Gypsum tiles with their own hands: how to make
As for the components for making gypsum stone, pay attention to their quality and the manufacturer. It is best to use gypsum grade G 10. Also stockpile the simplest plasticizers, for example, slaked lime and citric acid.
Gypsum grade G 10
is most suitable for making gypsum tiles. Preparation of
molds. If you finally decided to make a gypsum stone yourself, first of all, you need to choose the shape for the future product. They are of two types: silicone and polyurethane. The first ones are cheaper, they are specially designed for work with gypsum solution, while the latter can be used for other types of work.
Silicone molds are specially designed for working with gypsum
. As the cost of the mold is considerable, and more than a few of them are required, it is possible to make a mold for gypsum tiles independently. Its production takes about a day. For this, a stone sample is taken as the basis and with its help a matrix is made for the future shape. After it dries, a layer of liquid polyurethane with hardener is poured on top and, thus, you get the product you need.
Before filling the mixture, it is necessary to completely clean the mold. In some cases, it is recommended to lubricate them with fat-containing mixtures in addition to prevent sticking.
The next step is preparation of the solution. It is necessary to mix the following ingredients in a plastic container:
- gypsum - 6 parts;
- pure water - at a rate of 1: 0.7 relative to the gypsum;
- colors - if necessary.
Mix all components with a construction mixer. Long it is not necessary to interfere, otherwise the gypsum will begin to grasp. Gently pour the liquid into the mold and level with a spatula. The solution is prepared only once and is consumed as soon as possible after mixing.
To pour gypsum solution into a mold it is neat, then smooth with
spatula. Do not add cement, although it will strengthen the stone from gypsum, but it will increase the risk of fungus appearance in the future.
Forms before filling should be put on a perfectly flat surface. In order for the gypsum tiles to seize, it takes about 15-20 minutes. Despite this, to completely dry the stone must be kept in a dry, warm room for at least 24 hours.
To ensure that no defects are formed on the tile, it must be completely leveled and air bubbles removed from the structure of the mass, using a vibrating table for this. You can also do it yourself.
After the gypsum has dried, the tile is removed and left to dry further. Carefully remove the product from the mold, since it is still very fragile. To speed up the drying process, you can use a special drying chamber. Do not expose gypsum to sunlight.
Very carefully remove the tile from the mold, since it is still quite fragile
Since the gypsum tiles made under the stone with their own hands, initially has a white color, it is necessary to take care of its painting. To do this, use dry pigments or water-soluble liquid colors for paint. You can do this in several ways:
- Add coloring to the liquid mixture before pouring into the mold. Get a homogeneous toned mass.
- Brush the shape itself. Thus it is possible to distinguish separate fragments of gypsum tile and make it more natural. Can be used in combination with the first method.
- Mix several pigments with water and apply with a spray on the finished stone. Then open the tile with frosted acrylic lacquer. This painting can be done both before the installation of the lining, and after this.
As you can see, there is nothing particularly complicated in the production of plaster tiles by hand. Try and maybe you will open your own business.
How do you prefer to make repairs?
Perhaps I missed something, or in your specific case I need something else, so do not take these lists as an exact instruction. This is just for reference.
Now we can proceed to more accurate information.
All technology will be described in relation to my case. Do not pay attention to what I tell only about the pilaster. This can be done with everything in a row.
So, the beginning of the creation of the form is conditioned by the preparation of the foundation on which it fits( see the photo above).On it, the form will remain shy, so pay special attention to ensure that everything is smooth. As a base for the shape of a pilaster, I used a homemade countertop of a suitable size from planks and plasterboard. The gypsum board was pre-coated with polyethylene film, fastening it to the table with staples.
This is necessary for tightness. Then the entire surface of the pilaster is smeared with a separating grease. If this is not done, the silicone, which we will coat the pilaster, will be stuck to the product to be copied.
Preparation of silicone mixture, which is the basis of the future form.
In fact, you need two elements: silicone and silicone oil, which are mixed together.
Oil is necessary to make the silicone even more elastic, but if your form is relatively simple and does not have a large number of protrusions, etc., silicone oil is not necessary.
When everything is ready, you can tackle the most critical part. Silicone mixture must be lubricated copy product. It should be done very carefully. It is important that the silicone gets into all pores. To speed up this process, you should use a brush. Smooth smears silicone is driven into all grooves and with it air bubbles are removed.
By the way about bubbles : make sure that they do not exist at all, since after drying of silicone in such places there are shells that will spoil all subsequent products made of this form.
Silicone layers will have to be applied a few. After the first layer, it is necessary to conduct the reinforcement, so that in the future our form is elastic, but strong at the same time. For this I used ordinary gauze. When stacking it on the product, make sure that it fits tightly, but without straining. The cheesecloth is slightly recessed into the already applied layer of silicone.
Then, on top of a slightly recessed gauze, subsequent silicone layers are applied.
Let the silicone dry out a little. In weak places, in our case it is the sides of the pilaster, we arrange an additional thickening of the form. In this we will help all the same silicone. It is more convenient to take silicone in tubes, which is charged in a silicone gun. A strip of silicone is applied along the edges and spreads on the edge of the product with a brush or a finger. Strangely enough, it is preferable to use a finger, only moisten it with water beforehand, so that silicone is not sticking to it.
Again let a little dry the entire product and after the completion of this process, proceed to the next step.
Bed for the form.
Now you, most likely, had a question: "What kind of bed?".This is a special plaster base, in which a silicone mold will be inserted. Gypsum bed is necessary to ensure that in the process of manufacturing the product in a silicone form, it retained its original appearance and was not deformed.
The construction of the bed begins with the creation of the formwork. In my case rubber plates were used, which I sealed with a paint tape, and pressed them against the sides with concrete bricks, so that the structure would not part. For greater reliability and sealing, the rubber plates to the base are also glued to the silicone.
This concludes the silicone work. There is a little bad news: a brush that you have smeared pores on when filling them with silicone, now you can only throw it away.
The next step is to create a plaster mixture for the bed.
To do this, mix the PVA glue with water, which is then added to the gypsum. There also comes a bit of cement, to give additional strength. As for the glue - it plays the role of plasticizer.
The resulting gypsum mixture is poured into our formwork onto the product.
In this process, all pores should also be smeared with a brush. Filling with a plaster mixture of formwork, the resulting layers should be leveled with a spatula.
The finishing touches for mold making.
When the gypsum is filled in enough, you need to remove excess moisture from its surface. This is done in two ways. The first slower is to scoop out water.
The second - to make a hole in the corner of the formwork and a spatula to drive water there, after having substituted the bucket.
We give the resulting product time to dry. In my case, it took 24 hours. When the gypsum has thoroughly grasped, we can say so, for the first time to estimate the result of our work. If something has been done wrong, only now you can see it, so at this stage you will either be delighted or be greatly upset.
The final point is the evaluation of the mold for the production of gypsum pilasters.
Turn the product gypsum bed down and out of the silicone mold that we made, extract the copied pilaster. We do it very carefully, still fresh! After we take out the very silicone mold.
Bed leave to dry separately.
Thus, both will dry out faster.
After a couple of days, you can safely fill the plaster in the mold and make as many copies of the pilasters as you like. Although you spent a lot of money on silicone, but now you will make products for pennies, because all the ingredients for cooking are cheap.
This method is suitable for those who have planned to place in their home or apartment a large number of the same type of stucco, but if you only need two or three identical products - buy them better at once in the store.
I did not specify the exact proportions in the article intentionally. The fact is that for all producers, gypsum and other components are different, so each experimentally selects the right proportions for itself.
How to make a gypsum product, having a ready-made form, I'll tell you in more detail in the article: "Creating a plaster mold with the help of a silicone mold."
The site rems-info.ru we wish you all successful repairs!
Stone from plaster with own hands |Building portal
For aesthetic finishing of houses use a natural stone for a lot of time. The natural stone at all times was very expensive. But today, out of this situation, we found a way out, which consists in making an artificial stone with our own hands on the basis of gypsum. Accordingly, the cost of such material will be lower than the price of natural.
- Installation of gypsum stone on the surface
Features of the artificial stone
The use of natural stone makes it possible to achieve different results when decorating the interiors of buildings. You can place the room in a chivalrous style, and in the end you will get a real castle. It turns out and the fireplace to make shale, which looks very aesthetically.
For all its merits, beautiful forms and the color of natural stone, there are some drawbacks to it. These include such characteristics as: high cost, heavy weight( such a load not every wall will withstand), considerable transportation costs. To apply stones in the interior decoration and to minimize all the shortcomings written above, a technology was created for the production of artificial stone.
There are no special differences between natural and decorative stone. But all the same, the artificial does not have such big drawbacks as the natural one. For the manufacture of decorative material, there are several options. In the first of them water, sand and cement are used, in the second - gypsum or alabaster. There is another option when different polymeric substances are used.
Advantages of decorative stone
If you need to choose between natural and artificially created stone, then artificial stone has a number of the following advantages:
- If you consider two externally identical stones, decorative and natural, the first will be several times lighter. The low weight of the artificial stone makes it possible to revet the thin partitions with it.
- Artificial stone is processed much easier and easier. It is often made with thin tiles to reduce the weight of the object, with no loss in strength. Also it is produced on the site of use, excluding losses during transportation. In addition, it is possible to make an artificial gypsum stone immediately smooth, which will reduce the significant costs of processing the stone - grinding and polishing.
- Decorative stone is not afraid of various atmospheric influences and corrosion, unlike a natural competitor.
- Decoratively finished walls with the help of this material are perfectly washed and do not lend themselves to contamination. However, such a coating is hygroscopic.
- The design of an artificial stone can be arbitrary. We will talk about its features later.
- Artificial stone has one more advantage compared to natural stone. He has a wide color range.
- Due to the variety of decorative stone suitable for any room. Facing them is done both indoors and outdoors.
In addition, the decorative material can be made as similar to any natural material. Artificial stone by the surface type can be:
- Crushed. In this case, it seems that the edges have been broken off with a hammer, that is, an uneven surface is produced.
- Sawed. The stone has uneven smooth edges.
- Butovoi. The stones are like natural boulders.
- Arbitrary. The designer realizes all his fantasies in the form of the material.
- Decorative. For implementation, other types of surfaces may also be required, designed for finishing various ensembles, for example, decorative gypsum stones in the style of marine themes or imitating shale.
Artificial gypsum stone by your own hands
Decorative stone made from gypsum is not particularly difficult. Of course, for the first time it may not work out all smoothly, but do not get discouraged.
Your house, thanks to this finish, will be filled with a special color, comfort and beauty.
Preparatory work for
In the preliminary stage, prepare for the manufacture of artificial stone such materials and tools:
- White gypsum;
- Plastic container that is needed for mixing different components;
- Glass corrugated;
- Water-based colorants.
For the production of stone and gypsum huge areas do not need. Enough of a few squares. Pre-arranged table workstation. Racks and shelves should be near at hand. Next, we prepare the gypsum solution from such elements as water, gypsum, anhydride.
Creating molds for a stone
Remember that you should pay enough attention to the forms for making a decorative stone:
- The most optimal and plastic are molds made of silicone. It is also possible to use molds made of metal, plastic, and wood. But they do not give a clear texture of gypsum, that is, they do not reflect small details of bends and various reliefs.
- Usually, the molds are produced by choosing the size of the stone you like. A sample for hand-made stone production is selected in the store.
- For making molds in which an artificial stone is cast, prepare silicone and a box of the necessary sizes. It should be slightly larger than the sample stone. Such a box serves as a formwork.
- The box and the stone should be coated with desirable solidol, but other types of lubricants can be used. The stone is placed on the very bottom of the box.
- For better performance, it is required to make molds and formwork in several pieces. In the presence of several forms, you can make many more stones.
- Next, the silicone is poured into the formwork. For better compaction, make a rammer with a brush, which is soaked with a soap solution. As such a soap solution is used Fairy. After filling with a silicone form, smooth the entire surface with a spatula( moistened with Fairy).
- Filled molds dry out within a few weeks. After this, the formwork is broken and a sample stone is obtained. The form for gypsum stone is ready.
- If there are minor defects on the surface, they are sealed with silicone.
- It is also possible to use ready-made silicone models that are commercially available.
Making gypsum stone
After making molds for decorative stone, you can begin to make it yourself:
- To save, the amount of solution should be equal to the number of molds. In terms of its parameters, the gypsum dough freezes quite quickly, so it can not be left for the next few times.
- The proportion of gypsum and water is determined by yourself.
- After pouring water into the container, in small portions we pour gypsum, while stirring until the normal density of such a gypsum test is obtained. The solution for consistency should be thick because the liquid is long drying and less durable.
- 10% sand is usually added to obtain a more durable material.
- We lubricate the working surfaces of molds with a mixture of wax and turpentine. This procedure is done in order to easily get a frozen stone.
- This mixture is made by means of a water bath, which allows dissolution of the wax. The substance on the inner surface is applied in a thin layer.
- To protect the stone from shells that can form, it is necessary to apply liquid gypsum to the working surface. We put the prepared forms in a pallet.
- In order to make a stone of a certain color, we make the mixing of the necessary paint with gypsum even at the stage of mixing the gypsum dough. Separate tanks are used for this purpose. However, as a result, an inhomogeneous color is obtained.
- Next, we fill the main part of the gypsum into the stone mold and use a spatula to accurately level the substance.
- Forms are covered with corrugated glass and produce vibration for uniform styling. It all takes about two minutes.
- The gypsum freezes within 15-20 minutes. With easy separation of the glass from the molds we take out the products and after that we dry up in the open air. We do not recommend heat treatment, because it changes the performance of the decorative stone from gypsum.
- After making a gypsum stone, you can paint it. For painting, you need a brush and a special paint. The painting procedure is carried out in the following way: dust and other dirt are removed from the surface of the artificial stone using a rag, then the coloring composition is uniformly applied to the surface. After complete drying, we apply the paint several more times until the required shade is obtained.
Installation of gypsum stone on the surface of
After you have made a decorative stone, it will be useful for you to find out how it is laid:
- Artificial gypsum stone can be attached to any surface. No exception is wooden and plasterboard.
- When installing an artificial stone on a tree, it is necessary to make an additional crate and waterproofing on the surface. If you decide to lay artificial stone on concrete or brick surfaces, then you do not need special preparation, except to do the leveling of the surface before installation.
- Before laying the stone, it must be remembered that the surface must be low-fat and smooth. But still it is ideal to level the surface - there is no special need for the fact that the stone itself can be uneven.
- The next stage of fixing the stone from gypsum will be marking on the wall. The first row of artificial stone should be level. Taking the level, we make the definition of the upper point of the floor. Also for the point of the report you can take the floor skirting. From the top point, draw a line along the entire length of the line, where the decorative items will be placed.
- If there is a distance of about 5 mm from the bottom point to the line, leave it as it is. This gap simply zashpaklyuetsya and painted under the color that has a stone. If the gap has reached an index that is more than 5 mm, then remember that you need to prune stones. To do this, use an ordinary hacksaw.
- Before installing gypsum stones, they make their laying directly on the floor with their own hands, their selection, and if necessary, adjust the stones with each other. If necessary, change the geometric parameters of the workpiece using the same hacksaw.
- Treat with a special primer mix base. Or we use gypsum plaster. And then we apply a cement-adhesive mortar with a notched trowel.
- The stone is fixed to the wall with cement and cement-glue mortars, and can also be fixed with special glue. As such a composition, mastic, sealant, water-acrylic and mounting glue can be used. It is also good to use a mixture of PVA and gypsum.
- The stones can be fastened in two ways - with jointing and without basting. In the first variant, a gap not exceeding 2.5 cm is made, which is rubbed with a special grout. This option is considered the most economical, but for some types of stones it may not be suitable. Such products are laid up in a full-fledged manner.
- We prepare as much tile glue so that we can work for 20 minutes, because then it starts to freeze. Density of such a solution should be similar to the consistency of toothpaste. Apply the mortar with a spatula. The thickness of the applied layer should reach 4 mm. The solution dries quickly enough, so the area of the lubricant should be approximately one square kilogram.m.
- Stone laying begins with elements that will be located in the corners. Next, they work near the openings and windows. After that start to install horizontal rows. We do this so that the subsequent overlap the vertical seams of the previous row. This is done, as in brickwork. It looks great.
- It is obligatory to lay pieces of fiberboard between the rows of decorative stone. After complete drying, they are removed. This is done to ensure that the seam along the entire length is even. Usually the width of the row is about 10 mm.
- Gypsum stone is applied in such a way that from under it squeezed out unnecessary glue. It is also necessary to ensure that this compound does not get on the front side. Watch is recommended and for the evenness of the rows. However, this finish can be asymmetric, with some curvature, it is not necessary to make the rows even.
And finally, a decorative stone can be treated with a special composition with a moisture-repellent effect for greater durability when used in rooms with high humidity.
Stucco from plaster with own hands - gypsum stucco
The stucco molding made of plaster can almost instantly transform the interior beyond recognition, giving it elegance and nobility. For many centuries gypsum decor is an effective decoration of the interior and facades of buildings, giving each building its own unique character and style.
For many centuries only stucco was used for stucco production. Today, thanks to a large selection of plasticizing components, the manufacture of gypsum stucco is converted into a simpler and more affordable process, and the products obtained are characterized by increased strength and resistance to mechanical damage. Excellent physical characteristics of gypsum are complemented by its aesthetic merits.
The main advantage of stucco molding from gypsum is its ecological compatibility and absolute harmlessness. Gypsum is resistant to mold and fungus, its surface is not a favorable environment for various microorganisms. The main disadvantage of gypsum decorative products is heavy weight. Therefore, when installing stucco moldings from gypsum, careful attention should be paid to the preparation of the surface and the bearing capacity of the structural elements to which the products will be fastened.
Mixing of gypsum
When choosing for decoration various decorative elements from gypsum, it is necessary to focus on the stylistics of the surrounding space, your taste, personal wishes, and also on the overall dimensions of the premises. Moreover, modern trends in interior fashion make it possible to combine architectural decor, made in a classical style with modern design styles, such as minimalism, high-tech and avant-gardism. In addition, stucco can be produced in a wide range. Among a wide selection of gypsum products you can find: columns, ceiling sockets, cornices, moldings, brackets, pilasters and other elements. However, in order to make any products from plaster moldings, you first need to make a template, a special model-the shape of the future product.
Molds for gypsum
The stucco model is drawn in advance or a ready-made template is taken, if it is a question of reconstruction or restoration of the room. It should be remembered that the size of the form should be slightly larger than the required model. Using a special clay allows you to change the template an unlimited number of times until you get the right product.
Manufacturing of plaster mold
After the preparation of the sketch, the stucco molds begin to produce the chosen type of products. For gypsum composition, it is necessary to purchase a quality, certified gypsum, which was stored and transported in accordance with current standards and manufacturer's instructions. The gypsum is dissolved by water to the state of sour cream. To accelerate the hardening of products, you can use hot water. However, if a larger model is planned, it is better to use water at room temperature to avoid rapid hardening and uneven distribution of the solution.
Specialists recommend adding PVA or other water based adhesive to give plasticity. Products with the addition of PVA faster gain strength. Stucco molding with glue composition is less prone to chips and cracks. The amount of PVA or any other adhesive composition is calculated by experiment, depending on the shape of the product and its complexity. For large products, many manufacturers add white cement and additional plasticizers.
It is necessary to produce batch quickly, otherwise the mixture will thicken, turning into a non-plastic compound. Mix the finished composition best with a drill. The ideal solution should be similar to liquid sour cream, but not very rare.
The process of manufacturing gypsum stucco
The obtained composition is filled with the prepared form, beforehand by brushing the entire inner surface of the template. If you have a special vibration table or other suitable equipment, you can additionally perform the process of vibrating to remove excess air bubbles. This helps to avoid the appearance of shells in the gypsum composition and on the front surface of the finished products. After filling the mold, the back part of the stucco should be carefully leveled with a spatula.
After a certain period of time, the gypsum piece is very carefully taken out of the mold and sent to the drying, the term of which depends on the thickness and dimensions of the product. As a rule, standard moldings are enough for one day before the set of necessary strength.
A mold for gypsum made of silicone by hand.
imaging technology with silicone
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