Types of flatfoot in adults

Longitudinal and transverse platypodia and its treatment

Flattening is a deformation of the arch of the foot, viz. Lowering of the arch. As a result of this deformation, the foot almost completely loses its damping properties, which leads to a number of unpleasant consequences and complications. In this article, we will try to understand as much as possible what is a flatfoot - treatment, symptoms, causes and complications.

General information

In a healthy state, the human foot has two distinct arches - transverse( located under the bases of the fingers) and longitudinal( located along the foot).These arches fulfill the most important function - they enable the person to maintain balance and absorb shock during walking. It is clear that the foot itself, and specifically these arches of the foot are under serious load, because they weigh on the weight of the human body. And if the ligaments and muscles of the feet stop working normally and for some reason weaken, the shape of the foot begins to change - the arches of the feet decrease, it gradually becomes flat, as a result of which the main function of the foot - the spring one - is lost.

general information about flatfoot

Healthy feet - a healthy body

If the foot ceases to absorb the load, then this function will be forced to perform other joints( ankle, knee and hip), and "get" and the spine. But they cope with such a function not too well, because they are not designed for this. In addition, such a peculiar load leads to an accelerated "wear" of the joints.

This is why flat feet are often the cause of pain in the legs and back of the , although at first glance the person simply does not see such a connection. So it is worth remembering that it is as a result of the development of flat feet that pain can appear in the feet, hips, knees and waist, rapid fatigue when walking. In this case, the pain appears at a time when the body can no longer provide normal movement, and is forced to "redistribute the load."As a result, joints of the legs and hip joint suffer, posture disorders or problems with intervertebral discs may occur. The final result of the effects of flat feet on the body can be the development of scoliosis and arthrosis, often the development of varicose veins.

Another interesting fact is that quite often this disease occurs in people with "sedentary" work, and not only in the category of workers who are forced to spend the whole day on their feet. This is due to the fact that the muscles and ligaments weaken without load( too large loads can also lead to flatfoot development), so it is very important to maintain a certain motor activity.

Many young people are wondering whether they are taking to the army with flat feet. On our site there is already an article that can answer this question.

The causes of flatfoot

The reasons for the development of flatfoot can be quite a lot, we will try to list the most "popular" ones:

  • bad or unsuccessfully matched shoes. It means shoes with a high heel or platform, narrow shoes, etc.;
  • increase in body weight, which can occur for various reasons( pregnancy, obesity, etc.);
  • hereditary predisposition. In this case, we are talking about defects in the development of the muscles, ligaments and bones of the foot;
  • various injuries( trauma of the foot, fracture of the calcaneus or ankle, cracks or severe cartilage bruises, damage to the muscles and ligaments of the foot);
  • diseases( for example, rickets, as a result of which the bones weaken and become soft, so they can easily deform, and the complication of poliomyelitis can arise - the leg and foot muscles paralysis);
  • sedentary work and sedentary lifestyle. In this case, the muscles and ligaments of the foot become weaker, since they do not receive the necessary loads;
  • excess load - running and jumping sports, standing work.

There are quite a few reasons, as you can see.

Platypus types

The human foot has two main arches, so it is quite logical that there are two types of flatfoot - longitudinal and transverse flat feet. Accordingly, with a decrease in the arch, the foot may increase in width or length. There is also a combined flatfoot, in this case we are talking about the simultaneous flattening of the transverse and longitudinal arches. This situation is also called longitudinal-transverse flatfoot.

Both basic types of flatfoot are quite common, but the most common is the transverse one.

Also, when classifying by species, the acquired and the congenital are often divided. Congenital flat feet are rare, it is the result of malformations of the fetus. Treatment of flat feet in this case begins with the first days of the child's life.

Types of flatfoot

But with the acquired flatfoot the situation is somewhat more complicated - it can appear at any age and can be of several types:

  • static;
  • is ricky;
  • is paralytic;
  • is traumatic.

Traumatic - occurs as a result of fractures of the bones of the ankle and foot, or with severe damage to ligaments and soft muscle tissue that strengthens the arch of the foot.

Paralytic - occurs as a result of poliomyelitis, or because of paralysis of the tibial muscles and foot muscles.

Rickets - occurs as a result of rickets. This disease disrupts the normal formation of foot bones, they do not have the necessary characteristics in this case and can quickly deform.

But the most common form is static flatfoot. Approximately 80% of all cases are related to this species. Causes in this case may be overweight, uncomfortable shoes, prolonged excessive stress on the feet, weak muscles and ligaments of the foot, etc.

Degrees of disease

There are 3 degrees of development of this disease.

Longitudinal flatfoot is less common, but with this disease the change in the shape of the foot is gradual and almost invisible to the patient.

  1. Longitudinal flat-foot 1 degree is characterized by the appearance of fatigue of the legs. This degree is very poorly expressed, the patient can only experience discomfort when pressing on the foot or while dressing the shoes. In some cases, swelling may appear in the evening.
  2. Longitudinal flatfoot of the 2nd degree is already manifested by constant pains, which can be quite intense and spread to the region of the shins and ankles. With this degree of disease, the gait is already losing its smoothness, walking becomes heavier.
  3. Platypodia of the third degree is manifested by persistent severe pains that cover not only the foot, but also the lower leg, and in some cases even low back pains appear. Deformation of the foot with this degree of disease is already pronounced and very noticeable, often there are swelling in the joints of the foot. Walking to a person at this stage of the disease is difficult, in ordinary shoes it becomes very difficult to move around.

Do you happen to have such symptoms?

It is worth paying attention to the appearance of such symptoms:

  • shoes trampled on the inside;Flattening is for every third person in our country

    Flat feet have every third person in our country

  • very quickly get tired feet while standing or walking;
  • appears pain in the foot after physical exertion;
  • at the end of the day feels pain and fatigue in the legs, there is a feeling of heaviness, puffiness;
  • swelling in the ankles;
  • walking on heels becomes very hard;
  • leg increases in size, resulting in buying shoes for size larger.

Many of these symptoms correspond not only to flat feet, but also varicose veins, so that when they occur, you should immediately consult a doctor.

Symptoms of longitudinal flatfoot

  • fatigue in the legs, with pressure on the middle of the foot or sole appears pain, by the evening the back of the foot swells;
  • persistent and severe pain both in the feet themselves, and in the region of the shins and ankles, it becomes difficult to find comfortable shoes;
  • together with pain in the feet begins to appear pain in the lower back, outwardly becomes invisible longitudinal arch;the foot swells, the ankle joint is inactive, in ordinary shoes it becomes very difficult to walk.

Symptoms of transverse flatfoot

  • disappear the transverse arch of the foot, as a result of which the deformation of the fingers develops;
  • appear pain and skin pigmentation in the forefoot;
  • appears hammer-shaped fingers.

What should be the treatment?

First of all, it should be noted that the treatment of transverse and longitudinal flat feet is in principle the same in terms of measures applied. In addition, it must be remembered that if an adult is treated, there will still be no complete recovery, only certain improvements are possible. But the children are fully recovered because the child's leg is just being formed and correction is possible.

Treatment of flatfoot in adults

Since the full recovery of an adult with this disease is impossible, the treatment is designed primarily to stop the progression of the disease, and then create the necessary conditions for the correction of the foot. That is why is very important to diagnose the disease as early as possible .

Since the conservative therapy is the preferred method of treatment of the disease in the early stages of its development, the treatment involves the removal of pain and the improvement of the condition of the muscles and ligaments of the foot, thereby stopping the development of the disease.

The video, which you can see below, shows one of the methods of diagnosis and treatment of flatfoot:

For the removal of pain, medications are usually used in combination with physiotherapy procedures.

The basis of the same treatment is therapeutic gymnastics. at flatfoot is determined by the orthopedic physician , and the exercises are selected for a specific patient, taking into account the form and extent of the disease.

A good therapeutic effect with flat feet gives a foot massage, including a hydromassage. Thanks to such procedures, blood circulation is normalized and the muscle tone of the shin and feet is increased.

At the initial stage, a good effect gives the use of special orthopedic insoles, which again are made individually.

But, unfortunately, the above procedures will have a serious effect only in the early stages of the disease. With strong deformations of the foot, which occur in the late stages of the development of the disease, there is only one method of treatment - surgery.

Treatment of flatfoot in children

Most often, children develop longitudinal flat feet, and it is successfully treated fully without surgery, since the bones, muscles and ligaments of the child are quite susceptible to conservative methods of treatment.

If you have to deal with an innate type, then it begins to be treated from the first days of the child's life, for which special langets and bandages are used. But this type of disease is rare.

In most cases, the causes of flatfoot are weak ligaments and muscles, as well as fragile bones. That is why the treatment has a toning effect - mainly therapeutic exercise and massage. Also, contrast baths for feet are often helpful. It is also necessary to wear special orthopedic shoes, and you should take care of the child's gait very carefully.

The most important factor in the treatment of this disease in children is time - the earlier the disease is diagnosed, the greater the chances of complete recovery of children. For the same reason, it is important to prevent flat feet in childhood.


Flat feet in adults: a photo of flatfoot and exercises in the prevention of flatfoot

Flat feet of some are perceived as a "non-serious" ailment, which is not worth paying close attention to. However, this is not so - this disease can cause a violation of posture, lead to varicose veins and even thrombophlebitis. Therefore, the prevention of flatfoot should not be ignored - and should begin at least with the abandon of uncomfortable shoes.

This seemingly "trifling" disease can turn into a terrible torture for a person( "lucky" only for some recruits: they can avoid the fulfillment of "sacred military duty" with the help of pronounced degrees of flatfoot).

Types and causes of flatfoot

Flattening is the descent, flattening of the transverse or, more rarely, longitudinal arch of the foot.

Note the photo: with flat feet the foot looks almost completely flat, without a pronounced dimple between the toe and the heel.

There are three types of flatfoot:

1. Paralytic caused by poliomyelitis or resulting from paralysis.

2. Traumatic , which occurs as a result of fractures of the bones of the feet or ankles.

3. Static is the most common, usually hereditary or acquired as a result of overloads of feet.

As seen in the photo above, all types of flatfoot differ from each other in the degree of expression of the longitudinal and transverse arches of the foot.

Causes of flatfoot may be a lack or excess load on the legs. This can be a person's professional activity, for example, a forced working posture standing( workers or sellers who stand all day standing on their feet), playing sports that undergo inadequate loads on their feet, wearing inefficient shoes( for example, heels on shoes, onstiff platform, high heels.).

Flat feet can form in early childhood due to rickets, and also at a later age due to pregnancy, diabetes or obesity. In adults, flat feet are more common in women than in men.

Symptoms of flat feet Feet

The main symptoms of flatfoot are fast fatigue of the legs, aching pains in the foot and ankle, puffiness, often occurring in the evening and disappearing by morning. With flatfoot, there may also be a violation of the circulation of the lower extremities.

Flat-footed enough easy to recognize. To do this, just smear the foot with oil or cream, and then leave it imprinted on a sheet of white paper lying on a flat surface. Usually, with flatfoot, at least half of the width of the original part of the foot is imprinted, since the foot does not have the proper size of the notch.

Understand that you have flat feet, you can, and found a quick wear on the inside of the soles of your shoes.

But most accurately the degree of flatfoot is established clinico-roentgenologically in conditions of physiological load of the examined foot at the patient's standing on a specially made stand. This technique allows you to assess the entire condition of the musculoskeletal, ligamentous and articular apparatus.

How and what to treat the platypodia

Before treating flat feet, you need to determine the causes of its occurrence. To remove the pain caused by walking or other loads on the feet, you can use ointments such as viprosal, finalgon, diclofenac, etc. Also, in the group of drugs, than you can treat flat feet, the usual analgesics.

For correcting the natural form of the foot, use corrective insoles( arch supports).

In case of severe, neglected cases, it is necessary to wear special orthopedic shoes( usually shoes with lacing, solid sole and lateral support of the foot).

It is recommended to take regular courses of massage.

It is advisable to practice swimming.

In the evenings( and if necessary, then still in the afternoon) make hot baths with sea salt.

And, perhaps, the main thing here is physical therapy.

Complex of exercises with flat feet Feet

1. To perform the first exercise with flatfoot, take the starting position sitting on a chair. Knees and heels are connected, the right foot is strongly unbent. You should bring the anterior section of the left foot under the soleplate of the right, and then repeat this exercise by changing your legs.

2. Stroke the left shin with the inner edge and plantar surface of the right foot. Then repeat the exercise, also changing your legs.

3. To bend and unbend the toes of the feet. This exercise should be repeated 10-15 times.

4. Set feet on shoulder width with heels to the floor. Then start rotating the feet in different directions, changing the direction of rotation. Then do the same, already standing, holding on to the back of the chair. Run this 10 times.

5. At both stops, grab and lift the ball.

6. Grasp and lift the pencil several times with your toes.

7. Starting position: sitting on a chair, then standing on the floor( feet shoulder-width apart).Unfold the feet on one straight line, first the heel to the heel, and then the toe to the toe. You can hold your hand by the back of the chair. Perform this exercise 10 times.

8. Expand the feet to the outside, and then - to the inner side. Perform 10 times.

9. Also in the complex of exercises with flat feet is the following: standing on toes and holding the feet in parallel, go to the outer edge of the foot, and then return to the starting position.

10. Sitting on a chair, and then on the floor, climb to his feet, leaning on the outer arch of the feet. When lifting from the floor, you can help yourself with your hands. Perform 10 times.

11. Starting position: standing. To rise on socks and on the heels: a) by placing the feet on one line with their toes inward, b) placing the feet on one line with their toes outwards.

12. Starting position: standing. Make a right foot forward, then turn around 180 °, changing your leg. Do this exercise 10-12 times.

13. Standing on your toes, shifting from one foot to the other. Do this exercise 10 times.

14. Sitting on a chair, raise one and the other leg one at a time, as high as possible. The leg should be straight. Perform 10 times.

15. Standing, make 30-50 steps on the heels, on the toes, on the inner ribs of the feet, and then - already on the outer ribs of the feet.

16. Final exercise: walking from heel to toe in standing position. It is recommended to do 30-50 steps with each foot.


Flattening in adults and children: causes, signs

Flattening in adults and children is a disease characterized by a flattening of the longitudinal or transverse arch of the foot. In this case, the support( cushioning) function of the foot is gradually broken, other disorders in the body develop, from joints of the legs to the spinal cord.

Why does flatfoot occur?

  • As a result of hereditary predisposition, the presence of congenital abnormalities of the foot structure
  • As a result of the transferred poliomyelitis
  • Presence of rickets in early childhood
  • Flat-footedness in adults and children can occur with sedentary lifestyles, low physical activity in childhood and in the elderly( weak muscles andthe tendons of the feet do not cope even with the usual daily load and are unable to support the arch of the foot)
  • With overweight, obesity
  • When pregnancy
  • Plosbones in adults can also develop with prolonged physical exertion( work associated with standing on the legs, carrying goods)
  • Trauma of the foot bones is another factor contributing to flattening of the arch of the foot
  • Narrow and tight shoes, high-heeled shoes with prolonged useaccelerate the formation of flat feet in adults

The basic types of flatfoot

  • Longitudinal - the inner longitudinal edge of the foot is flattened, the length of the foot is increased, the support is practically on the entire sole. When inspecting it is often possible to fix the presence of clubfoot and signs of wear of shoes( mainly from the inside).
  • Transverse - the length of the foot is reduced, the lateral arch is enlarged due to the divergence of the bones, the first toe is turned outward, there is a bone thickening on the inner surface of the head of the 1st metacarpal bone. With the axial load( standing and walking), not only the first and fifth heads of metatarsal bones are involved, but all five heads.
  • Combined flatfoot in adults and children - marked as transverse and longitudinal flattening of the foot

Basic symptoms of flatfoot

  1. Initial stage( flat foot 1 degree) - visible deformities of the feet absent, there is a periodic appearance of fatigue, transient pain in the foot after physical exertion
  2. In the secondthe degree of flat feet in adults and children increases pain in the legs even after a slight load, there is swelling and visible deformation of the feet - especially this is noticeable whenpectoral flatness( the big finger is removed to the outside, the "bone" is visible)
  3. Flattening of the third degree is characterized by the presence of severe deformation of the feet, constant pain in the legs, spine. Long standing and walking patient is not able to, carefully selected orthopedic shoes are needed.

On how to diagnose and treat flat feet in adults and children - in the following articles.


When rest, massage and other methods do not help to eliminate the pain, you can resort to medical therapy. Systemic analgesics: aspirin, flugalin, ibuprofen, diclofenac, indomethacin, paracetamol, etc. Topical application: indomethacin ointment, Dolgit cream, voltarenic gel, etc. Special treatment procedures : Novocain electrophoresis, hydropharmacy with hydrocortisone,paraffin-ozocerite applications, etc.

Exemption from the army of conscripts with flat feet( according to RF norms).

Based on the "Regulations on Military Medical Examination" No. 123, dated 25.02.2003, military service and enrolling in military schools and schools does not prevent people with the following disabilities:
  • I-II longitudinal flat-foot
  • Transverse flatfootI degree, in the absence of arthrosis in the joints of the foot( middle section), exostoses( bone-cartilaginous sprouting in the form of a spine) and contractures( restriction of joint mobility).
For the liberation from the army with a flatfoot, the following conditions must be met:
  • Longitudinal or transverse flatfoot II degree c, presence of severe pain, deforming arthrosis of the II stage of the mid-foot joints, contracture of the fingers;
  • Longitudinal flatfoot III degree, transverse flatfoot III-IV degree
Conscripts with such types of violations fall into the category - limited to go( "B"), that is, they will only be called in wartime. They get a military ticket on their hands, and they go to the reserve.

Prevention of flatfoot

  • The formation of the right gait, not to breed socks when walking - this overloads the inner edge of the foot and its ligaments.
  • With the predisposition to flatfoot to choose the right place of work( work not associated with long loads on the legs).
  • Properly selected shoes, on a thick and soft sole, heel not more than 4 cm.
  • Wearing insoles for long loads.
  • In your spare time, give rest to your legs, at least 30 seconds, 3-4 times a day to stand on the outside of the feet.
  • After work it is recommended to take warm baths for the feet, with their subsequent massage.
  • Walking barefoot on an uneven surface, over pebbles, along the sand, walking on the heels, the inner surface of the feet, tiptoe, outdoor games.
  • Maximum limit the wearing of shoes with high heels
  • Correctly dose physical exercise, avoid excessive loads
Healthy lifestyle, rational nutrition, take food rich in vitamins and trace elements, especially calcium.

Why does postural stiffness disturb the posture?

The human body works as a whole. Between bodies there are not only anatomical, but also functional interrelations. With flatfoot, the center of gravity is displaced backward. In order to maintain balance, the spine has to deviate forward. Over time, deformation increases, posture is formed - round back .The normal arch of the foot works like a shock absorber. With flatfoot this function is violated. As a result, the spine and knees have increased loads. This leads to an even more severe violation of posture, scoliosis, herniated discs. Knee joints can develop arthrosis .Flattening and problems on the part of the spine have some common causes: weakness of connective tissue, ligaments and muscles, obesity, increased physical activity.

What kind of mats can I use for flatfoot? How to choose them correctly?

Special massage mats have on their surface a variety of pebbles, protrusions, "pimples".They are widely used for the prevention and treatment of flat feet. Effects of massage mats :
  • effect on reflexogenic foot points;
  • improvement of blood circulation and lymph drainage( due to this there is a decrease in edema on the legs);
  • strengthening of muscles and ligaments;
  • elimination of cramps, pain;
  • elimination of stresses, increase of general tone.
Massage mats from flat feet are prophylactic and therapeutic .Usually preventive are made of softer materials, and therapeutic ones are made of more rigid materials. One-component massage mat is a single unit. The modular consists of several parts that can be interconnected. They can be marked with "pimples" of different sizes and shapes. Materials from which massage mats are made may also be different. Most often there are rubber( usually based on natural rubber), plastic, made of foamed polymers, on a silicone base. Many models have inserts from stones, for example, river pebbles. Rugs from the Altai birch are very popular. The correct choice of the massage mat with flatfoot will help the advice of :
  • First of all - consult a doctor .The expert will tell you which model of the rug is best to buy in your case.
  • It is best to buy a mat in the orthopedic salon .Before you buy the product, be sure to deploy it, stand with your bare feet and try to walk. If it causes pain or severe discomfort, it is better to choose another model.
  • For a child under 3 years old, a mat made of rubber is best. Later you can buy a model on a silicone base. Adults often recommend rugs from the Altai birch.
  • Try to choose a rug on which there is not one, but several different types of relief .This will provide different types of impact on the sole. For example, in addition to the "stones" on the surface may be villi for soft massage soles.
  • Inspect the mat before buying .Make sure that all the protrusions and "pimples" are strong enough. Think about how convenient it is to wash, store the selected model.
How to use a massage mat for the prevention and treatment of flat feet? Begin with a daily walk on the rug for 3-5 minutes, gradually increase the time. Usually 5-10 minutes is enough. It is worth remembering that the massage mat can not be used as the only method of treating flatfoot - the effect will bring only its use in combination with other techniques. Who is recommended to use massage mats:
  • for children and adults diagnosed with flat feet;
  • for children, in order to prevent flat feet;
  • to people, leading a sedentary lifestyle, to those with sedentary work;
  • to women, who walk a lot in shoes with stilettos.

How to choose orthopedic insoles for flat feet?

Orthopedic insoles can be used for preventive purposes or to combat flatfoot. Medical orthopedic insoles need to be selected together with a doctor. Usually they are made individually, according to one of three methods:
  • Computer simulation of .A person stands on a special platform, which registers the pressure of various parts of the foot and transfers to the computer. An image is displayed on the monitor.
  • Manufacture of plaster casts .
  • Thermoforming . Insole is made of special material, which takes the form of a patient's foot.
  • Obtaining a print with a special bio-foam.
Orthopedic insoles are usually made of genuine leather or synthetic materials( flexible plastic, expanded polyethylene, microporous rubber).If a person has a lot of weight, more rigid materials are used: graphite, special plastics, steel. Also, the insole is made of silicone, but they are less comfortable, have a low elasticity, wear out more quickly. But due to its flexibility, silicone insoles adapt well to the relief of the sole. In the manufacture of insoles for athletes take into account increased loads and intense sweating. Orthopedic insoles for diabetics have additional protection.

How is flatfoot encoded in the ICD?

In the international classification of flatfoot diseases two codes are assigned:
  • M21.4 - acquired flat foot;
  • Q66.5 - congenital flat foot.

What gymnastics can I perform with flatfoot?

Gymnastics with a flat foot are selected individually, depending on the type and severity of flatfoot. Start classes only after you consult a doctor and find out what exercises are recommended in your case. Some exercises that can be performed with a flatfoot : In prone position : 1. With your legs slightly apart, squeeze and unclench your toes for about 2 minutes. 2. With your legs spread out, rotate the feet clockwise, then in the opposite direction. 3. Pull your foot socks over. You can perform both legs simultaneously or alternately. 4. Detach the heels from the floor, leaning their toes. 5. Bend the legs in the knees, push them apart, simultaneously folding the soles together, so that they touch. Then "clap" your heels: dilute and reduce them, resting with your toes. 6. Place the right foot on the left ankle. Move the right foot along the left shin towards the knee, while trying to clasp her leg. Repeat with the left foot. In sitting position on the chair : 1. Squeeze the right hand into a fist and tightly clamp it between the knees. Raise the inner parts of the feet, and the outer one is pressed harder against the floor. Repeat several times. 2. Detach the heels from the floor - at the same time with both feet, then alternately. 3. Exercise similar to the previous one, only this time to tear off the socks. 4. Place different small items on the floor. Grab their fingers with your feet and shift from one place to another. 5. Bend your fingers while pulling your heels forward, then straighten them. The foot should "crawl" on the floor, like a caterpillar. In standing position : 1. Stand several times on your toes. Then alternately tear off the right and left heel from the floor. 2. Stand on your heels several times. In this case, the toes must be completely detached from the floor. 3. Perform several sit-ups and half-squats on your toes.

Do they give physical education exemption to a child with flat feet?

This question is solved individually, depending on the type and severity of flatfoot, other factors. If the deformity and foot function are severely deformed, the child can be completely freed from physical training. In other cases, it is classified in one of four groups:
  • group LFK: children who have a disease requiring an individual program of study;
  • special group: for children, for whom the load in ordinary lessons is too high, restrictions are required;
  • preparatory group: no restrictions in physical activity, but the child is exempted from the delivery of standards;
  • main group: no restrictions.

How does flatfoot differ from clubfoot?

Flat feet call any deformation of the foot, at which the longitudinal or transverse arch falls. The reasons for this violation can be different. Clubfoot is a congenital disorder, the causes of which are not yet fully established. In this case, the foot is most often turned down and inward.

What kind of sports can you practice with flatfoot?

At flatfoot the following sports are recommended: :
  • Free style swimming .It has a beneficial effect not only on the legs, but also on the spine column, the muscles of the back, helps to fight with impaired posture and other pathologies. But with flat feet, you should not get involved in swimming with a crawl, as this increases the load on the muscles of the legs.
  • Skiing .In this case, the load on the legs should be small. Intensive skiing is contraindicated.
  • Equestrian sport . Horse riding helps strengthen the muscles and tendons of the back, legs.
  • Some types of martial arts .Aikido, karate and kung fu do not assume an increased strain on the legs, but help strengthen the tendons and muscles.
When flatfoot is not recommended such sports as skating, dancing, weight lifting, weight training, jumping, figure skating, hockey, walking on the steppes. Specialty: Practicing doctor of the 2nd category

Published: 03.7.2013


Flat-foot: species, causes, signs

Imagine that we are still walking on all fours. Uncomfortable, right? But we have no problems with osteochondrosis and flat feet.

But once our distant ancestors decided to walk on two legs, and this entailed a change in the structure of the spine and foot. We will not talk about the spine, but let's talk about flatfoot .

In the process of evolution, the structure of the human foot has acquired a unique design( see figure).Normally, the foot has two arches - longitudinal( along the inner edge of the foot) and transverse( between the bases of the fingers).

Both arches of the foot are designed to maintain balance and protect the body from shaking when walking

As you can see, this structure of the foot serves as a shock absorber.

But if the vaults of the foot are flattened and flattened, the shaking during walking is forced to compensate the spine, as well as the joints of the legs. Since they are not designed for this function, they cope with it quite badly and quickly fail. As a result, a man with a flatfoot develops arthroses and scoliosis.

According to statistics, a lot of the planet's population suffers from flat feet.

Flat-footed is congenital and acquired. Congenital platypodia, as a rule, arises against the background of congenital insufficiency of connective tissue. Up to 5-6 years of age it is very difficult to determine it.

Traumatic flat feet can be formed after a fracture of the ankles, calcaneus, tarsometric bones.

Ricky flatfoot develops due to the load on the weakened bones of the foot.

The development of static flat feet( 81%) is due to weakness of the leg and foot muscles, ligament apparatus and bones.

Causes of flatfoot development

The most common cause is a lack or excess load on the legs. This can be caused, for example, by incorrect footwear.

For the correct formation of the arch of the foot, constant training of muscles and ligaments of the foot is necessary. Walking on hard grass, stones, sand force muscles and ligaments. Without load, the muscles of the feet weaken( like any muscles without work) and do not support the foot in a raised state. As a result, flat feet occur.

In adults, more often static flat feet, which is associated with excessive strain on the legs. What is excessive load on the legs? It is overweight, a long standing on the legs, pregnancy, high-heeled walking.

Wearing fashionable high heels greatly overloads the forefoot. In shoes with high heels and with sharp noses, the woman leans not on the entire foot, but only on the heads of metatarsal bones, which leads to deformation of the foot and the development of flat feet.

A profession involving a long stay on the feet, such as a hairdresser, a waiter, a salesman, etc., practically ensures the development of flat feet.

Approximately 3% of people get flat-footed "inherited" from their parents. In many, it develops due to diseases: rickets, poliomyelitis, diabetes mellitus. There are entire populations at risk of flatfoot development.

Women suffer from flat feet four times more often than men. The risk factors include: uncomfortable shoes, a long standing on the legs, overweight, pregnancy, high-heeled walking.

Symptoms of Flatfoot

To determine if you have a flatfoot or not, do the following test. Lubricate the soles of the feet with cream or water and step on the paper. It is necessary to stand steadily, leaning on the entire foot, otherwise the result may be erroneous. After this, you should carefully consider your track( see figure).Normally, at the inner edge of the foot there is a notch( there is no print here), which in the middle occupies more than half of the foot. If this recess is not at all or it is narrow( half of the foot and smaller) - hence, you have flat feet.

There are several other features that can be suspected flatfoot .

  • If after a physical exercise the foot aches a bit( the first stage of the disease);
  • In the evening, the feet become tired and swollen, the pain covers the entire leg up to the knee joint( second stage of flatfoot);

In the third stage of the disease, the lower back begins to ache, and walking( in the shoes) becomes a torment.

Pain in the legs can be combined with persistent headaches;the leg as if grown - you have to buy shoes for a bigger size;The foot became wide enough to not fit into your favorite shoes;on the old shoes heels are worn on the inside.

However, these signs may not correspond to flat feet, but to another disease - for example, vascular or endocrine, so you need to consult a doctor anyway.

Platypus types

Longitudinal flat-foot

Occurs with functional overload or overfatigue of the anterior and posterior tibial muscles.

The longitudinal arch of the foot loses its cushioning properties, and under the action of the long and short fibular muscles, the foot gradually turns inside.

Short flexors of the fingers, plantar aponeurosis and ligamentous apparatus of the foot are unable to support the longitudinal arch. The scaphoid bone settles and, as a result, the flattened longitudinal arch of the foot is flattened.

The risk of developing this type of flatfoot is most often exposed to people with a large mass. The more weight, the greater the load on the feet, the more pronounced the longitudinal flat feet.

More often from this pathology women suffer. Longitudinal platypodia occurs most often at the age of 16-25 years.

Transverse platypodia

The development of this type of flatfoot depends on the weakness of the plantar aponeurosis in combination with the same causes as in longitudinal flatfoot.

Symptoms of transverse flatfoot are very characteristic. This is a wide front part of the foot, projecting inward, enlarged due to bone-cartilaginous growths head of the first metatarsal bone. It is often called "bone" or "gout".The deviation of the big toe outwardly or, otherwise, the Hallucks valgus, the painful tread on the sole side, the hammer-like deformation of the second and sometimes third fingers, calluses on the fingers.

The more deformation, the more patients complain of pain, difficulty in selecting and using shoes, quick fatigue.

The transverse flatfoot, as a rule, is combined with the curvature of the first toe to the outside.

Transverse platypodia occurs most often at the age of 35-50 years.

Often both forms of flatfoot are combined. Flat feet do not die, of course, but its development leads to a number of problems, including back pain, knee and hip joints, postural disorders and other consequences that reduce the quality of life. Therefore, special attention should be paid to timely diagnosis and prevention of flatfoot.

Treatment of flat feet

With the help of conservative treatment it is impossible to eliminate the already existing deformities of the feet with flat feet. Complete cure of flat feet is possible only in childhood. In adults, the disease can only be slowed down. The correction of flatfoot has the following goals: to strengthen the muscles and ligaments of the foot and not let the foot "fall apart" further;protect the entire body, and above all the spine, from overloads;prevent the development of complications - arthrosis of small joints of the foot, deformation of the fingers and diseases of the spine.

Treatment of flat feet includes several main directions. To relieve pain, use drugs and physiotherapy.

For correcting the natural form of the foot, use corrective insoles( arch supports).Correctly selected insoles allow not only to get rid of pain, but also regulate muscle tone by its shape.

Supinators are of different types:

  • inserts under the forefoot are used for flattening the longitudinal arch;
  • backs - allow to reduce the load on the heels and pain in them;
  • interdigital inserts allow to move apart the big and second finger on the legs, thereby preventing the progressive deviation of the thumb outwards;
  • the best option is the insole with the instep under the heel and the pronator under the front section.

This insole, as it were, "twists" the foot - while the muscles are subjected to less tensile forces and, thus, are in working conditions.

The most high-quality arch supports are made to order after examination, removal of foot sizes and establishing the flattening level of the arch. The materials from which the arch supports are made have evolved: from cork, the most ancient and sufficiently effective, to synthetic( from europlastic, supralene, silicone), and also from soft foam material.

For special knee-high shoes special model insteps-semi-insole, without front part. They are suitable, by the way, for any shoes, because they also unload the front section of the foot. It is necessary, however, to make a reservation that these devices only mitigate the harm from high heels. They can not remove it. Therefore, the recommendation not to abuse such shoes remains in force.

For outdoor sandals, there are special pads that make of silicone or leather. With transverse flatfoot, pads are suitable in the form of a drop, with mixed - in the form of a letter T. They are cheaper than a normal arch supports, but it is difficult to find the exact place they need. Therefore, for frequent use, pads are not suitable.

For sports, you can use instep arresters, covered with a special cloth, which absorbs moisture well and is easily washed. But they can only be used in shoes with an even inner surface, without a built-in arch support.

When the blood supply of the legs is disturbed( for example, with diabetes mellitus), the feet become particularly vulnerable, and the flat feet develops by leaps and bounds. Especially for diabetics, joints without seams have been created, covered with soft material - plastazot. Diabetic insteps are designed to ensure maximum safety of footsteps. Price they have higher than traditional models.

When the flat foot is launched, special orthopedic shoes are produced in the form of shoes with lacing, solid sole and side support of the foot. These shoes are made to order, according to the plaster cast.

With sharp deformation of the thumb, constant pain and the inability to pick up shoes, one has to resort to surgical treatment. However, artificially create a normal form of the foot and restore its functions is not always possible, and the recovery period after such operations is long enough.

For the treatment of flatfoot and its prevention, there are also massage and physiotherapy exercises.

Flatfoot prevention

Prophylaxis can be performed at home. The basic rules are as follows: it is harmful to walk in tight uncomfortable shoes, wear high heels, run a lot, stand for a long time. It is necessary to give rest to legs more often - to regularly do gymnastics of feet, massage, baths. And especially watch your footsteps when you're over 40.

For the prevention of flat feet in children, you need to carefully choose shoes that will be worn by the child. The child should not wear other people's shoes. A loose shoe of foreign shoes incorrectly distributes the load on the feet. Children's shoes should be with a small heel, a hard back and soft instep - to compensate for the lack of cones and stones under your feet, it ensures the correct formation of the foot.

To properly form the foot, children need not only good shoes. Meaning and nutrition. The connective tissue in its composition is somewhat similar to bone tissue. And in exactly the same way it suffers from rickets, that is, the wrong phosphoric-calcium metabolism in the body. When there is a lack of calcium, as is known, bones become soft and deformed under the influence of weight and muscles, and the connective tissue of the foot ceases to be elastic and elastic and similarly obeys the pressure of body weight.

So, even if your baby does not have signs of rickets, do not forget about flatfoot - another consequence of calcium deficiency. So, support in the daily diet of the child a sufficient amount of rich in phosphorus and calcium products. Do not forget about a sufficient number of sunbathing or preventive intake of vitamin D in the winter.

Natalia Novitskaya


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