Complex treatment of knee gonarthrosis
The number of cases of arthrosis is the leading among knee diseases. Varieties and synonyms of arthrosis( aka osteoarthritis) are several. If the hip is affected, the disease is called coxarthrosis, if the knee is called gonarthrosis. The treatment of gonarthrosis of the knee joint and other arthrosis is identical.
Who is sick and why?
Gonarthrosis is a degenerative chronic disease of the knee joint with a lesion of the cartilaginous tissue. It would seem that degenerative changes are characteristic of the elderly. With gonartrozom all on the contrary. Disease in the first place are exposed to people of working age. In the first place are the following reasons:
- knee injuries - fractures, tears of the meniscus, ligaments;
- physical stress on the joint when lifting, moving weights without training and muscle training;
- inflammatory diseases - rheumatoid, reactive, deforming arthritis, complications of gout;
- overweight is an additional burden on sick joints, leading to early degenerative changes;
- genetic predisposition.
The difference between healthy( left) and aching joint( right)
is clearly demonstrated. After 50 years, the disease occurs more often in women during hormonal changes in the body, changes in metabolic processes.
Treatment for arthrosis of the knee joint is always preceded by diagnostic tests. Correct diagnosis is the key to future successful treatment. It begins with a routine examination of the affected joint. A good specialist can, by outward signs, complain to the patient put the right diagnosis, which is only confirmed by instrumental methods. These are:
- arthroscopy - an intra-articular method of examining joints with optical instruments;
- radiography and fluoroscopy;
- in complex MRI cases - layered joint scanning;
- Ultrasound is a method of investigation based on the ability of ultrasound to reflect differently from healthy and diseased tissues.
Ultrasound is one of the most inexpensive diagnostic methods available.
There are additional diagnostic methods, doctors use them much less often. Usually one of the listed methods of diagnosis is enough.
Principles of treatment
Arthrosis is a chronic disease, therefore, the treatment of gonarthrosis will be prolonged. Depending on the severity, it can be surgical and conservative. The goal of both methods is to eliminate the pathological symptoms of the disease and the effect on the cause of their appearance.
Knee arthrosis destroys the cartilage cartilage of the tibial, fibular, femur, forming the joint. Pathological changes in cartilaginous tissue extend to other structures of the joint - ligaments, muscles, bones. Treatment is reduced to cupping:
- pain syndrome;
- of aseptic( non-infectious) inflammation;
- edema of the periarticular tissue;
- restoration of cartilage or suspension of its further destruction;
- return to the joint of the lost function - mobility.
Even if you can not cure arthrosis of the knee joint, the temporary elimination of pathological symptoms allows the patient to return to normal normal life for the period of remission.
Conservative treatment for gonarthrosis is undoubtedly the main one. Without it, it is impossible to get along in the initial and middle stages of the disease. It is based on drug treatment - the introduction of chemically active substances into the body in various ways: in the form of tablets, gelatin capsules, injections, suppositories, ointments. For the treatment of knee arthrosis, doctors prescribe such drugs:
- nonsteroidal drugs( NSAIDs, NSAIDs);
- synovial dentures.
Nyz helps to get rid of pain, inflammation and edema
Other conservative treatments use various ointments, mud wraps, exercise therapy, folk methods.
Non-steroidal( non-hormonal) drugs
Heavy weight for the body. They have a lot of contraindications and side effects. But the wide application of NSAIDs is explained by the multidimensional therapeutic effect:Also you can read: Effective injections in knee joint
- is decongestant.
Due to such properties, non-steroidal preparations gradually replace traditional analgesics.
Synthetic analogues of hormones produced by the adrenal glands. On the impact on the disease, they are stronger than NSAIDs. To the above advantages, you can add an antiallergic effect.
Drugs affecting the cartilage
These include chondroprotectors and synovial dentures.
Chondroprotectors - chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine sulfate. Safe drugs are used in the treatment of arthrosis in the knee joint. They are obtained from natural raw materials - cartilage of animals, fish and shell of crustaceans. Chondroprotectors are a building material for cartilaginous tissue, improve metabolic processes in it, stimulate regeneration. The most common in Russian practice are:
- structum and others.
Dona regenerates cartilage and relieves inflammation of joints
The drug Don has a dual action - anti-inflammatory and regenerating. But chondroprotectors have a curative effect in the initial stage of the disease. At a time when there is no significant destruction of the cartilage, persistent long joint pain, disruption of the knee function.
Synovial dentures - the so-called therapeutic agents based on hyaluronic acid. It is a natural natural gelling agent, as it is part of the synovial fluid. Able to link a huge amount of water into a single structure. Positive effects on the joint are drugs containing hyaluronic acid:
Hyastat is an effective synovial prosthesis
But in severe, advanced cases, synovial dentures are ineffective. In difficult cases, how to treat gonarthrosis of the knee joint? It remains to resort to surgical intervention.
Conservative therapy is not limited to drug treatment. Restoration of the function of the patient joint is difficult to imagine without:
- therapeutic physical training;
- Sports Medicine;
- massage, self-massage during remission;
- sanatorium or resort.
Health improvement procedures have a positive effect on the dynamics of gonarthrosis, help to return lost work capacity to patients. Young and old people are useful for easy exercise therapeutic gymnastics.
The easiest way to preserve the mobility of the knee is to roll back and forth a small ball, pin or other cylindrical object several times a day.
Surgery for gonarthrosis
If the knee can not be cured by conservative methods, doctors are forced to offer the patient an operation. It can be performed on an open and closed joint. The possibilities of surgery in the therapy of osteoarthritis are constantly expanding. The equipment is improved, new modern methods are added to the old methods of treatment:
- cold-plasma ablation( coblation) - is based on the ability of an electric current at a certain voltage in the electrolyte solution to create a plasma field 0.5-1 mm thick;
- different methods of chondroplasty - microsurgical methods of repairing damaged cartilage;
- endoprosthetics - replacing the fractured part of the joint with an artificial prosthesis;
- laser treatment( laser therapy) - the instrument is a laser beam of a certain wavelength, power, pulse frequency;
- arthroscopy - invasive( with a minimum violation of the integrity of tissues) intraarticular method of diagnosis and treatment of gonarthrosis.
Laser treatment of gonarthrosis is modern, painless and convenient
Modern innovative methods of surgical intervention are not very traumatic. They allow you to accurately act on the area of damage, to produce a large number of complex manipulations.
Some patients with gonarthrosis are treated only by doctors, others prefer to medicate their treatment with folk remedies. To your knees do not hurt and do not crunch, you need a couple of meals a year to drink such an elixir. On the meat grinder, scroll:
- 3 lemons with skin;
- 100 g of peeled garlic;
- 200 g of washed celery roots.
When medications are not being used, folk treatment is used.
Pour the ingredients in three liters of boiling water, close the lid tightly and cool. Drink ¼ cup three times a day for one month. Repeat when there are pains again, or for prophylaxis in six months.
In case of osteoarthritis with joint pain, the following simple means can be used:
- one chicken egg is beaten;
- is mixed with 2 tablespoons of salt;
- is applied to a bandage folded in several layers.
A bandage soaked in a mixture lies on the diseased knee. Covered with a cotton cloth. Holds until it dries. The procedure is repeated twice in a row.
If the joints hurt, try to be treated by another folk method. For the ointment, you will need:
- 50 g camphor;
- 200 ml of alcohol;
- 50 g of mustard powder;
- 100 g of raw egg white.
In alcohol, camphor, mustard is consistently dissolved. Protein is beaten separately. Then both compounds are mixed, rubbed into the diseased knees.
Age ages joints, it is difficult for athletes to avoid injuries. But look around you. Half of the population has a "sedentary" lifestyle, suffers from excess weight. These are just the reasons that prevent the joint from remaining healthy and mobile for a long time.
Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis 1,2,3 Degrees
Knee joint gonarthrosis is a fairly common disease, the leader of all arthrosis. His active study of physicians of different countries began over a century ago, which causes significant progress in the fight against the disease. At the household level, this pathology is stubbornly called the deposition of salts, although the process of calcification does not play a primary role. The disease is dangerous in its development and can lead to a restriction of mobility and disability.
Knee joint gonarthrosis requires long-term treatment, which is not always able to help without prompt intervention. In order not to appear on the surgical table, it is very important to detect pathological changes in time and start treatment at an early stage. Like most joint diseases, this type of osteoarthritis is easier to prevent, taking preventive measures, than to treat after debilitating pain.
What happens with this disease?
Gonarthrosis, or osteoarthritis of the knee, is a degenerative-dystrophic joint injury caused by degeneration of the cartilage, until its complete destruction, and leading to deformation of the joint;while less pronounced inflammatory reactions are secondary phenomena and are also generated by degeneration processes.
The onset of pathology is usually associated with structural changes in cartilage tissue at the molecular level, including as a result of circulatory disorders in small vessels. Then the hyaline cartilage is involved in the process, which becomes turbid, decreases in thickness, is stratified and covered with multidirectional microscopic cracks. The pathological process is completed by the complete destruction of small and large cartilage, and at the same time bone articulation is exposed.
The body instinctively reacts to the disappearance of cartilage by bone growth in the peripheral zones, which is expressed in the growth of osteophytes. As a result of abnormal changes, the joint is deformed, the lower limb is bent. Such a result ensured the name of destructive pathology - deforming arthrosis.
Disturbances in gonarthrosis
The development of the disease occurs with the growth of the following pathological disorders in the joint:
- Disturbance of the metabolic process in the cartilaginous tissue: a constant supply of cartilage occurs due to the separation and absorption of lubricant when the joint moves, but the disease leads to a change in osmotic pressure and impaired makeup;at sites of the raised pressure there is a thinning of a cartilage.
- Structural changes of collagen fibers: the softening of the patellar cartilage starts, the depreciation function of the cartilage and the metabolic capacity of the chondrocytes are broken - the cartilage loses its elasticity and its instability appears.
- Distortion of articular congruence: the synthesis of bone substance, leading to the growth of osteophytes, is activated. As a result, the synovial membrane is irritated, which generates an inflammatory process in it, the loss of joint mobility begins.
- The most active destructive process occurs in the inner region of the joint and in the gap between the knee and the femur.
Classification of pathology
Classification of gonarthrosis is carried out in accordance with the international system of ICD 10 by code 17.0 - 17.9.There are 2 main types of etiology: primary and secondary osteoarthrosis.
The primary( genuine) type is the development of a degenerative process on a healthy cartilage that has not previously been subjected to pathological effects. The process is the result of mechanical and physiological overloads. Secondary form of the disease develops on the joint, previously subjected to pathological effects( trauma, disease), and the beginning of the process is due to a decrease in the durability of cartilage tissues to normal loads. The most common form is posttraumatic gonarthrosis.
Given the localization of lesions, there is a one-sided and two-sided gonarthrosis. In turn, a one-sided view is characterized by joint damage on only one limb: right-sided and left-sided gonarthrosis. The most difficult and dangerous is the two-sided type, when the knee joints of both legs are subjected to destruction. The main reason for the appearance of this form is the age factor.
Causes and stages of the disease
In order to start a degenerative-dystrophic process of destruction of cartilage tissue, provoking factors are needed.
There are following causes of the disease:
- metabolic disorder, especially hormonal imbalance;
- circulatory disturbance and capillary fragility;
- excessive body weight;
- knee injury( fracture, cracked bone, ruptured ligament or meniscus);
- inflammatory diseases( rheumatism, arthritis);
- frequent and prolonged physical overload( especially among athletes - gymnasts, football players, athletes, tennis players);
- disorders of the endocrine system;
- genetic abnormalities of the structure of tissues;
- hereditary predisposition, violation of body statics;
- age factor.
The severity of gonarthrosis is determined by the type of injury and complications.
It is subdivided into 3 stages and, accordingly, 4 stages of development:
- 1 stage( 1 degree): the initial phase, characterized by a slight narrowing of the joint gap, visible on the roentgenogram. There is a feeling of discomfort in the joint, fatigue by the evening, a slight limitation of joint mobility.
- 2nd stage( 2nd degree): on the roentgenogram there is a significant narrowing of the slit and the appearance of osteophytes, bone growths. There is the appearance of pain syndrome with strengthening with prolonged standing or walking, a crunch in the joint, complicated flexion and extension of the leg in the knee, the angle of extension of the leg is limited, the appearance of signs of atrophy of the quadriceps femoris.
- 3rd stage( 3rd degree): joint deformity with foot axis disturbance, articular instability. There is a sharp increase in pain, even at rest, edema, local temperature, impaired mobility of the joint.
- Stage 3 at 4 degrees of severity: severe joint deformity, complete disappearance of cartilage, impaired mobility of the limb, pain is permanent.
At the initial stage, the symptoms of gonarthrosis are manifested by a feeling of tightening the muscles under the knee and a slight pain after a long hiking trip. In the mornings or after a long sitting, it takes time to "puff up" the joint and eliminate discomfort in the knee. The development of pathology leads to the appearance of a pain syndrome under the knee. When walking, there is a crunch in the joint. Further progression of the disease limits the mobility of the joint, there are problems with squatting and extension of the legs, lame appears. Pain is getting stronger and longer.
Visual inspection of the joint in the initial stages does not reveal any changes. Gradually, the joint deformity becomes noticeable, and then the curvature of the shin. If you put your hand to the knee, then when flexing your legs you can distinguish a distinct crunch. Palpation indicates the presence of a painful patch on the inside of the knee joint.
Signs of gonarthrosis are greatly enhanced if the disease is complicated by synovitis( inflammation of the inner shell).In this case, already at the first stage swelling of the joint is noticeable due to liquid. At further stages, it fills even the popliteal fossa in the posterior articular region( Baker's cyst).Pain syndrome is greatly enhanced.
The primary diagnosis is established by examination, palpation of the joint, changing the direction of the bones, the angulation of the mobility of the joint. Laboratory tests are conducted on general blood and urine tests: determination of ESR, fibrinogen, urea and other biochemical parameters. The ultrasound of the knee joint is performed. The most informative are X-ray studies and magnetic resonance imaging. Only after that the doctor treats the disease.
Tactics and methods of therapy
The question how to treat gonarthrosis of the knee joint is decided by the doctor, taking into account the stage and severity of the disease.
In general, the treatment is carried out in a complex way, but usually includes the following steps:
- Elimination of the inflammatory response: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed: Diclofenac, Olfen, Diclac, Ibuprofen, Indomethacin, Ketaprofen, Meloksikam, "Nimesulide";at a complicated stage, injections with the introduction of hormones - drugs "Hydrocortisone", "Kenalog", "Diprospan";To stop degenerative processes, antifoam agents are prescribed - Counterline, Ovomin, Gordoks.
- Anabolic and anti-catabolic effects, restoration of cartilaginous tissue: chondroprotectors - Structum, DONA, Rumalon, Alflutol, Mukosat.
- Normalization of blood circulation, warming and soothing effect: ointments, gels, creams - "Finalgon", "Fastum gel", "Nikofleks", "Apizarthron", "Feloran".
- Improvement of blood circulation, strengthening of vascular tissues: vasodilating drugs - "Cavinton", "Trental", "Actovegin", "Upsavit", "Ascorutin".
- Reduction of muscle tension: antispasmodics - "No-shpa", "Midokalm", "Tizalud".
- Restoration of synovial fluid: substitutes - "Otrovisk", "Hyalual", "Fermatron".
Complicated forms of the disease are treated with additional methods, such as: oxygen therapy( introduction of oxygen);introduction of stem cells;laser therapy;the introduction of the protein preparation "Ortokin" on the basis of blood serum.
In the last stages of gonarthrosis, the only effective method is surgical treatment. A surgical operation for prosthetics of the affected tissues is performed. Depending on the severity of the disease, the following operations are performed:
- arthrodesis( removal of the destroyed cartilage along with the joint);
- arthroscopic debridement( removal of deformed cartilage with an arthroscope);
- osteotomy( fixation of bones in another position);
Treatment of gonarthrosis of the knee joint, especially at the initial stage, is carried out in ways that do not involve medical therapy. The therapeutic sports complex allows to improve blood circulation, strengthen the musculoskeletal system, raise muscle tone, maintain joint mobility. LFK is developed by the treating orthopedist under the individual scheme.
Physiotherapy for osteoarthritis involves the use of the following methods: electrophoresis with bischofite, caripain and reinforcement with dimexide;magnetic therapy;ultrasound;microwave exposure;paraffin application;reception of radon and hydrogen sulphide baths;mud baths. Its effectiveness was proved by therapeutic massage and manual therapy, if conducted by a specialist.
Prophylaxis of the disease necessarily provides proper nutrition.
The diet for gonarthrosis excludes the use of pickles, spicy and fatty dishes. The menu recommends the inclusion of increased consumption of low-fat chill( for example, in poultry meat), jelly from natural fruits. It is useful to eat sea fish and seafood.
Loss of capacity for work and a group of disabilities are not threatened if the prevention is carried out with folk remedies. Effective use of infusion based on garlic and lemon with the addition of celery. Recommended tea from the grass of black beans. Especially useful is the grass of moccas, which should be added to various salads. And of course, the welding of beef knees and hoofs, it is better to eat hot, not hardened fat.
Knee joint gonarthrosis: treatment and symptoms
Types of gonarthrosis
The type of gonarthrosis depends on the location of changes in the cartilaginous tissue. Thus, we have:
- The medial is the most common. The articular cartilage narrows from the medial side. It is often found in people who have congenital deformities of the knees.
- Patellofemoral - articular cartilage tapers between the patella and the femur. If the pain is aggravated during the descent of the stairs or squats, we are probably dealing with this type of ailment.
- The lateral - articular cartilage considerably narrows on the sides. At the same time, right-sided, left-sided and bilateral gonarthrosis are distinguished. The most difficult is a bilateral gonarthrosis, because in this case both knee joints suffer.
Also, the disease has different degrees of development - gonarthrosis 1 degree, gonarthrosis 2 degrees and gonarthrosis 3 degrees.
A common symptom of gonarthrosis is pain, which is localized in the knee and thigh. Patients also feel discomfort when descending the stairs, lifting from a chair, or doing certain exercises. At rest, the pain decreases. The outline of the knee joint thickens and distorts, the swelling arises, the aching joint feels warmer than the rest of the body. When bending and unbending the legs, characteristic crackling may appear. Legs can warp, sometimes Baker's cyst appears behind the knee. The development of the disease can lead to a weakening or even disappearance of the quadriceps muscle.
Having noticed similar symptoms, you should consult a doctor for the correct diagnosis.
Gonarthrosis of the knee joint( medial, bilateral, unilateral, etc.) must necessarily be treated with competent physical exertion. We will give you the safest and most effective exercises.
- With your back on the floor, lift your knees bent at the knee joints. Alternately, push your feet on an imaginary wall, unbending the aching joints. Exercise repeat 20 times on each leg.
- Sitting on a chair, lift each leg alternately( while the thigh remains tightly pressed to the seat), bending at the knee joint. Repeat the exercises 20 times on each leg.
- Standing, lean slightly and lean your hands against the slightly bent knees. Slowly and gently rotate your knees in this pose. Repeat the exercises 20 times to the right and 20 times to the left.
- Standing, do exercises that mimic kicking the ball. At the same time, you must be very careful not to make sudden movements. Amplitude should be very small.
Treatment with folk remedies gives brilliant results if carried out regularly. Most prescriptions for phytotherapy are compresses and ointments that need to be applied externally. However, some herbs should be used inside to strengthen the body as a whole and the bone system in particular.
At the initial stage, gonarthrosis of the knee joint can be treated with compresses from arnica grass. To conduct the procedure, boil a glass of water in a glass of a tablespoon of a dry plant( let mixture simmer for 5 minutes).Warm broth moistened gauze cloth and applied to the diseased knee, then the legs must be warmly wrapped. The compress should be kept for half an hour. Repeat the manipulation every day. Supplement such treatment with other folk methods.
Treatment with bay leaf gives excellent results even in very severe cases, for example, if the patient has grade 2 gonarthrosis, or a progressive bilateral one. It is based on the fact that the tincture of the bay leaf completely cleans the diseased joints from the deposits( osteophytes) and establishes the work of this organ.
Treatment consists of two courses - the first one lasts 3 days, then a week later you should repeat it. During the reception of the tincture, salt and sand from the joints will be excreted through the urine, so its color can vary from green to bright red. This is normal.
On the first day you should finely chop 5 grams of bay leaves, add 300 ml of boiling water, boil the mixture on low heat for 5 minutes, then pour into a thermos and keep the tincture for 5 hours. Then strain the liquid, pour into a cup and drink in small sips every 15-20 minutes for 12 hours.
WARNING!All the tincture immediately drink is not allowed, since it can cause bleeding
.On the second and third days, repeat the same steps. In the process of treatment, it is better not to consume protein foods( meat, eggs, milk, dairy products).After a week of rest, repeat the course. Be prepared for this, that in the process of treating bones and joints, the disease can become aggravated. However, this is normal and indicates that the process is proceeding correctly. Soon all the unpleasant symptoms will disappear.
Tincture of aconite
Tincture of aconite is a very powerful remedy that helps to overcome even the advanced bilateral gonarthrosis. However, remember that the tincture is poisonous, so it should never be in contact with mucous membranes. Of course, the medicine can not be taken inside!
Tincture is prepared by mixing the crushed root of the plant with alcohol in a 1: 5 ratio. It should be kept in a tightly closed container for 2 weeks, after which the liquid should be filtered.
Treatment is carried out as follows: putting gloves on your hand, lubricate the diseased knee with tincture, cover with an oilcloth warm with a warm bandage. Then immediately go to sleep. Compress remove in the morning( do it quickly, so as not to catch a cold joint), then rinse your foot with warm water. Repeat the procedures every evening, and in 2-3 weeks from the disease there will be no trace.
You can treat the disease with fresh leaves and Jerusalem artichoke stems. Boil a kilogram of crushed plant in a bucket, then wait for the broth to cool to such a temperature that you can dip your feet into it. Keep the knee in the water until it cools. Do not pour out the liquid, but use the bath for the next day. After a few procedures, you will feel better.
If you do not have this amount of Jerusalem artichoke, you can boil 1-2 tablespoons in a glass of water, then do warm compresses.
Any gonarthrosis( even two-sided) will facilitate onion ointment, which is easily prepared at home. Pass 3-4 large bulbs through meat grinders, add 3 tablespoons of honey and, if there are, 2 tablespoons of aloe juice. This ointment should be stored in the refrigerator. Apply it on a sore knee, then warm the cloth and hold for at least an hour. Repeat the procedure 1-2 times a day daily. The treatment will give even more noticeable results, if before pre-applying the ointment you will warm up the knee with a warmer.
Tincture of dandelions
Tincture of dandelion flowers works well. It is applied externally - for rubbing joints. To make a potion, place 10-15 fresh flowers in a dark jar and pour a glass of triple cologne. The tincture is aged for 2 weeks in a dark place, after which it is filtered and used 2 times a day. Additionally, use the medication by other means.Related to
Knee joint gonarthrosis treatment, symptoms, causes of
For the first time this disease appears after forty years and most often it is diagnosed in women who complain of pain in the knee.Knee Osteoarthritis
Nobody pays special attention to this and everything is written off to the deposition of salts.
But in fact the cause of pain is gonarthrosis of the knee joint. The essence of the development of this disease lies in the dystrophic changes of the hyaline cartilage, which are covered with the tibial condyles, as well as the femur. In the future, gradual destruction of the cartilage takes place and as a result the subchondral surface of the bones forming the knee joint is exposed.
Causes of the appearance of the disease
The causes of this disease are different, it all depends on whether the primary or secondary gonarthrosis is diagnosed.
This type of disease appears most often in the elderly, and against a background of complete health. It is suggested that the cause of the disease is a disturbed metabolism, because gonarthrosis is more often diagnosed in patients with obesity and overweight.
There are suggestions that the cause of the disease is a hereditary factor, and this can be influenced by long reception of hormonal drugs and much more. In this case, do not forget that the presence of anomalies in the structure of the joint tissues, not only cartilaginous, but also bone may be the cause of gonarthrosis. Also, the appearance of the disease can significantly affect the various pathologies of the ligament apparatus.
In this type of disease, the causes are more obvious:
- knee injury - bruises, dislocations and the like;
- surgical operations that a person suffered after a knee injury, removal of the meniks;
- joint disease - arthritis or swelling and other inflammatory diseases in the joints;
- untimely appeal for medical assistance after the received knee injuries, which leads to the development of gonarthrosis;
- hormonal imbalance. This can be a slow metabolism or a malfunction of metabolic processes in the body;
- excessive intensity of physical exertion on the joint. As a rule, it manifests itself in people engaged in professional sports;
- diseases that adversely affect the muscle tone, muscle spasms and clamps, stiffness of the muscles.
Symptoms and stages of the disease
Symptoms of gonarthrosis of the knee depends on its stage. There are three main stages of the disease.
Each stage characterizes a certain period of the course of the disease - from the moment of small changes, to serious lesions of cartilaginous tissue and its complete disappearance.
Gonarthrosis 1 degree
In the initial stage, the disease manifests itself stiffness in the knee joint in the morning hours after sleep and a little pain.
Grade 1gonarthrosis. A person notices that pain and stiffness are aggravated by long walking or prolonged stays in a sitting position. However, with the first degree of gonarthrosis, there is no deformation of the cartilage in communication, with which the pain syndrome is not strongly manifested, and the mobility of the joints remains the same. It is for this reason that in many cases the disease remains unnoticed;
Gonarthrosis of 2nd degree
Gradually the pains become stronger and more persistent. They appear not only after sleep, but also with a prolonged load on the knee - for example, if you stand on your feet or climb the stairs for a long time.
Gonarthrosis of 2nd degree
In the lying position, the pain decreases. The knee deforms and increases in volume, the patient feels a characteristic crunch when flexing the leg. Bony outgrowths - osteophytes - grow on the surface of the joint. Also, there is no full possibility of bending the leg, which leads to a curvature of the vertebra.
Gonarthrosis of 3rd degree
Symptoms are all the same, but they are more pronounced. The pain in the knee is permanent, it tortures a person both during walking and at night, preventing them from falling asleep normally.
severely impaired function of the joint - the patient can not bend the leg in the knee, even at ninety degrees.
There is lameness, a person falls on an affected leg or is unable to move without help at all.
Deformation of the joint can be seen immediately, on the X-ray, a change in its structure is diagnosed. The bone surfaces are so deformed that there is practically no gap between them, which is necessary for movements and the person has to experience continuous cutting pain.
Treatment with medical and folk remedies
The gonarthrosis of the knee joint is treated for a long time, and treatment requires doctors of great professionalism, and the patient must be patient. But you can not get rid of the disease forever, but it is quite possible to slow its development.
Medication therapy involves the administration of the following drugs:
- for pain relief. To do this, anti-inflammatory non-steroid drugs are prescribed: diclofenac, indomethacin, paracetamol and others. But they are taken according to the doctor's prescription, a long reception of these medicines can cause an exacerbation of gastritis or stomach ulcers. It should be noted that the action of these drugs is aimed at reducing inflammation and the manifestation of a feeling of pain. Therefore, they only hide the unpleasant symptomatology and do not relieve the disease;
- chondroprotectors. These drugs contain chondrocytes, which will restore the structure of the cartilage. The drugs help to increase the mobility of the affected joint and stop the development of the disease. However, chondroprotectors have a positive effect on the initial stages of the development of pathological changes in the knee joint. They are absolutely useless in the complete destruction of cartilage. These medications are very slow acting and need to be systematically used in certain doses for several courses over a period of one to one and a half years;
- anti-inflammatory drugs. These are corticosteroids, which are hormonal drugs with a strong effect. When the cartilage tissue is destroyed, an inflammatory process occurs and a fluid forms in the joint, and corticosteroids are injected into the joint itself. This hydrocortisone, Kenalog and much more. Assign and hormonal gels with ointments - Diclofenac, butadione and others;
- preparations of hyaluronic acid. A film is formed on the damaged joint, which prevents further destruction of the cartilage by reducing the friction between the articular cavities. As a result, the cartilaginous tissue becomes much more elastic and elastic, including its depreciation abilities. The treatment of gonarthrosis with hyaluronic acid preparations is carried out by courses.
Methods of treatment without the use of medicines
This is a physiotherapy that can reduce pain in the joint and remove inflammation. In most cases, electrophoresis is used, because with its help, external drugs penetrate much deeper than the usual application to the skin. Also, to improve nutrition and microcirculation of tissues in medicine, magnetic devices, ultrasound, laser radiation are used.
Medical gymnastics together with manual therapy will relieve the overstrain from muscles and joints, improve the condition and mood of the patient. Wellness gymnastics is an indispensable component of successful treatment of gonarthrosis. Exercise helps to strengthen the muscular system of the lower leg and thigh, thereby increasing mobility of the limb and improving the condition of the ligaments.
In some cases, surgical treatment is prescribed. As a rule, it is necessary in cases when pronounced deformity of the knee joint is observed and its complete immobilization arises and at the same time conservative methods of treatment are not effective. This is endoprosthetics and arthroscopic debridement. In the first case, the patient is placed with a ceramic, metal or plastic prosthesis. In the second case, with the help of an arthroscope, the painful, broken parts of the cartilage are removed.
Folk recipes do not lose their relevance. The joint use of "grandmother's recipes" and medications will have a good therapeutic effect.
The painful joint should be rubbed with camphor oil, greased with a mixture of apple cider vinegar and honey, or apply a compress from the burdock leaves to the affected knee.
Also, the section of traditional medicine advises you to tie a heated shredded horseradish root at night to your knee, and with pains, drink three times a day a glass of broth from onions, which is prepared by calculating two onions per 1 liter of boiling water. In addition, it is useful to take a bath twice a week with a decoction of grass hay and malt. If there is a pronounced inflammatory process, wipe the knee joint with a lemon wedge.
Prevention of gonarthrosis
The most important thing in the prevention of this complex disease is muscle training and constant maintenance of them in tone. Very often, having heard advice from a doctor to do gymnastics, a person neglects this and very much in vain. Exercises will help to adapt the body to constant loads, because when they are performed, the muscles of the legs are strengthened.
Prevention of gonarthrosis
Excess weight is also a risk factor for the onset of gonarthrosis. This same gymnastics will help him to fight, because the fat people are constantly stressed by joints due to weight.
One of the causes of the disease is trauma. Therefore, while skating, skiing should be cautious and if you do not imagine your life without it, then take care of good protective equipment and use quality knee pads.
Vitamins are especially useful for prevention. This vitamin E, D and C, so you need to periodically use vitamin complexes.
Calcium fortress will take care of calcium fortress, a high amount of calcium is found in eggs, sesame and celery.
The right diet will help the joints. The food should be balanced and correct, for the prevention of gonarthrosis you need to consume a lot of fresh vegetables, cakes and sweets replace with fruits. In winter it is useful to eat cranberries with honey. Homemade cottage cheese, milk and cheese will also help to strengthen joints with bones.
Knee joint gonarthrosis: treatment
Treatment of gonarthrosis of the knee joint is a long process, requiring a doctor of high professionalism, and patient patient patience. The possibilities of modern medicine can stop the devastating consequences of the disease and significantly improve the quality of life. However, it is important to remember, the earlier treatment is started, the more favorable the forecast.
The goals of treatment The methods of treatment of knee gonarthrosis pursue the following objectives:
- elimination of pain and muscle tension;
- increased mobility;
- improved blood supply to the knee joint;
- prevention of complications.
An integrated approach is an indispensable condition of treatment, which allows to achieve improvement of the general condition in the shortest possible time. An integrated approach must begin at the 1 st degree of gonarthrosis of the knee joint, then you can start developing joint damage.
How to treat gonarthrosis of the knee joint?
Unfortunately, at the moment there are no drugs that can cure the disease forever. But slowing down the development of gonarthrosis of the knee joint and significantly reduce pain can still be possible. For this, the following are used:
- hondoprotectors - substances that improve the state of cartilage;
- anti-inflammatory drugs;
- non-medicinal methods( physio- and manual therapy, physiotherapy exercises);
- popular recipes.
Maintenance of a diet and annual sanatorium treatment is of no less importance. In especially severe cases, surgical intervention is recommended.
Painkillers play in the treatment of gonarthrosis of the knee joint is almost the most important role of .After all, the first thing that needs to be done is to eliminate the pain syndrome. For this purpose, NSAIDs( non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) are used: diclofenac, paracetamol, indomethacin, and others. Nevertheless, do not forget that the main purpose of NSAIDs is the relief( removal) of pain, i.e. They can not stop the development of the disease.
Use only with the doctor's prescription. Long uncontrolled reception can cause side effects, for example, exacerbation of gastritis or the development of a stomach ulcer.
Chondroprotectors for the treatment of gonarthrosis of the knee help the presence of chondrocytes( cells of cartilaginous tissue), which are called to restore the cartilage structure. They can be called a building material that allows you to increase the mobility of the joint and stop the development of the disease.
It should be noted that the hondprotectors are characterized by a delayed action, which means that the effect of the application will become noticeable several months after the start of treatment. Substances that improve the state of cartilage, are effective only in the treatment of gonarthrosis I and II degrees, i.e. If the cartilage is finally destroyed, the restoration measures will not work.
The group of hondprotectors includes hyaluronic acid, glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, contained in different proportions in such preparations as Arthra, Arthroactiv, Dona, Diacerein.
The destruction of the cartilaginous tissue is accompanied by the onset of an inflammatory focus with the formation of fluid in the joint( synovitis).The task of eliminating inflammation is taken by corticosteroids - potent hormonal drugs. These drugs in the treatment of gonarthrosis of the knee joint, the appearance( in the vast majority of cases) of various kinds of side effects are rarely prescribed internally.
Hydrocortisone, kenalog and their analogues are injected into the joint by injection( intraarticular blockade), hormonal gels and ointments can be used - Diclofenac-ointment, Bystrum-gel, DIP-Relief, Butadion and others.
Treatment of gonarthrosis of the knee joint both chronic and conventional also involves the use of non-drug therapies - physiotherapy, manual therapy, physiotherapy.
Physiotherapy is a great way to reduce pain syndrome and relieve inflammation. The best effect is provided by high-frequency magnetotherapy, ultrasound, laser therapy, radon and hydrogen sulfide baths. Manic therapy combined with curative gymnastics removes overstrain from joints and muscles, reduces excess load, improves mood and improves mood.
Surgical treatment of knee joint gonarthrosis involves endoprosthesis or arthroscopic debridement. In the first case, a prosthesis made of ceramics, metal or plastic is installed. In the second - with the help of an arthroscope, the destruction of the destroyed cartilage particles causing pain is performed.
Despite the skewed looks of skeptics, folk medicine does not lose relevance. The use of "grandmother's recipes" in combination with medicines prescribed by a doctor, has a good therapeutic effect. The patient joint can be rubbed with camphor oil, apply compresses from the leaves of burdock and cabbage, grease with a mixture of honey and apple cider vinegar.
The methods of treatment of chronic knee gonarthrosis include compliance with the diet. It is necessary to exclude sour fruits, whole milk, meat, fresh tomatoes, alcoholic beverages. In the daily diet should be present broth, cooked on bones, jelly, jelly.
Among other things, avoid overeating, monitor weight, reduce physical strain on the affected joint. During the period of remission, sanatorium treatment( medical baths and mud) is recommended. Not bad themselves recommended sanatoria located in Pyatigorsk, Archman, Bakirovo, Evpatoria and other cities.
One of the most effective folk remedies for gonarthrosis of the knee joint is a dandelion. Every day in May, you need to collect 5 sheets of dandelion, then roll them with boiled water and then chew until they form a gruel, but do not swallow. Yellow dandelion flowers should be folded in a bottle of dark glass to half and fill with triple cologne. This mixture should be insisted for a month in the cold, then lubricate the knee twice a day.
Also for the treatment of gonarthrosis folk remedies you can use Jerusalem artichoke. 1,5 kg crushed and poured with 8 liters of steep boiling water. After the water has cooled, you should lower the affected joint into it, keeping it for 30 minutes. This procedure should be carried out for 10 days. Use for this you need the leaves and stems of Jerusalem artichoke.
Any self-treatment can harm you, be sure to contact your doctor. Be healthy!
Knee joint gonarthrosis: treatment of
To date, gonarthrosis is a fairly common pathology of the musculoskeletal system.
Most often, this disease is registered among professional athletes and people who are subjected to frequent physical exertion. The risk group includes those with excessive body weight, metabolic disorders, gout, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus, and elderly people.
The basis of gonarthrosis of the knee joint is the pathological changes of the hyaline cartilage, which is thinned and destroyed, therefore it can not sufficiently provide amortization and protection of the joint surfaces from friction during movement.
In addition, with this disease in the soft tissues of the knee, calcium salts can be deposited. This is accompanied by pain, stiffness of movements, and in the future, if not treated - a complete blockade of the knee joint without the ability to move.
How to treat arthrosis of the knee joint?
Since this disorder can cause disability, therapy should be started at the first manifestations of the disease. Medical measures should be aimed at eliminating pain, improving the supply of cartilaginous tissue and restoring it. It is also necessary to improve blood circulation in the area of the aching joint and strengthen the muscles that surround it.
Before the treatment it is necessary to clearly establish a diagnosis, so a doctor's consultation is mandatory. Only after the definition of the etiology of gonarthrosis and elucidation of the mechanisms of its development can an effective therapy be conducted.
Among the drugs that are prescribed most often, the following groups should be distinguished:
- NSAIDs are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs( diclofenac, ketoprofen, indomethacin, nimulide, butadione).They are prescribed to reduce inflammation and severe pain, which is so intense that it is simply impossible to apply, for example, a massage or physiotherapy. But it should be remembered that anti-inflammatory drugs do not treat, but only mask unpleasant symptoms;
- agents showing a chondroprotective effect( glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate).They restore the structure of the cartilage and help to reduce the symptoms of arthrosis. I must say that chondroprotectors have a positive effect only at the initial stages of pathological changes in the knee joint. They are completely useless in cases where the cartilage has completely collapsed. In addition, these drugs are slow and require systemic application in appropriate doses of two or three courses for 1-1,5 years. Among the most popular chondroprotectors, mention should be made of "Structum" and "Hondrolon";
- ointments and creams for topical use that alleviate the condition of the patient and reduce pain. Often prescribe menopause, gevkamen or nicofleks-cream. These drugs rarely give side effects, improve blood circulation in the joint and give a pleasant sensation of warmth. In cases where gonarthrosis is complicated by synovitis, it is recommended to use ointments, which contain non-steroidal anti-inflammatory substances( butadione ointment, voltaren-gel, fastum).It is worth noting that local application of anti-inflammatory drugs is not always effective, as the skin only allows 7% of the active substance;
- means for applying compresses. With gonarthrosis of the knee joint, dimexide, medical bile, and bischofite are used. A characteristic feature of dimexide is that when applied to the skin it penetrates well through the skin barrier and acts directly on the inflammation focus. It also improves metabolic processes and shows a resorptive effect, which makes this tool effective for arthrosis with concomitant synovitis. Bischofite gives a moderate anti-inflammatory effect, warms and anesthetizes. Bile medical has a resolving effect. It is important to know that local application of medicinal products can not be performed with pustular lesions of the skin;
- is a corticosteroid hormone that is administered intra-articularly. Often appointed kenalog, diprospan or hydrocortisone. These drugs eliminate pain, swelling and swelling of the joint quite quickly, but they do not affect cartilage tissue and blood circulation. In addition, hormonal injections can worsen the condition of those patients who have comorbidities( eg, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, kidney failure, mental and infectious diseases, tuberculosis, peptic ulcer).This is due to the fact that corticosteroids show a systemic effect, so they affect the dynamics of other pathologies;
- hyaluronic acid preparations - form on the diseased joint a film that prevents further destruction of the cartilage, as it reduces friction between the articular surfaces. Cartilage tissue becomes more elastic and elastic, its depreciation properties are restored. Treatment with hyaluronic acid should be conducted by courses.
Therapeutic physical training
There is an opinion that for any type of arthrosis any physical load is contraindicated, but this is not entirely true. For optimal functioning of the joints need strong muscles, so moderate exercise is only good. Positively affects gymnastics, consisting of simple and slow exercises, since the affected joints do not tolerate sudden movements and excessive strain. Good results are given by manual therapy, especially with simultaneous extension and administration of chondroprotectors.
Diet for arthrosis of the knee joint
Patient with gonarthrosis should adhere to a diet. You should change the diet and eat every 4 hours, taking the bulk of the food at lunch time. It is also necessary to limit the use of table salt and abandon semi-finished products, salted fish, chips and mayonnaise. During cooking, it is better to use unrefined oil.
Often in patients with gonarthrosis is overweight, so you should use a diet that would help lose weight, but at the same time provided the body with all the necessary substances. To maximize the correct menu, it is worth consulting with a nutritionist who will take into account the features of arthrosis and other associated pathologies.
To prevent excessive weight gain, it is recommended to eat a lot of fruits and vegetables, because they contain complex carbohydrates, which are slowly absorbed and not stored as fat. From sweet and good food is better to refuse.
To control body weight, it should be remembered:
- any alcoholic beverages stimulate appetite;
- should be eaten in small portions, thoroughly chewing food;
- should be monitored for bowel movement - the stool should be daily.
For proper metabolism, the body should receive a sufficient amount of vitamins and minerals. When gonarthrosis is recommended to use a lot of protein, because it is proteins used to build new tissues and to repair cartilage. Especially useful are dairy products, low-fat varieties of fish and meat, buckwheat porridge and lentils. For better assimilation of proteins, it is recommended to eat boiled, stewed dishes or steamed foods.
Patients with joint damage are useful to include in their diet a cold based on bone broth. It contains a lot of collagen, which is necessary for building cartilage. In addition, food gelatin is useful. It promotes the restoration of cartilaginous tissue, since it contains substances with chondroprotective properties.
It should be noted that even a carefully formulated diet is not able to cure gonarthrosis of the knee joint, but with the observance of the main recommendations, it contributes to overall improvement and improvement of the joint condition.
When conservative treatment of gonarthrosis, patients with walking are advised to use a cane. This reduces the load on the affected joint by 40%.It is important to pick up the growth, it is also desirable that it has a rubber nozzle that provides cushioning and prevents slipping.
In severe destruction of cartilage tissue, an operation is performed in which the patient's joint is replaced with an endoprosthesis.
Treatment with folk remedies
In folk medicine, dandelion is often used. It is recommended in May to collect on a daily basis 5 leaves of this plant, pour them with boiled water and chew without swallowing.
For the treatment of joint diseases it is also useful to use infusion of leaves and stems of Jerusalem artichoke. To make it, you need to take 1.5 kilograms of the plant, chop and pour 8 liters of boiling water. When it cools down a little, lower the affected area into the prepared liquid for 30 minutes. Repeat the procedure for 10 days.
The following tool is effective.3 lemons, 120 g of garlic and 250 g of celery root should be twisted in a meat grinder, mix everything well, put in a three-liter jar and pour boiling water, then wrap and insist 12 hours. Take the drug first 70 ml in the morning, and then - three times a day.
With gonarthrosis, a positive effect is obtained by compressing honey( 1 tbsp) and apple cider vinegar( 3 tbsp).The ingredients are mixed, applied to the joint, a leaf of cabbage is applied from above, then cellophane, well wrapped and worn until completely dry.
Treatment with folk remedies should be long( several months) and carried out seasonally with exacerbations of the disease.