to the ingestion of the products of the vital activity of bacteria into the cells. In this case, streptococci cause symptoms of joint rheumatism. The disease often occurs against a background of general hypothermia, overexertion and transferred infectious diseases, in particular, scarlet fever.
On the other hand, the nature of joint damage, chorea and other motor disorders, mental and nervous diseases, often accompanying rheumatism, suggest that the central nervous system also participates in the process. The reactivity of the cerebral cortex in children with rheumatism decreases several times. Investigating the body through mesenchymal tests, doctors detect characteristic changes. The decrease in the reactivity of the cerebral cortex may be due to the increased excitability of the subcortical centers. This leads to an increase in the excitability of the nervous system, accompanied by reactions from the whole organism.
In the phase of exacerbation of rheumatic fever in children, the cortical function of the cortex is weakened, the speed of the nervous processes decreases, and the cells of the cerebral cortex rapidly deplete. With the development of the disease, sympathetic reactivity gradually turns into a parasympathetic mood. Symptoms of rheumatism are caused by granuloma, located in the myocardium perivascular, on the pericardium and near the joints. Symptoms of joint rheumatism in children are divided into granulomatous and hyperergic with infiltrative inflammation.
It is now believed that rheumatism affects the entire body, and granulomas in tissues and joints are only the response of the body. The main lesion may be the inner surface of the heart muscle, and the inflammatory processes in the joints are just an allergic reaction or hematogenous metastases.
Rheumatic granuloma undergoes certain stages of development. In the first stage, lasting about a month, exudative-alternative changes occur in the tissues, a proliferation region arises. After this, the disease goes to the next stage - granulomatous. Cells become spindle-shaped, a fibrous collagen seal develops. The third stage - sclerosis, lasts about 4-5 months.
There are several phases of rheumatism in children: acute, which lasts 1-2 months, the phase of remission( 1-2 months) and the phase of remission of different duration. When there is sensitization of the body during the period of remission, there is a threat of new attacks. Rheumatism in children often proceeds in chronic form and affects mesenchymes and the cardiovascular system.
Joint rheumatism is divided into the following types:
- cardiac with visceral lesions;
- acute polyarthritis;
- chorea with mild myocarditis.
After an acute attack of the disease, there may be residual effects from the joints and heart defects. In addition to rheumatic polyarthritis in children, there are forms of the disease that do not affect the joints. Carditis in some cases is the only symptom of rheumatism, sometimes it is accompanied by a polyserositis. In other cases, such symptoms as aponeurosis, the formation of nodules in articular bags and skin lesions are noted.
Rheumatism of the joints is accompanied by deterioration of health, joint pain, and fever. The child swollen knees, ankles, elbows and other joints. Less often the disease affects the finger and hip joints. In the acute phase of the disease, the blood counts deteriorate sharply. The trial of Bukhshtab-Yasinovsky in children is unreliable. In addition to polyarthritis, children often have peculiar forms of the disease. With the latent form of rheumatism, the child complains of knee pain, weakness.
Very often, children have small subcutaneous nodules near the joints. They last about a month, then they go by themselves. In 10% of cases, skin rashes of various types occur. Most often it is erythema on the back, abdomen and chest without redness and flaking. The main and most common symptoms of rheumatism are myocarditis, pancarditis and pericarditis. Possible occurrence of aortitis, coronary and pulmonitis. All forms of rheumatism lead to the development of anemia. Sometimes there are symptoms such as leukocytosis, increased platelets, globulin, fibrinogen and nitrogen. Metabolism is often disrupted in the direction of acidosis.
Symptoms from the nervous system have the form of scattered movements, involuntary movements of muscles and tongue, weakness of abdominal reflexes, disappearance of corneal reflexes, increased sensitivity of the skin, etc. All these are signs of damage to the cortex and subcortical area of the brain due to the presence of granulomas and vasculitis inher. However, the most obvious signs of rheumatism are small chorea and various encephalitis.
Lesser chorea and its symptoms
Chorea is a disease in children over 6 years of age associated with rheumatism. In some cases, chorea occurs after infectious diseases. Chronic transferred one day does not cause immunity to it, so it often repeats. Symptoms of chorea testify to the violation of some parts of the brain. This is not only about the lesions, but also the violation of the vestibular apparatus.
Symptoms of trochee in children first appear imperceptibly, gradually increasing. There is nervousness, motor anxiety. After a certain period of time there are involuntary movements of some muscles and limbs, impaired coordination of movements, unnecessary movements and loss of stability. The child begins to grimace, make excess movements with his tongue, twitch his shoulders, move his fingers.
These restless movements increase over time. The child ceases to sit, move, eat, grimaces appear continuously, eyes are closed and open, speech becomes indistinct. At a strain all movements amplify, a little weakening during a dream. The child is sleeping troubled. Another clear symptom of chorea is insufficient muscle tone. If you take such a child for your armpits, your neck will fall between your shoulders. When the reflexes are called up, the gastrocnemius muscle contracts and the shin remains in one position for a long time. Other muscle reflexes usually remain normal.
Movement disorders can be easily identified. For this, the doctor asks the child to stretch out his hands, and moves his hands to the sides. The baby's hands must repeat their movements. If the child produces excess movements with his hands, there are symptoms of chorea. The most obvious signs of chorea are the erratic movements of the tongue and eyes, the inability to touch the nose with your hand. Disorders of the psyche are quite rare, mostly irritability, agitation, affective states.
If there is a small increase in temperature, this may not be the case. From the side of the heart, there is a malfunction of the mitral valve. On the part of the circulatory system - leukocytosis, anemia, lymphocytosis. The rate of erythrocyte sedimentation is reduced or within normal limits. Sometimes the chorea is very peculiar. Movement disorders can touch one side of the body. There is also a paralytic form of the disease, in which movements slow down or become completely impossible. Chorea lasts about 2 months, sometimes it stretches for a year. For life, the disease is not dangerous, but it can affect the work of the heart.
Prevention of rheumatism in children
Prevention plays an important role, because it is a prevention of heart disease. First of all, it is necessary to improve the living conditions of the child, revise its nutrition, introduce vitamins into the diet. You need to properly care for the skin, avoid hypothermia, take care of teeth and mouth. Removing tonsils for prevention is not necessary, but to treat chronic tonsillitis is necessary.
Treatment of joint rheumatism in children
Even with the mildest forms of rheumatism, the child is shown bed rest and proper nutrition. The desensitizing diet, recommended by some doctors, rarely gives positive results. The most common drugs in the treatment of this disease are drugs based on salicylic sodium. Treatment with such a drug for a long time, it is carried out until the appearance of improvements in health. The joints are heated, lubricated with salicylic ointment. To prevent severe consequences from the heart of a sick child should be kept on bed rest, gradually introducing into normal living conditions. A good effect with polyarthritis is provided by sanatorium treatment, physiotherapy and mud therapy.
When treating chorea, children should be kept calm, the patient needs to be hospitalized. Necessary bed rest and proper nutrition. From the diet, it is required to exclude foods that excite the nervous system( cocoa, coffee, condiments).Since the symptoms of chorea disappear in a state of sleep, the introduction of a patient into prolonged medication sleep is rational.
Rheumatism: Causes, Symptoms That Likuvannya Zahchyovannya |Suglobi
Rheumatic chorea( small chorea)
Take care of the hogs rozvivaetsya peremewy in dovchotok 10-12 rockiv.
- The rheumatism is affected by the nervous system, which manifests itself as a characteristic symptom:
- hyperkinesis - the girdle of the mimic ruchovo activity of the kyntsivok;
- m'yazov dystonіya - rіzkі m'yazovі spazmi, schо condorzhuyutsya bolsovimi vіdchuttyom;
- coordination coordination;
Rheumatism urozhennyi shkrii
You can find more information on the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.Кільцеподібна іритема - неяскрава пляга рожевого кольору, яка має тренцію до збільшення in розмірах, поповово бліднучи в центі, nabuvalaychi viglyad kiltsya. Poleva beach is not to be crossed by big vidchuttami, stench does not vidyupayut over the surface of the shkiri and with the onslaught of poignant znikayut.Кільцеподібна іритема завжди розташовується на тулубі і ніколи на волосистій надіі голови.
Підшкірні вузлики - дошли рідкісний специфічний симптом, який зустрічається у дітей з pivotal rheumatism. Naichastishe vuzliki syubrovuzhuyut yavische arthritis ta carditis, roztashovuyutsya na verhny great suglobiv. Tse small( for 1-2 mm to 1-2 cm) pідшкірні вузлики, щільні, малорухомі і безболісні на дотик.Після стиханя основних симптомів, вузлики також піддаються зворотному розвитку за 1-2 місяці, не залишаючи після себе жодних слідів.
Urazhennya інших оргаів і системі
You can not finish rіdkі and protіkayut without be-asіchnyi specfіki, being a manifestation of rheumatic vasculitis - ураження дібних судин.Найчастіше вражаються легені, печінка, нирки, энддокринні орга, очі, черевна порожнина.
With a severe complication of complications, rheumatism is stuck with so-called drugs:
- Antibiotics. Vikoristovuytsya for lіkvіdatsії vognita іnfіcіії in nosoglottsі.Naybіlsh is active in the world of antibiotic drugs. I began to study the gasoline in benzene pentyl alcohol, and the amoxicillin. When nerenosimosti penitsilinіv mozhilve vyznachennya antibiotics in the group of macrolides( azitromitsin, roksitromіsin, klaritromitsin).
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Recommended at rozvitku rheumatoid arthritis, horei, karditі lung that middle step. The drug Viborum is diclofenac abo acetylsalicyl acid. So tamozh mozhlivey zastosuvannya ibuprofenu.
Priyom NPZP guilty zdіysnyuvatisya not less than місяця, з попоповим зниженням досо.Під їх впливом спостерігається швидке зникнення болів in суглоба, хореї, задишки, позитивна динаміка в ЕКГ-картині.However, in the course of the refinery, the manager has to pay attention to the negative vdev on the sluice-gut tract.
- Glucocorticoid. Zastosovuyte with a cardiovascular virazhen, a digitally purchased pіdini in empty bags, strong soglobovih pains.
- Metabolic therapy and biology. It is recognized that the doses of ascorbic acid are high, with the development of horei - В1 and В6.For vidnuvlennya poskokhdenih klitin serce m'zah zastosovuyte riboksin, mіldronat, neoton і etc.
It is important: likuvannyam such a difficult zahchyovannya, yak rheumatism at children's daughters, povinen zamatisya tilki likar. Do not borrow self-crockery, so you can lead to serious troubles! At vikinnenni the same descriptions at statti simptomіv obovvjazkovo zvernitsja to glikarja internally!
Profilactics to rheumatism
Pervinna( nonspecific) Occupational disease of rheumatism rheumatism is spun on the spine of the rheumatic process in organisms and includes a complex of fungal infections: zagarmovuvannya, engaged in sports, zalansovane kharchuvannya і etc.
Secondary( specific) - alternation of repeated relapses to rheumatism. To reach the goal of injecting prolonged preparations into penicillin. The introduction of such import analogues is feasibly retarpen, pendepon, etc.
Згідно з рекомендацииціями ВООЗ, профілактика rheumatism bіtsillinom guilty conducted not less than 3 rockі після останньоїї attack, але не раніше досягнення 18-ти років.With the transfer of carditis - 25 rock. Individuals with a breakdown of a serous lack of comprehension, vicomies of professionalism, come in all the life.
The disease is an inflammatory pathology of connective tissue, which is mainly localized within the cardiovascular system.
Rheumatism is a disease that develops, as a rule, against the background of an exacerbation of a certain infection in people with an increased degree of predisposition to such pathologies. Rheumatism most often affects children, as well as adolescents( the age range is seven to fifteen years).
The main factor causing the appearance of rheumatism is hemolytic streptococcus( group A).It often affects the upper respiratory tract and provokes joint rheumatism.
The condition for the development of the disease is the presence of streptococcal infection in the nasopharyngeal zone or untimely, incorrect treatment. A confirmation that the etiology of rheumatism is directly related to streptococcus is that rheumatism often develops and spreads at the first stages of the formation of so-called "closed collectives".
The pathology of leg joints is due to the presence of a significant number of toxins and antigens that affect connective tissues, causing complications of rheumatism.
Streptococcus infection plays an important role in the occurrence of age-related rheumatic carditis. In this situation, immunity does not work, and this, in turn, serves as a reason for finding other factors that fit into the problem of rheumatism: etiology.
In the situation of resolving the issue of the origin of rheumatism, there are two main aspects:
- the role of group A streptococcal infection;
- study of predisposition to the disease with rheumatism of the joints of the legs.
In order to develop chronic rheumatism, a subjective, increased immune response to streptococcal type antigens is required, as well as the extent of this reaction. This is evidenced by some signs of rheumatism of the joints of the legs with a dynamic study of antibodies to streptococcus.
The mechanism of starting the disease begins with the effect on the body of bacteria - beta-hemolytic streptococci( group A).They can provoke:
Chronic rheumatism occurs only when the patient has defects related to the functioning of the immune system. So, statistics show that only from 0, 3 to 3 percent of people who have suffered infectious diseases caused by streptococcus( photo), subsequently face rheumatism.
Rheumatism of the joints of the legs is characterized by the presence of risk factors that should be considered:
- presence of rheumatism or diseases affecting connective tissues, family members of the first degree of kinship - sisters or brothers. Parents;
- belonging to the female sex;
- age range from 7 to 15 years;
- regular infections in the nasopharynx, streptococcus;
- rheumatism of the legs arises due to the presence in the human body of a specific protein - B-cell marker type D8 / 17.
Rheumatism in children affects the joints of the legs, when when streptococcus enters the body, it begins to fight the infection with the development of special antibodies. Cells recognize bacteria through molecules that are on their surface.
In the presence of predisposition to rheumatism, in the cardiac muscle there are structural units similar in structure to streptococcus.
Chronic rheumatism is associated with an attack of antibodies of "native" cells of the body. So there is an inflammatory process, develops rheumatism of the joints of the legs. The connective tissue can be deformed - heart defects develop, the morphological structure of the joints changes, and rheumatism arises.
There is a certain classification of rheumatism, several types of disease are distinguished:
- Polyarthritis, it is also articular rheumatism. Often affects the knees, elbows, shoulders, rarely - toes and hands. The acute form of the disease is characterized by swelling, the presence of an inflammatory process in the area affected by rheumatism. Sweating, general weakness in the whole body, elevated temperature can be observed.
- Rheumatic carditis is another type of rheumatism;is manifested by the presence of a general intoxication of the body, heart pain of varying intensity, tachycardia may manifest itself.
- Rheumatism is fraught with the appearance of lesions of the smallest vessels in the brain, a disease called rheumatic chorea. The main signs - the violation of coordination of movement, psycho-emotional disorders.
- Classification of rheumatism involves the isolation of skin manifestations of diseases. These are specific nodules and erythema.
- Pleurisy rheumatic - severe pains in the chest area are observed, respiratory activity becomes more difficult. The temperature can rise, there is a cough and shortness of breath.
The initial signs of rheumatism appear several weeks after the patient has transferred any infectious disease - for example, pharyngitis or sore throat.
At first the patient experiences weakness, joints begin to ache, hyperthermia is observed.
Rheumatism in children can develop in a latent form: so, a small fever can rise, there is a slight general malaise, cardiac work is not broken, joint pains are absent. In such cases, rheumatism of the joints ends with chronic arthritis. Rheumatism in children affects the middle, as well as large joints. There are such signs of the disease:
- pain in the drains;
- tingling in the elbows and wrists;
- pain in the knees.
Rheumatism of the joints can have blurred symptoms - they then disappear, then reappear. Nevertheless, you can not relax - rheumatism in children should be diagnosed in time and appropriate therapy is prescribed.
Additional signs of rheumatism - pronounced problems with the heart: the pulse may be disturbed, irregularities in the rhythm are observed, the heart hurts. Also, the patient may experience shortness of breath, there is general weakness, increased sweating. These symptoms are caused by the inflammatory processes that are observed in the heart - rheumatic carditis. The consequence of the disease is heart disease.
In the case when rheumatism affects the nervous system, the patient may experience involuntary jerking of the limbs, as well as muscles of the face and neck. This symptomatology was called small chorea. There are signs on average in 15% of patients. Basically, these girls are from 6 to 15 years old.
Rheumatism, diagnosed only in clinical settings, is subsequently subject to a thorough correction by a rheumatologist.
The rheumatologist performs a complex of necessary measures with the help of which diagnostics of rheumatism is carried out. Most often, he undergoes a comprehensive comprehensive examination of the patient.
The first appointment is a general analysis of the blood composition for inflammation. The second is an immunological study aimed at revealing substances characteristic of rheumatism.
Additional technologies - ECG, X-ray. If necessary, to identify rheumatism, arthroscopy, articular biopsy, puncture for the subsequent study of the composition of fluid in the joints is prescribed.
The first stage is indicated by antibiotic therapy. Anti-inflammatory drugs are also prescribed. If the case is severe, the rheumatologist prescribes corticosteroids.
Prevention of rheumatism in children includes:
- gymnastics and physiotherapy;
- lifestyle correction( in particular, day regimen and nutrition);
Classification of medicines that are prescribed by a rheumatologist when a disease is detected, is as follows:
- means for rheumatism antibacterial properties;
- anti-inflammatory drugs.
The basis for the optimal treatment of rheumatism is such a consistent mechanism: the clinical stage - procedures at home and in the office of a doctor - a rheumatologist - spa therapy.
First, special anti-inflammatory therapy is carried out, rehabilitation is carried out, then the patient is sent to a specialized medical sanatorium intended especially for patients with rheumatism. At the third stage of therapy - medical examination. The procedure sets itself such functional tasks:
- activities aimed at the final fight against rheumatism;
- the implementation of symptomatic treatment for circulatory dysfunction in those patients who suffer from the presence of heart defects, their possible correction;
- rehabilitation period;
- preventive measures package.
Prevention of rheumatism and its treatment at home - the task is quite feasible. There are several effective recipes designed to combat the disease.
- A couple of peeled large bulbs are cooked for 15 minutes in a liter of water. The drug is taken in the morning after awakening on an empty stomach, before going to sleep. Dosage is a glass. Good prevention of rheumatism.
- To the aching joints of the feet, a fresh grated onion is applied for no more than half an hour. Periodicity - several times a day.
- Rheumatism of children is susceptible to the treatment of raw potatoes. To do this, you need to double fold any fabric, in the middle of which is placed a potato gruel. The compress is placed in the affected area of the joints of the legs. From above it is necessary to cover the area with something warm. The procedure is repeated every two days.
- Children's rheumatism responds well to a combination of taking potato juice and an external compress from this root. The procedure should be carried out within a month.
- Broth, cooked potato peel, is suitable for making compresses that are applied to joints affected by rheumatism.
Herbal preparations intended for the treatment of rheumatism of the leg joints:
- At 10 grams of St. John's Wort, one glass of warm water is needed. This mixture should be boiled for half an hour on a small fire. A remedy for rheumatism is taken during the day before meals( at a time - a third of the container).
- Put the leaves of cranberries in a jar, top up with water, insist. The drug is taken twice a day for two teaspoons.
- For two small spoonfuls of blueberry berries you should take a glass of boiling water. Infused broth for half an hour. Take the remedy several times a day on a large spoon.
Timely detection of the diagnosis of rheumatism of the joints of the legs, as well as its qualitative prevention and treatment, allow to minimize the negative consequences that the disease results.
Rheumatism - Symptoms, signs and manifestations in children and adults
- Signs of the development of the disease
With the development of such a systemic inflammatory disease as rheumatism - symptoms usually do not appear immediately. Progressing, the disease affects the connective tissue and is often localized in the cardiovascular system. Usually disease affects children under 15 years of .The cause of serious complications associated with infectious diseases can be such ailments as angina, nasopharyngitis, acute sinusitis and otitis media.IMPORTANT TO KNOW!A new means of restoring joints in 99% of subjects. The pain goes away 100%!Read more here - & gt;
The criteria used in the diagnosis of rheumatism are those developed in 1988 by WHO, referred to as small and large manifestations. It is also important to confirm the transferred streptococcal infection. The big manifestations of the disease include carditis, polyarthritis, chorea, tight subcutaneous nodules and annular erythema. Small criteria for detecting ailment are:
- laboratory indicators( leukocytosis, positive C-reactive protein, increased level of ESR);
- clinical data( arthralgia, fever);
- instrumental information( eg, ECG results).
According to the diagnostic rule: the presence of 2 large or 1 large and 2 small indicators in the presence of evidence of a transferred streptococcal infection is a confirmation of rheumatism. In addition, the radiograph is determined by an increase in the heart and a decrease in the contractility of the myocardium, a change in the shade of the heart. The ultrasound of the body reveals the signs of acquired defects.
Causes of rheumatism
There are two factors that can lead to the formation of rheumatism in a person: hereditary contractor and streptococcal infections. Of course, this microbe is in the body of all people, only its number is limited. Subcooling or significant weakening of immunity leads to a many-thousand increase in the number of microorganisms.
The first appears tonsillitis or pharyngitis. Subsequently, the ailment can develop into rheumatism. Often this happens in children. Rheumatism of the joints in them is formed due to an increased reaction of immunity. Individual types of streptococcus are similar in structure to "native" proteins. The similarity becomes fatal - antibodies begin to counteract both microbes, and own structures.
According to research data, rheumatism has its own age range. Most often, it manifests itself in childhood and accompanies the patient throughout his life.
What is the danger of rheumatism
Medical observations have shown that rheumatism usually covers the most active and active cartilages. Moreover, if diseased tissues were susceptible to constant hypothermia or were injured, the risk of getting inflammation of these joints is increased. It is worth noting that the ailment does not lead to any disturbances of a pathological nature in the tissues of the joint.
The disease usually affects the outer shell, and with proper treatment the process is completely reversible. The condition of various joints before and after the period of exacerbation of the disease is not particularly different. The disease leads exclusively to an increase in the envelope and inflammatory process in neighboring tissue fibers. Despite this, rheumatism is fraught with many other dangers.
Internal organs are affected by rheumatism, especially the heart is often affected. Progressing in the joints and heart, the ailment acquires a doubled force of exacerbation. The heart valves, as well as the blood circulation as a whole, are at risk. From the harmful effects of rheumatism, the peripheral nervous system and even the lungs are not protected.
Symptoms of rheumatism in children
Such a dangerous ailment as rheumatism - symptoms in children can manifest in a few years. It affects primarily the blood vessels and the muscle of the heart, while at the young age the damage to the cartilage may be completely absent or manifest much later. In quite severe cases, as a result of acute damage to the cardiovascular system, there is a risk of developing chronic heart disease, and the good that cases such are rare.
Phases of the course of the disease
Rheumatism passes in the two leading phases - inactive and active. By the first form is meant the state of the affected child, when in laboratory examinations it is not possible to detect signs of inflammation. Children remain active. There is a violation of hemodynamics only with significant physical exertion.
With the active phase of childhood rheumatism, symptoms can manifest with one of the three degrees of progression of the disease:
- I degree - minimal inflammation;
- III degree - the maximum progression.
It is important to know that the younger the child, the progression of the disease is more complicated than .In addition, in children, rheumatism usually leads to more serious consequences than for strong adolescents. In this regard, it is recommended to identify the disease as early as possible through a comprehensive survey. Leading signs of rheumatism in children can be represented in forms:
- articular - often finds itself in a few weeks after the passage of an acute infectious disease. This form of rheumatism is accompanied by severe pain in the connective tissues and a high fever, but in rare cases, the child's complaints are only for a weak and quickly subsiding pain;
- is a nervous form or chorea. Symptom is manifested in the form of tearfulness and irritability of the baby, a sharp deterioration of the handwriting, visible nerve ticks of the eyes and hands. If such symptoms are found, it is necessary to urgently consult a doctor, because of the possibility of developing paralysis;
- cardiac form - has such signs of rheumatism, in which the heart is affected without joint disease. The child has complaints only about fatigue and weakness after a long walk. The degree of defeat of the main organ can be different - from mild to severe.
Primary symptoms of rheumatism in adults
Symptoms of rheumatic fever - rheumatic polyarthritis often appear only a couple of weeks after pharyngitis or sore throat provoked by streptococcal infection. The soreness of the joints can be so strong that not only the movements become absolutely impossible, but also a slight touch to the affected area is discomfort. Body temperature reaches 40 °.
But there are cases when the symptoms of rheumatism in adults are practically unnoticeable. Slight weakness and temperature will not attract attention to yourself. In most cases, patients go to the clinic when serious problems with affected joints begin: they swell, blush, become hot to the touch.
Connective fibers acquire high soreness when pressed or attempted to make minimal movement. Unpleasant sensations in the rheumatism of cartilage can appear quickly and unexpectedly, but also just disappear. Cartilage is not deformed, i.e.the disease has a benign course. Rheumatic polyarthritis is characterized by the lesion of predominantly such joints:
- of the knee;
Rheumatic disease refers to the class of chronic ailments, and in its course a wavy character predominates, which causes exacerbations several times a year. Disease itself can not disappear. It must necessarily be treated. Repeated attacks of tenderness of joints may occur after months, but in some cases - and in years.
Mechanism of the appearance of joint rheumatism
In very rare cases with progressive joint rheumatism, pathology captures only one joint. Usually, after a while after the onset of the disease, sometimes after a few hours, the painfulness of the affected cartilage somewhat subside. Becomes smaller swelling. However, sharp pains, swelling and redness in the area of the other joint are brewing. The ailment seems to migrate from one organ to another.
In some patients, especially with immediate-onset therapy, only 2 to 3 cartilages are involved in the pathological process. In the opposite situation every day, the disease will affect more and more new tissues. First rheumatism of the hands will develop - the symptoms will be very acute. Then the joints of the limbs, back and even the lower jaw will be affected. In the body there will be considerable pain.
Numerous medical observations indicate that the most common affliction affects those joint tissues that have been more "stressed" in a particular patient. Perhaps in connection with his profession or way of life. Often, with rheumatism, those damping elements that previously suffered bruises, powerful long-term pressure, frequent hypothermia and other adverse effects suffer.
Not all cases of the development of rheumatism symptoms are violent. When there are repeated seizures of this inflammatory disease, especially in middle-aged people, unpleasant sensations are not unbearable. It happens that the joints remain mobile, and the increase in the overall temperature is rather insignificant and keeps within the range of up to 37.2-37.5 °.
Sometimes the sick even go to work. They do not go to the doctor and make attempts to cure themselves "home" by themselves. However, it is with such a sluggish character of articular attack that repeated exacerbations are frequent. Painfulness increases and the ailment can confidently keep its positions for long 3-4 months.
With competent therapy, soreness and swelling in the joints fully pass in most patients in a couple of weeks. In some cases, the process can be stopped earlier: after a couple of days of active therapy.
Signs of the development of the disease
In view of the fact that the first signs of rheumatic fever are associated with intoxication of the body after the affliction caused by streptococci, the symptomatology subsides quickly. Such unpleasant moments as general weakness, high fever, prolonged permanent character of the headache are not immediately apparent. Usually there is a certain interval of several weeks between streptococcal ailment and the development of rheumatism.
When the limbs are affected, the symptoms of the disease are quite similar to the manifestation of arthritis - the same aching pain, which can sharply worsen. How is rheumatism manifested in a neglected stage or after a long "hibernation" is not difficult to guess. The disease will affect any joints. When the disease of small cartilage symptoms will appear immediately, with the defeat of large organs - signs will be found after a while.
Visible signs of rheumatism:
- redness of the skin over the affected joints;
- swelling and tenderness;
- characteristic shine of the skin over the diseased area.
Reaction of the heart to rheumatism - this rapid heartbeat, dull pain and possible shortness of breath. As a rule, these signs are parallel to the main symptoms - lethargy, temperature and intoxication. The defeat of the hip or shoulder joint with rheumatism is a rarity. And the symptoms are less pronounced. Only the stage of exacerbation will allow to determine that this is the present ailment.
Rheumatoid nodules also indicate a severe form of the disease. They can form with the absence of therapy or with the rapid progression of any form of disease. These nodules are small subcutaneous seals that do not cause additional soreness. Often they are formed on the cartilage of the fingers.
Occasionally, in the period of exacerbations on the skin there is a rash - an annular rash. It has the appearance of pale pinkish points. When pressed, they disappear. The phenomenon is quite rare and occurs when the aggravation subsides.
It is in the limb region that rheumatism rages most, affecting often symmetrical joints. Because of this, the mobility of the cartilage disappears for days and even weeks."Harmful" nodules dissolve themselves, but not as quickly as they form - complete disappearance takes up to a couple of months. No matter what rheumatism the signs of - are, the main thing is not to engage in self-treatment and go to the polyclinic .Then the therapy will be quick and effective.
Causes of rheumatism in children
The main causes rheumatism in children , as it is unfortunate, the carriage of streptococcus by one of the parents or untreated angina. The first factor is prevalent. Let's consider the mechanism of its influence.
Many residents of modern cities are carriers of streptococcus. This is due to frequent collisions in the infectious agent. As a result, a stable immunity is produced, which does not interfere with the presence of streptococcus in the human body. The carrier does not suffer from such symbiosis, does not suffer from angina and rheumatism. His body simply does not perceive this bacterium as an enemy agent. But at the same time, the carrier of streptococci liberally releases its environment. Unprepared baby's organism such an infection may not be overcome. There are frequent colds without apparent external causes. The immunity of the baby with each case of such infection becomes more and more vulnerable.
Eventually, the moment comes when the next "portion" of streptococcus, received from the parents, does not cause a rapid manifestation of catarrhal phenomena. Thus, parents do not consult a doctor to treat a child. Streptococcus takes root without the anti-inflammatory effect in the baby's body. Development of rheumatism in children begins.
Other causes of rheumatism in children are no less insidious:
- hypothermia and manifestation of compensatory reaction;
- the presence of a foci of chronic infection in the child's body( eg, caries teeth);
- frequent colds;
- congenital infection.
All these phenomena have a sufficiently worn out clinical picture and do not help at the time to notice and prevent rheumatic fever in children. Therefore, special attention should be paid to any complaints of the baby to their health. And well-being. Only in this way can you resist a formidable disease of the heart and joints.
How rheumatism manifests in children: symptoms of
All manifestations of rheumatism in children are associated with the development of the organism in response to the effect of a negative infectious agent of a kind of protective equipment - C-reactive protein. This substance, which causes chronic or acute inflammation in the lesion.
All would be nice if there was no destruction of the tissue with this protein. But, fighting with the enemy agent, C-reactive protein captures and quite healthy cells. So begins the gradual deformation of joints and cardiac septums. With each attack of streptococcus, the response of the child's organism is intensified. Pathological changes in the joints and heart are increasing. In the end, this leads to the fact that the affected organs stop coping with physiological loads. The child becomes disabled.
The main symptoms of rheumatism in children :
- rapid fatigue;
- complaints of pain in the legs during physical exertion;
- muscle pain;
- complaints of pain in the heart;
- rapid pulse with minor physical exertion;
- slackness of the baby, loss of interest in his usual activities.
At laboratory research in the biochemical analysis of blood the C-reactive protein is allocated. Also, the leukocyte indices and the rate of erythrocyte sedimentation are mixed up. With the help of X-ray methods of research, destructive changes in the joint tissue can be seen. On the ECG, disturbances in the conductivity of the electric pulse are detected. To clarify the diagnosis of rheumatic myocarditis or heart disease, ultrasound is assigned.
Modern treatment of rheumatism in children
To date, treatment of rheumatic fever in children is divided into several stages. Immediately it is worth noting that the complex treatment of rheumatism in a child can take several years. In addition, supportive antibiotic treatment of prolonged action should be taken into account, which are injected in the spring and autumn seasons.
Usually the treatment of rheumatism in children begins with:
- of an accurate diagnosis;
- definition of sensitivity to antibiotics.
After this, a massive antibiotic therapy is performed with multiple control taking of tests for carriage of streptococcus.
In parallel, the examination and, if necessary, the treatment of all members of the baby's family. Further treatment of rheumatism in children is aimed at restoring damaged organs and tissues and preventing the exacerbation of infection. It is also necessary to carry out measures to restore immunity and temper the child.
An effective treatment for rheumatism in children is a trip to the sea or moving to a permanent place of residence in warmer places. But it should be borne in mind that the humid climate for children of rheumatic patients is much worse than cold and dry.