All symptoms and signs of joint arthritis
Arthritis is the most common pathology of joint structures. Depending on the cause of the development of the disease, there are 5 main forms: rheumatoid, reactive, infectious, gouty and psoriatic. Symptoms of arthritis and its manifestation in each case will depend on the clinical course of the disease.
An affliction can affect different joints
Symptoms of reactive arthritis
Reactive arthritis is an inflammatory, non-pigmentary disease that manifests itself after an acute urinary or intestinal infection. This pathology often affects young men.
The first signs are usually manifested as a general malaise: weakness, increased fatigue, headache. Sometimes there is an increase in the overall body temperature, which rarely exceeds the mark of 38 ° C.
A characteristic symptom of this form of the disease is an asymmetrical lesion of the joints of the legs( for example, ankle, knee or hip), which appears several days after non-specific signs( i.e., signs of disease not related to joint damage).Sometimes articulations between the pelvic bones are involved in the pathological process. Often inflamed ligaments and tendons( for example, defeat Achilles tendon).Pain has a different degree of severity, but is rarely intense.
These symptoms in parallel can be accompanied by an inflammatory process in the organs of the genitourinary system. In this case, there are constant urge to urinate( a sense of a sharp urge to urinate) - there may also be burning and stinging at this moment.
The soreness, irritation and redness of the eyes, as well as visual acuity, are associated with the appearance of conjunctivitis( an inflammatory process of the mucous membrane covering the eyelid and eyeball), which can occur both before the onset of joint damage and at the same time.
Red eyes may be a sign of arthritis, although at first glance, eye and joint damage is not connected
Symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis( RA) is a systemic chronic disease whose symptoms lead to a significant decrease in the quality of life, primarily because ofpainful sensations and changes in the shape of the joints. This pathology often becomes a causal disability.
Classic rheumatoid arthritis( it can be mistakenly called rheumatoid arthritis) has quite distinctive symptoms:
The first signs are: swollen and inflamed metacarpophalangeal joints on the middle and index fingers. Often this is combined with a similar damage to the wrist joint.
In almost every case, joints are afflicted symmetrically( that is, the same, for example, on the right and left legs).
Pain in arthritis is worse at night, closer to the morning. It is quite intense until noon, and then almost ceases. If the pathology is at the initial stage, then the pain occurs after physical exercises. But the feeling of relief is never long-after a few hours or in the morning a painful attack resumes.
Stiffness of the body in the morning, a feeling of shatter. The patient can complain about the "sensation of a sluggish body," "tight gloves on the hands" or "tight corset on the body" - in such words people describe their condition. These feelings go through 1-2 hours after awakening, but in the case of severe disease, people can be disturbed throughout the day.
Often, along with the inflamed joints of the hands, the small joints of the feet are also affected, which are at the base of the fingers. The process is also symmetrical. Upon examination, the patient observes pain while pressing the pads of the toes.
If the disease progresses, then the inflammation passes to larger joints( for example, knee, shoulder, elbow or ankle).But it happens that at the initial stage the calcaneal tendons and larger joints become inflamed, and then the process spreads to the feet and brushes - this form of the disease is often manifested in the elderly.
There are rheumatoid nodes - small dense formations under the skin in areas where elbows, hands and feet are bent. These nodules can constantly change in size, then disappear, then reappear, and sometimes do not change over the years. They do not cause any sensations, just create a cosmetic defect.
With the advanced stage of the disease the symptoms intensify, there is a strong deformation of the hands and fingers. There may be such a violation, when the hands and fingers begin to deviate to the outside, and the hand fixes in the wrong position - because of this the mobility in the wrist joints decreases. As a result, blood circulation and innervation of * brushes are broken: they pale, muscle atrophy appears.
* Innervation - the connection of organs and tissues to the central nervous system through nerves.
The disease is accompanied by recurring signs of intoxication of the body, which include the following symptoms: weakness, chills, weakness, weight loss, appetite deterioration, temperature increase up to 38.5 ° C.
Over time, the disease affects all the articular surfaces. Larger ones can become inflamed without significant discomfort, but their mobility deteriorates noticeably.
A Baker cyst may appear, a symptom that occurs when an extra fluid accumulates in the capsule of the knee, which stretches it. If this fluid( exudate) is very high, then this can lead to rupture of cystic formation. As a result, the liquid impregnates the tissues on the posterior surface of the tibia, puffiness and painful sensations appear in this area.
There may also be other signs accompanying rheumatoid arthritis:
- inflammation of the salivary glands,
- numbness of the limbs,
- in the eyes,
- pain in the chest during breathing.
Rheumatoid joint damage differs from rheumatism in that the inflammatory process is more persistent, because the pain and swelling of the tissues can be troubling for many years. From arthrosis, the disease is characterized by the fact that painful sensations do not increase with exercise, but on the contrary - subside after active exercises.
Symptoms of infectious arthritis
An infectious disease variant, also called septic or pyogenic, is a serious infectious disease. It is based on the penetration of microorganisms into the joint structures with subsequent active inflammation of the latter. This condition needs urgent medical attention.
The most common signs of an arthritis of an infectious origin:
- A sharp start. In rare cases - the gradual increase and intensification of symptoms for three weeks( for example, so the disease occurs in infants).
- Symptoms of intoxication: fever( usually above 38.5 ° C), chills, pain in the muscles, headache. Young children may have vomiting or nausea.
- Strong puffiness of the affected joint, constantly increasing and causing a change in its shape.
- Knee, elbow, shoulder, hip, wrist joints and articular finger surfaces are most often affected.
- Increased pain during movement. For example, when the hip is affected, the pain passes into the groin and intensifies while walking.
- Movement becomes limited, and the position of the limb is forced: such that the pain is felt the least.
- Increased temperature in the area above the affected joint( skin hot).
- In elderly people, the symptoms can be more erased, and in young children, on the contrary - the clinic is very turbulent.
Hip joint injury with reactive arthritis
Symptoms of gouty arthritis
Gout is a disease associated with a metabolic disorder and the accumulation of excess urate salts in the body. As a rule, the disease affects the joint tissues.
This form of the disease is characterized by the following symptoms:
- A sharp onset of a painful attack, most often at night and after a significant error in the diet - eating large amounts of meat and alcohol.
- Most often, the first joint of the big toe is affected, the knee or elbow is seldom inflamed.
- The lesion becomes red, swollen, touching it causes severe pain.
- Fast resolution of an attack. Even without treatment, all clinical manifestations disappear after a few days.
- The general condition of the patient is not severely disturbed, the body temperature does not increase.
A typical manifestation of gout is a lesion of the big toe joint
Symptoms of psoriatic arthritis
The psoriatic variant of the disease develops against the background of a specific lesion of the skin and nails. It can affect absolutely any joint in the human body, but most often its manifestations are found in the fingers of the hand.
Inflammation in the joint tissues develops gradually, with swelling and reddening of the affected areas( with the involvement of the fingers they look like "sausages"), as well as a local increase in temperature. At the initial stages, pain and limitation of mobility are not characteristic. As the process progresses in the morning, a stiffness of movements appears, which disappears during the first hour. Inflammation can also spread to the periarticular structures, causing damage to tendons and ligaments.
Joint manifestations of the disease are accompanied by the appearance on the skin and scalp of red scaly spots, itching and discomfort.
In addition to the common forms of arthritis considered in this article, there are more rare variants of it: for example, idiopathic, endocrine. More information about them, see the heading "Arthritis".
As you can see, arthritis is a serious disease with a variety of manifestations. The disease is important to diagnose on time, and treatment should be conducted under the guidance of qualified specialists. Self-medication can lead to serious complications or even disability.
It is important to read: arthritis of the knee joint.
Causes of inflammation of the joints on the legs: treatment and preventionInflammation is an occurring process in the body, due to which white blood cells and some chemical elements protect the person from infection, as well as foreign microorganisms - viruses and bacteria.
It turns out that inflammatory reaction, is protective for the body .But with such diseases, for example, like arthritis or arthrosis, immunity causes inflammation and at a time when there are no foreign elements in the body, which attacks must be repulsed.
These diseases are called autoimmune. As a result, the protective function of immunity begins to damage its own tissues, and the body perceives them as an infection or pathology.
Inflammation of the joints of the legs can be triggered by a number of different kinds of diseases included in the 2 fairly large groups:
These categories for reasons of occurrence may be primary - develop independently and secondary - are formed as a result of already existing diseases.Inflammation on the legs can cause Hoff's disease, the symptoms of which are similar in many respects to other forms of arthritis. More details you can learn from our article.
To select the therapeutic knee in arthrosis, you need to know the nuances that you should pay attention to. Detailed instructions for choosing here.
In what joints of the lower limbs can inflammation occur?
Inflammation of the joints on the legs can develop in any joint. It affects all the components of the , forming the tissues of a joint( ligaments, tendons, cartilages, etc.), as a result, the joint loses its functions, deforms and collapses.
Depending on where the inflammation is localized, distinguishes between the following subspecies of the :
- Inflammation of the knee joint - is observed in most cases, since this joint is the most vulnerable due to the loads imposed on it and the complex structure. Symptoms rarely have a pronounced character at the initial stage of development. Disability leads to disability in rare cases. More often the disease can be found in women with excessive body weight;
- Inflammation of the ankle - this joint is subject to a huge load - it has to keep the weight of the whole body and constantly be in motion. It is one of the indispensable in the body, since at the slightest discomfort it is limited to the possibility of movement;
- Inflammation of the joints of the feet is a disease that mainly occurs in people in adulthood and old age. It causes tremendous inconveniences because of painful sensations and frequent inflammations. Fighting this disease is not easy, because it often takes a chronic form;
- Inflammation of the joint of the big toe - this pathology is mainly observed as a result of hypothermia. The fingers swell, there is a sharp piercing pain that prevents normal movement. But the inflammation of the joints of the big toes can be avoided if you make sure that your feet are constantly warm;
- Inflammation of the hip joint is a disease that is constantly progressing. In cases when his treatment does not start on time, rare pain will develop into permanent and will manifest even at night. With time, it will be impossible to move normally. This pathology is especially affected by people with congenital dislocation of the hip, dysplasia and any other childhood or juvenile pathology of the hip joint.
For inflammation of any of the joints of , the following general symptoms are typical:
- Pain that can manifest itself abruptly and be of varying intensity;
- Elevated local temperature;
- Redness and swelling in inflamed areas.
Causes of inflammation in the joints
The causes of inflammation of the joints of the legs are injuries, allergies, infections, hypothermia, sometimes even bites of some insects, and today there are many factors causing inflammation of the joints, are:
- Genetic predisposition;
- Autoimmune failures;
- Hormonal disorders;
- High load;
- Uncomfortable shoes.
What diseases can inflammation of the joints say?
The inflammatory process in the joints, as already mentioned, can occur due to many causes and factors that may be caused by the following diseases:
- Arthritis is a group of joint diseases of infectious nature or developing due to malnutrition of the joints. Treatment is aimed at eliminating the reason it was caused. Depending on the nature, prescribe painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs, hormonal drugs, antibiotics. In complex treatment, physiotherapeutic procedures, exercise therapy, etc. are used. To combat this disease, surgical treatment is indicated as necessary, which implies excision of the capsule, arthrodesis, arthrosis and arthroplasty. Treatment can also be carried out at resorts.
- Osteoarthritis is a chronic metabolic disease, accompanied by changes in bone articulations. It can occur with intoxication, infectious diseases such as syphilis, typhoid, etc., as a result of the injuries( fractures of articular bone ends, articular cartilage injuries), as well as due to significant overload of joints( for example, loaders or ballet dancers andother).For treatment hormonal preparations from a number of adrenocorticotropic, massage, exercise therapy, physiotherapy( ultrasound, heat) are shown. In severe, neglected cases - surgical intervention( arthroplasty, arthrodesis);
- Gout is a disease that is literally a trap for the joints. It is caused by the deposition of uric acid compounds in the tissues and the violation of purine metabolism with the involvement of joints and kidneys. The lesion is mainly in men in middle age. The disease occurs with acute recurrent attacks or in a chronic form. Attacks are characterized by the appearance of sudden pain, often in the area of the big toe, which rapidly increase, and flow redness and swelling. The attack can provoke trauma, hypothermia, drinking alcohol and even food, with a high content of purines. Treatment includes the use of drugs to stop the attack - indocid ketazone, rheopyrine, colchicine, etc. Also the patient needs a plentiful drink and a low-calorie diet with low purine content;
- Bursitis is an inflammation of the mucosa in the area of the joints. The reasons for this are trauma, mechanical irritation, diathesis, infection. The disease can occur with an increase in body temperature and the formation of a painful swelling in the area of inflammation, as well as lameness. In the first days of the onset of the disease, it is treated with cold and tight bandages, followed by resorptive ointments and warming compresses.
Arthritis of the knee joint causes inflammation
Treatment of joint inflammation on the legs should be carried out as they are detected, since when some forms are started, will have to resort to extreme measures - surgical intervention.
Joint diseases often lead to complete disability.Treatment should be prescribed strictly by a doctor and proceed under his supervision, and it is also necessary to follow all the doctor's instructions and follow its requirements, then the effect of treatment will be maximum.
Methods of traditional medicine
Many recipes for the treatment of joint inflammation have accumulated traditional medicine, the treatment with which it yields quite effective results. Each person can choose the best option for him.
Consider some valid recipes helping to overcome this insidious disease:
- Liquid ointment. To prepare it, you need to beat 1 yolk, add 1 tsp / l.turpentine and the same amount of apple cider vinegar. The resulting mixture is rubbed into the affected joints;
- Gadget. Put a piece of clean cloth in the bee hive for 1-3 months, to impregnate it with propolis. After extraction, apply it to the diseased areas;
- Medicinal ointment. Mash 3 parts of juniper( berries) with 1 part of nettle and combine with animal oil. Finished drug to rub into the joints several times a day;
- Compress. Apply cakes made from clay to affected joints 2 cm thick and wrapped with cellophane and woolen shawl, hold for 3 hours. Can be done daily;
- Decoction. Take a glass of 200 gr.water 2 tsp / l lingon leaves and boil for 20 minutes. Drink instead of tea throughout the day.
To completely get rid of the disease procedure must be performed at least a month .During the preparation of recipes, it is important to comply with all the stated proportions and rules for the preparation of medicinal products.
In order to prevent the development of inflammatory processes in the joints, it is necessary to carry out preventive measures, which consist in:
- Quenching of the organism as a whole;
- Properly balanced nutrition , which prevents the development of obesity;
- Healthy way of life - rejection of alcohol products, prevention of stressful situations, injuries, and severe overload of joints( all is well, when in moderation).
It is also necessary as a preventive visit to a regular physician to keep the uric acid level under control and not to start diseases that can cause damage to the joints.
Video: Treatment of joints with folk remedies
Treatment of inflammation of the knee joint, depending on the disease that caused itKnee inflammation is a fairly common severe disease today. The reason for this is a heavy daily life, in the process of which people almost do not pay attention to their health.
However, when the first symptoms of appear, it is better to immediately consult an specialist if ignoring them later may lead to chronic diseases that will be accompanied by stiffness and pain at each movement.
Causes of inflammation
The most common inflammatory process is localized in the region of the knee joint. To the causes of the pathological process of this kind can result:
- Bruises and injuries - are considered quite serious pathologies, which are treated quite differently than various kinds of dislocations and fractures. Inflammation can occur in the case of previously received injuries, which are not fully cured;
- Systemic diseases - rheumatism, psoriasis, gout. Diseases that destroy connective tissue can damage the knee joints;
- Infections - in diseases of other organs, pathogens can get into the knee joint, through a damaged capsule or with a blood rush. A purulent infection penetrates from other infected foci through the blood lymph. The cause of infection can be even sexually transmitted diseases.
Inflammation of the knee joints can and due to the flow in the body of the allergic process, as well as with severe supercooling and even biting of insects.
Inflammation developing in the knee, disrupts the normal rhythm of life, it is impossible to move and work. However, the inflammatory process can proceed secretly without having a clear clinical picture
Inflammation of the knee joint is accompanied by a number of characteristic symptoms:
- knee pain - when walking on stairs, from prolonged standing;
- soreness of the calves ( especially at night);
- knee swelling ;
- sharp pain with a crunch in the knee when bending;
- inability to unbend completely in the knee leg .
If you leave the development of inflammation without attention - this will lead to unpleasant consequences:
- First, - the pain will increase, the mobility of the knee joint will decrease.
- Secondly, - there will be deformation of the joint. As a result, the person will move to the "half-bent", which will lead to a curvature of the bones of the legs. In this case, surgery can not be avoided.
Learn more about how to treat inflammation of the foot joints you can here. Also on the link information about the symptoms that indicate the inflammatory process.
Against the backdrop of inflammation manifests a violation of the functions of the knee joint, the volume of movements decreases. A person tries to protect the aching leg from the increased stresses that lead to the onset of pain.
Swelling sometimes causes the difficulty of flexing and unbending the leg in the knee. Proceeding from this, the inflammatory process of the knee joint, can be detected without difficulty, therefore, the diagnosis accordingly does not cause great difficulties.
But to determine the final diagnosis and the purpose of treatment, it is necessary to conduct additional research methods. Their main goal is to determine the anatomical damage to the knee joint and the nature of the pathology.
Additional diagnostic procedures are as follows:
- PCR - infection diagnosis;
- blood test( general);
These measures allow you to accurately determine the cause of inflammation of the knee joint, as well as prescribe the right treatment.
How does first aid work?
In the event of a pathology, it is necessary to know what measures can be taken before visiting a specialist to ease the condition. To do this, remember several principles of first aid:
- providing a resting joint;
- application to the affected place of cold;
- application of immobilization and pressing dressings;
- elevated position of the aching leg.
A damaged knee should be in a position that will provide it with maximum real estate. This will prevent the load on the joint.
Joint fixation can be carried out using a dressing - a cut or elastic bandage. The pressure bandage will reduce the symptoms of the inflammatory process and prevent complications.
Inflammation in the first hours of the will help remove the hot-water bottle filled with ice or cold lotions. For the reduction of pain, the use of an analgesic or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent is permitted.
Treatment of the inflammatory process depending on the pathology ofThe purpose of the treatment is to restore the functions of the knee joint, relieve inflammation and sensations of pain.
In each case, this is achieved through separate procedures and medications that are prescribed depending on the disease that caused the inflammation of the knee joint.
The treatment of each of them is discussed in more detail.
Injury or bruise
For severe pain in the knee, pain medications are prescribed:
For the removal of inflammation apply:
- Collagen Ultra( gel);
- Troxevasin( ointment);
Compresses from clay will help cope with swelling.
Restoration of motor activity is performed using the following procedures:
- massages with the use of gels and ointments on a herbal basis;
- compresses from herbal decoctions of ( hops, eucalyptus, fir, sabelnik, juniper);
- herbal baths ;
- consumption of vitamins and minerals .
If treatment for inflammation of the knee joint is not scheduled on time, bursitis of the knee joint may appear - this is a kind of arthritis, in which inflammation of the periarticular bag occurs.
In the picture, knee inflammation with bursitis
The main thing in the treatment of bursitis is to relieve the load from the knee joint and protect it from injury, and also to ensure the joint rest with the help of cold compresses and compressive bandages.
Bursitis is of a non-infectious and infectious nature.
The disease is also known for its complications.
Treatment of noninfectious bursitis is carried out with the following medicines:
- injections of corticosteroids - triamcinolone, methylprednisolone, diprospan, hydrocortisone - relieve acute pain;
- muscle relaxants - baclofen, diazepam - relieve spasms of muscles and vessels;
- anti-inflammatory drugs - rapid capsules, flexene, phenylbutazone, flugalin, solpaflex, surgam, ketoprofen, diclofenac, ibuprofen - relieve pain, swelling.
When a large amount of fluid is accumulated in the bursa, is carried out as "synovial fluid aspiration" .
To treat infectious bursitis apply:
- anti-inflammatory non-steroidal means for relieving pain;
- antibiotics - penicillins, cephalosporins, macrolides.
In addition to drug therapy, a procedure for removing pus by aspiration is performed. For external
treatment of the disease, ointments and creams with NSAIDs are used:
- Fastum gel;
In addition, compresses with medical bile and dimexidum are applied, and bandages are also applied using Apizarthron cream, Vishnevsky ointment and Kapsoderma ointment.
Medication includes the following:
- acetylsalicylic acid( aspirin);
- Voltaren( as an anti-inflammatory drug).
With severe pain in the joints, hormonal preparations of the corticosteroid group are prescribed, but this, in extreme cases, when other means can not stop the pain.
Treatment is also carried out using the cream "Collagen Ultra ", and the bada of the same series.
They have anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions, activate lymphatic drainage in the affected joints, reduce edema, improve blood circulation and promote the restoration of normal joint function, make up for the lack of glucosamine, a substance that is necessary for building cartilage.
Treatment of this type of arthritis also includes the following procedures:
- therapeutic exercise.
Treatment of infectious arthritis should be carried out immediately after confirmation of the diagnosis in order to avoid serious complications.
For this type of disease hospitalization of the patient is simply necessary .
Medication for inflammation of the knee joint includes antibiotics.
Drugs are chosen for intravenous or intramuscular administration, depending on the severity of the disease.
These drugs include:
- Aminoglycosides( gentamicin);
- Cephalosporins( cefepime, ceftriaxone);
- From penicillins( amoksiklav);
- From macrolides( sumamed).
As anesthetic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory agents use:
If the patient's condition is severe, detoxification therapy is performed, in the development of sepsis or shock patient transferred to the intensive care unit.
This disease occurs in people of any age.
Treatment of knee inflammation that is caused by polyarthritis is indicated using a variety of medications:
- anti-inflammatory non-steroid drugs - to reduce inflammation and blockade of prostaglandins that activate the inflammation process;
- of corticosteroids - relieve inflammation and relieve pain;
- basic antirheumatic drugs - are aimed at treating diseases caused by polyarthritis.
To reduce pain and inflammation together with medication, physiotherapy is used - ultrasound, magnetic therapy, paraffin. Polyarthritis does not heal completely, therefore, therapy should be carried out constantly.The decision of a question than and how to treat an inflammation of a knee joint lays exclusively in the competence of the doctor. Self-medication is fraught with serious consequences.
With a little stretch, you can refer to swelling in the knee joint, caused by insect bites. In this case, the following standard measures should be taken:
- to remove the sting;
- treat the wound with the use of laundry soap;
- attach ice;
- take an antihistamine.
When is an operation necessary?
Surgical intervention is indicated in critical cases, when there is no other choice. This occurs when the inflammation of the knee joints is started and the treatment does not bring the necessary relief, followed by the formation of adhesions in the synovial bag of the knee joint.
Also, the operation is necessary when:
- purulent toxicity;
- ingress into the joint cavity of the foreign body;
- for osteomyelitis.
- during the operation, all the damaged tissues are removed and excised completely.
How to avoid inflammation?
To address the issue of how to treat knee inflammation in your life, you should adhere to prevention rules that prevent the development of inflammatory processes in the knee joint, timely treatment of infectious and systemic diseases, bruises and dislocations, as well as prevention of hypothermia of the joints andinsect bites.
Video: Treatment of joints using traditional medicine
Inflammation of joints, treatment, symptoms, causes, signs
Inflammation of joints..
Causes of joint inflammation
The articular bag, encircling the ends of the bones, forms an articular cavity, which is lined inside a thin membrane called the synovial membrane.
From this shell and begins inflammation of the joint.
The nature of the inflammatory effusion( exudate) and other signs are different:
Serous inflammation of the joint acute and chronic
Serous inflammation of the joint is acute and chronic, when a fluid transparent inflammatory effusion collects in the joint cavity, called serous effusion( serous exudate).
Symptoms and signs
Due to the accumulation of fluid inside the joint, its area is swollen( no redness) bloated. Periarticular grooves, for example, on the sides of the knee cup, are smoothed out, the knee cap is raised with this effusion and, as it were, floats. With pressure on her, you can see how she plunges, hitting the femur( hanging cup).The patient feels a slight soreness of the joints, flexion is difficult. Acute inflammation develops after a cold, a bruise and some diseases. It lasts for two weeks.
Treatment: anti-inflammatory drugs( ice bladder, etc.), resolving( warming compress), distractions( smearing with iodine tincture), rest and removable-fixed bandage.
The disease is often prolonged for a long time and then a chronic serous inflammation or a dropsy of the joint is obtained. Here, a tightly applied removable-fixed bandage is used. Next, a massage or discharge of the exudate is appointed with a puncture and then the joint is washed. The disease sometimes goes into a purulent form.
Purulent inflammation of the joint
Purulent inflammation of the joint occurs from bruises and joint wounds and, as a complication, in certain diseases, for example, scarlet fever, tripper, etc. Here a purulent effusion accumulates inside the joint.
Symptoms and signs
The patient complains of severe pain in the joint, which can neither bend nor unbend. The patient is very feverish. The area of the joint first swells, then turns red and becomes hot. If the joint is not opened, then pus can destroy articular cartilage, bag and surrounding soft parts, and there is a great danger of putrefactive purulent infection of blood.
At the onset of the disease, you can try to stop its development by a fixed bandage and applying ice. But if the disease goes on and the swelling manifests, then you need pus or suck using the apparatus, or release a puncture, or open the joint with a cut. Cavity wash, insert drainage and bandage as a large abscess, with strict disinfection. Since healing should occur through granulation and scarring, the joint usually becomes immobile, and therefore it is important to give the limb that position. Which it needs because of the impending immobility of the joint( elbow straight, elbow bend at right angles).
Tuberculosis( scrofulous, fungal) inflammation of the joint or white swelling of the joint
This disease is observed in weak( anemic) people usually at a young age, especially in so-called scrofulous children, predisposed to tubercular inflammation of various organs. Such children often suffer from inflammation of the cervical lymph glands, which are probed as a tumor. Tuberculosis inflammation of the joint begins under the influence of some minor cause, for example, a slight bruise, which a healthy person would have passed without a trace, while the scrofulous develops and causes suffering.
Symptoms and signs
First, a small pain, uncomfortable flexion and extension, is felt in the joint, then a small swelling of the joint appears at normal or more pale skin color( white tumor).The disease lasts for months, the patient's condition worsens. Finally, the joint loses mobility, starts to ache strongly, and it is clear to swell. Tumor to the touch loosely. In some places, redness may appear. If the joint is opened, then a curd-purulent mass is poured out.
Inside the joint, the following occurs: at the onset of inflammation, the synovial membrane turns red and swells, becomes cloudy, places of mushroom-like granulation appear on it, among which there are barely visible bony tubercles( there are microorganisms in the tubercles, Koch's bacilli is the cause of the disease).The tubercles rapidly increase in quantity, merge into separate nests and, together with the mushroom granulations, disintegrate into the curdled-purulent mass, destroying( ulcerating) the synovial membrane, the articular bag, the articular cartilage and even the ends of the bones, which leads to tuberculosis of the bone. It goes without saying that tuberculosis of bone can be an independent disease. Under the influence of treatment, the disease may stop in its development, but usually ends with immobility of the joint.
Treatment should consist, first, of a good nutrition, and secondly, from the local. First, simple distractions are used: iodine tincture, warming compress, etc. Then a perfect limb rest is prescribed and a removable-fixed bandage is applied, and sometimes the joint is stretched using gravity( hip joint suffering), as well as injecting glycerol emulsion or iodoform into the joint. If it does not help, resect the joint, and the joint is opened with a wide incision, the joints of the joint infected with tubercles are scraped, the affected ends of the bone are sawed off and a fixed bandage is applied. In extreme cases, the limb is cut off above the aching joint( amputation).
Acute and chronic rheumatism of joints
Acute and chronic rheumatism of joints refers to internal diseases.
Symptoms and signs of
In acute rheumatism, severe pain occurs, usually in several joints, or it passes from one joint to another, with the general feverish state of the patient. The area of the joint is somewhat reddened and swollen. Touching the joint is also very painful. The consequence of rheumatism is often inflammation of the intracardiac shirt with a change in the heart valves( heart disease).
In the treatment of rheumatism prescribe salicylic preparations inside, outside warming compress and various painkillers( narcotic) rubbing( ointment with chloroform, opium, belladonna, etc.)
Acute rheumatism often changes into chronic, which is characterized by periodic outbreaks:quiet, then reappear, and so it drags on for years. In addition to the mentioned funds, another massage, hydrotherapy, sulfur and mud baths are prescribed here, potassium iodide is given inside, iodine tinctures are washed out from the outside.
Psoriatic arthritis: causes, symptoms, treatment
Psoriatic arthritis is an inflammation of one or more joints that occurs with psoriasis.
Psoriasis, in most cases, is known as a chronic skin disease, and only a few know about its insidious nature. On the skin, it appears as red spots or plaques that are covered with white horny scales. If you try to remove one of the scales on your own, then small droplets of blood are allocated. This phenomenon was called the symptom of "bloody dew" and is very characteristic precisely for this type of skin lesion. Psoriasis can occur at any age, and joint damage - with any of the exacerbations. According to the average statistical data, joints are inflamed in 10 people from a hundred, suffering from psoriasis. Psoriatic arthritis can develop at the first appearance of psoriasis, and maybe after many years, it all depends on the activity of the next inflammation that has arisen. Male and female sex suffer with the same frequency, and the first manifestations most often occur from 20 to 40 years.
- 5 Prophylaxis of psoriatic arthritis
Causes of psoriatic arthritis
The causes of this type of joint inflammation, as well as the causes of the psoriasis itself, are not fully known. Clearly traced the hereditary relationship: the likelihood of the occurrence of psoriasis is much higher in those people whose relatives suffered from this disease. It is believed that the unfavorable ecological situation plays an important role in the onset of the disease, permanent, chronic stresses, the presence of chronic diseases, especially the presence of problems with the digestive system, permanent intoxication( work in the harmful chemical industry) or the excessive use of low-quality cosmetics. After exposure to all these unfavorable factors, the body produces antibodies against its own cells( which are perceived as antigens).Forming immune complexes affect the skin, nails. As they settle in the joints, they cause their inflammation. The first exacerbation of psoriasis is attributed to many patients with a strong long-term stress, chronic overfatigue, which rightfully allows attributing this disease to psychosomatic( meaning that the defeat plays a big role in the nervous and mental spheres).The provoking factor of inflammation of the joint is often his minor injury: an awkward movement, a blow that triggers a cascade of pathological changes.
Symptoms of psoriatic arthritis
Both one joint( monoarthritis) and many( polyarthritis) can be affected. Inflammation is often manifested both before the skin manifestations, and after. Sometimes not only joints suffer, but also articulations of the spine, which gives the full right to call this disease spondylarthrosis. It can develop gradually or instantly, literally in a few hours. The process involves both large joints( knee, elbow), and small( joints of the hand).
Joints increase in size, swell, skin over them blushes, in all movements there is a sharp pain. Feeling of the joint is painful, the skin is hot. If the joints of the hand and fingers are affected, the latter become similar, as many patients express, to sausages. Movement is most difficult in the morning after sleep or a prolonged daytime rest( a symptom of morning stiffness), after which such patients as it were pacing, and pains with difficulty of movements disappear. Spinal lesions are most often manifested by low back pain. Depending on the severity of the process, it can result in both complete recovery and irreversible disabling deformity of the joint( change in shape and function).Deformations lead to impaired mobility and the occurrence of injuries to the affected limb.
Chronic disease occurs, with alternating periods of exacerbations and remission. There will be no damage to the joints when the next exacerbation of psoriasis is involved or not.
In rare, very severe cases, psoriasis affects the eyes, heart, kidneys, nervous system.
When diagnosing a doctor, it is important to distinguish this type of inflammation from many others( the symptoms of joint damage are often very similar). An important aid is the presence of psoriatic plaques on the skin or changes in nails, the presence of exacerbations of psoriasis in the past.
- Joint radiography
- Joint puncture with microscopic examination of articular fluid( possible detection of immune complexes and elimination of other possible causes of the disease)
Treatment of psoriatic arthritis
Treatment of psoriatic arthritis is carried out in a complex, using external analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs,as well as the means used inside. A specific drug that would cure psoriasis forever, at present, is not invented. All medicines act on the symptoms of the disease. Such patients are engaged not only dermatologist, but also the therapist, immunologist, rheumatologist, psychotherapist. Psychotherapy allows you to correctly learn to treat your illness, get rid of depression, which inevitably occurs after another exacerbation of psoriasis.
Means and methods used to treat psoriatic arthritis
- Elastic joint bandage for immobilization and resting
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs( diclofenac etc.) - have both an analgesic effect and relieve inflammation
- Immunomodulators, immunosuppressants( remicade) - suppress the immune systemand reduce the manifestations of psoriasis
- Plasmapheresis - purification of blood from imunate complexes
- Ointments and gels that exert anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect
- Gyukokortikosteroidy - is hormonal drugs, which are used in the form of tablets( possibly intramuscularly, intravenously).Possessing high anti-inflammatory activity, have a quick visible effect. In addition, their use makes it possible to reduce the dose of painkillers, which is associated with an increase in the analgesic effect when they are used together. Assigned usually with ineffectiveness of all of the above funds or with an initially severe form of the disease. To this group of drugs are: prednisolone, dexamethasone. In some cases, they are prescribed as intraarticular injections( injected into the cavity of the inflamed joint)
In addition to these active measures, careful care of the affected skin is necessary: the use of a special soap, cream, often prescribed therapeutic ultraviolet irradiation.
After the complete disappearance of inflammation, mandatory courses of physiotherapy exercises are conducted, which allow to develop the joint and prevent the formation of irreversible changes in it. If possible, regular spa treatment is prescribed.
Prophylaxis of psoriatic arthritis
Specific prevention does not exist, but it is possible to reduce the likelihood of joint damage with timely and adequate treatment.
In the arthritic form of psoriasis( with joint damage), in some cases, a group of disabilities can be obtained.
When treating this ailment, do not expect an instant result and become a victim of promotions. The promise of instant cure sounds very sweet for psoriasis sufferers, but, unfortunately, it is implausible.