Osteoarthritis of the knee joint 1 degree
Osteoarthritis of the knee joint of the 1st degree, or gonarthrosis, is one of the most common diseases of the joints in our time. True, this type of arthrosis is different and the easiest course and positive predictions for a complete cure.
Osteoarthritis of the knee joint
Causes of the disease
The main cause of gonarthrosis is often high physical activity: over the past 100 years, people have become much more moving, doing sports, increasing the overall life expectancy - all this together leads to a growing number of joint diseases.
Among other reasons for arthrosis of the knee joint are the following:
- Various kinds of injuries .Usual dislocations or fractures lead to the fact that the knee stops fully bending, deforms, blood circulation is disrupted, and as a result, posttraumatic arthrosis occurs. Usually it develops within 3-5 years after getting the injury, but the consequences can touch the patient before. Damage and subsequent removal of the meniscus( a characteristic sports injury) in 80% of cases leads to gonarthrosis.
Using a special knee brace will allow the joint to be fixed in place.
- Excessive physical activity of the , not age-appropriate. It must be remembered that after 40 years the elasticity of the cartilaginous tissue and joints sharply decreases and the load is appropriately selected according to age.
- Overweight has a negative effect on the joints, which can even lead to the need for surgical intervention.
- Genetic predisposition, metabolic disorders. This also includes various diseases associated with congenital bone or joint damage.
- Arthritis , causing inflammation in the joints, can cause secondary arthrosis of the knee joint 1 degree.
Stages of the disease
Osteoarthritis of the knee arises from the loss of joint cartilage flexibility and elasticity. Over time, it becomes thinner, it shows cracks and, as a result, stratification occurs.
The initial stage of the development of the disease is arthrosis of the knee joint of the 1st degree, at which the following clinical picture is observed: narrowing of the gap in the joint, sharpening of the edges of its surface, easy restriction of mobility, softening of the cartilaginous tissues.
If cysts appear, small cracks, mobility is significantly limited, then we can speak about the second stage of the disease.
Symptoms of the disease
Osteoarthritis of the knee joint of the 1st degree does not occur sharply in one day: it develops gradually, and many people write off the first symptoms for usual fatigue or just do not pay attention to them:
- aching pains that increase with physical activity on the joint;
- discomfort in the morning, after sleep, or after a long sitting in one pose that passes with the beginning of the movement;
- weak pain during the day, especially when climbing or climbing the stairs.
Gradually can be added a crunch in the knee, again a slight, slight swelling in the joint area, a slight muscle weakness on the aching leg, an aching joint in hypothermia. If you find at least one of your symptoms, it's an occasion to immediately consult a doctor and get qualified help that will allow you to maintain normal legal capacity.
Unfortunately, there is currently no medicine that will magically completely cure you of arthrosis of the knee joint of 1 degree, but there are a number of drugs and exercises that can ease and significantly slow the course of the disease.
To treatment of gonarthrosis must be approached in a complex way, then it will be possible to achieve the best results. So, what are the treatment methods?
Relieve pain with drugs
You will be prescribed drugs from a group of non-steroidal( ie non-hormonal) anti-inflammatory drugs. These include:
- and others.
The main task, which is performed by medicines is groups, is the removal of acute pain, but not the treatment of arthrosis itself. Long-term use is contraindicated in view of the possibility of masking the symptoms and the development of serious side effects. Therefore, after the removal of pain symptoms, proceed to the next point.
Improving the state of the cartilaginous tissue
Drugs that will help at this stage belong to the group of hondoprotectors, which, first of all, slow down the destruction of the cartilaginous tissue. To restore the cartilage surfaces of the joint, substances such as chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine are used, which are contained in the following preparations:
At the first stage of arthrosis development, these are one of the most important medicines. With the further development of gonarthrosis, unfortunately, their effectiveness is reduced to almost zero.
It is important to remember that chondoprotectors should be taken on a regular basis, as a one-off medication or occasionally will not have any effect.
We are fighting with the inflammatory process of
Corticosteroids, or anti-inflammatory hormones, help to cope with this task. Such drugs can cause serious side effects, so they are usually not taken internally, but as injections into the knee joint( hydrocortisone, kenalog, diprospan) or ointments, among which there are also hormone-free substances( DIP-release, Bystrum-gel, diclofenac, gevkamin, menovazin, etc.).
Ointments and injections do not treat arthrosis of the knee joint of the 1st degree, but they relieve the inflammatory process and in many cases alleviate the pain syndrome.
To improve the effect of treatment, in addition to medicinal products, it is recommended to use other methods:
- Manual therapy and physiotherapy .Normalized physical loads under the supervision of specialists and manual therapy of the knee joint give good results in gonarthrosis 1 degree.
The process of treating 1st degree arthrosis with physical exercises
- Physiotherapy , especially in combination with a correctly selected course of medication, can give a quick result of a noticeable improvement in the patient. At this stage, the application of infrared laser therapy, ultrasound therapy, magnetotherapy, radon baths. Physiotherapeutic procedures can not be performed during acute inflammation.
- Preventative methods .These include weight loss and reduced physical exertion, which in turn will reduce the burden on the knee joint. It is also recommended to follow a special diet, excluding semi-finished products, ready-made meat, fast food from the ration, limiting consumption of salt, sweet, flour and carbonated products.
Treatment with traditional medicine
The basic treatment can be supplemented with folk methods, but only after consultation with the attending physician. How can one combat arthrosis of the knee joint at home?
- Use compresses from cabbage leaf with honey, tying them to the knee joint with a bandage or other bandage. Compresses should be changed twice a day for a month.
- Eat lemon with peel.
- Drink apple cider vinegar, diluted in water,( 2 tsp to a glass of water): you need to drink three times during the day.
- Prepare this lap: 1 teaspoon.turpentine and 1 tbsp.apple cider vinegar, - mix thoroughly and apply for the night on the knee, wrapped in a woolen shawl.
- Prepare oil from celandine( it perfectly relieves pain).You will need three tablespoons freshly picked leaves and celandine stems, mash them and pour 1 l.olive oil( can be replaced with sunflower oil), infuse the mixture for 2 weeks, carefully wring out to leave no leaves, and massage the damaged joint with a small amount of this oil.
In general, with timely and properly selected treatment, a patient can significantly ease the course of such an unpleasant illness as arthrosis of the knee joint of the 1st degree.
Symptoms and treatment of grade 2 arthrosis: a complete characterization of the disease
Arthrosis today affects more than half of people over 60 years of age, but it occurs at any age, even in children and adolescents. The initial stage of the disease often passes asymptomatically, and is found most often already with arthrosis of the 2nd degree. What is it, how serious is the disease? What are the current methods of treatment? Vast answers are already in the next paragraph.
Click to enlarge
Essence and causes of arthrosis of the 2nd degree
Arthrosis( osteoarthrosis) is a disease in which the joints deformity process occurs due to the gradual destruction of the articular cartilage and its "basement" - the bone plate located between the main joint bone and the cartilage(subchondral bone).Most often this disease affects joints of the foot, knee, hip joint, less often - cervical vertebrae, brushes, elbows.
In general, the development of arthrosis can provoke 5 major factors:
metabolic disorders( metabolism),
infectious or autoimmune diseases,
But , the main reason for arthrosis of the 2nd degree is untimely or ineffective treatment of the initial stage of the disease, when the cartilage is just beginning to thin out and lose its amortization qualities. At the second degree of pathology the cartilaginous layer is already significantly destroyed, and the bared bone experiences constant friction.
Characteristic symptoms of the disease
If in the initial period of the disease the patient can not make any complaints other than a slight morning joint stiffness, then the 2nd degree of arthrosis always has specific symptoms:
- joint pain caused by its partial deformation,
- characteristic crunch( creping)
- sensation of stiffness, "tightness" of the joint,
- insignificant limitation of the volume of movements.
Symptoms of arthrosis of the second degree are manifested mainly during exercise and disappear after rest. A strong incessant pain at this stage of the disease, as a rule, is absent. At this stage, the disease is easily diagnosed: an X-ray image shows a decrease in the size of the joint gap and sclerotic changes in the subchondral bone( replacement of its own cells with a connective tissue).
X-ray of the joint affected by arthrosis of the 2nd degree
Methods of effective treatment
The main tasks of treatment of arthrosis of the 2nd degree are to alleviate the sufferings of the patient, to restore the mobility of the joint;stop the progression of the disease and avoid disability. With a diligent and responsible approach to therapy, all tasks are solved, although the treatment of this ailment even at its initial stages is a long and complex process.
1) Traditional remedies that are used at all stages of the disease:
- analgesics( paracetamol, arthrosan, moneyblood);
- non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs( diclofenac, aspirin, orthophene, indomethacin, ibuprofen);
- vasodilator preparations( trental, berlition, euphyllin).
2) At 2 degrees of arthrosis chondroprotectors( chondroitin sulfate or glucosamine) are prescribed to restore the cartilage tissue. They are effective in two initial stages of the disease, with 3 and 4 degrees of arthrosis, their effect is either short-term or completely absent, since the restoration of cartilage is almost impossible.
3) A good effect in the treatment of 2 degrees of arthrosis gives an injection into the joint cavity of hyaluronic acid. It stimulates the restoration of cartilage and partially replaces the synovial fluid. In advanced cases of the disease, the use of hyaluronic acid is impractical for the same reason as the use of chondroprotectors.
LFK and physiotherapy
Complex treatment of any stage of arthrosis necessarily includes physiotherapy and physiotherapy procedures:
One of the means in the fight against arthrosis has always been a diet. From the diet should be excluded any canned food, smoked products, broths, fatty meat, corn oil. We recommend vegetables, fruits, seaweed - products containing polysaccharide pectin. It acts in the body like hyaluronic acid, because it is its derivative. Useful sour-milk products, fish, lean meat, steamed.
The most serious consequence of arthrosis is the complete destruction of cartilage. It often leads to loss of joint mobility( ankylosis), when the only way out is prosthetics. Therefore, if there are characteristic symptoms, you should refrain from heavy physical exertion and immediately seek medical advice from a doctor.
Osteoarthritis is one of the most common diseases in the world. Let's start by giving a definition of this ailment.
Arthrosis is called the destructive processes of cartilage and bone tissue. Do not confuse it with arthritis( it is characterized by inflammatory processes in the joints) - these are absolutely different diseases.
As a rule, they do not provoke the development of each other, except for reactive arthritis - it can contribute to the appearance of arthrosis.
As for the symptoms, they arise depending on the location of the affected joint and the degree of development of the disease.
Next, we will consider in more detail arthrosis 1 degree - the initial stage is very important, because with the timely identification and treatment of the disease, complete recovery is possible.
So, symptoms of arthrosis 1 degree:
- uncomfortable sensations in any joint;
- crunch in the joint;
- periodic aching pain even after a light load or on the weather;
- feeling of limitation of joint mobility;
- possible rapid fatigue.
Symptoms may be so mild that the patient, without experiencing any appreciable discomfort, will not pay due attention to them. But it would be worth it!
Diagnosis of grade 1 arthrosis is to undergo an X-ray examination, but even in the picture it is very difficult to identify the signs of the onset of the disease. The rough surface of the joint and its small hardening may help to diagnose the diagnosis.
Causes of arthrosis
If to consider in detail, the process of development of this pathology begins with the fact that the cartilage and bone tissues in the joints cease to withstand the load, and there may be many reasons for this:
- , people aged are at risk, as with time the joints losethe former strength;
- people with disabilities of the endocrine system, hormonal imbalance;
- among the factors of significant influence was excessive weight - increased load promotes rapid wear of joints;
- lack of vitamins and minerals, metabolic disorders in cartilage tissues;
- long and strong physical activity;
- small mobility.
Treatment of arthrosis 1 degree
At the initial stage of arthrosis only conservative treatment is used, which consists of a number of prescriptions:
- , the patient is advised to exclude alcohol from the consumed products and carefully monitor the diet - he must be balanced, limit the use of meat, replace with poultry or fish, eatmore fruits, vegetables and calcium-containing foods;
- is very important therapeutic gymnastics: it improves blood circulation, muscles become stronger, the body comes into tonus;
- relaxing massage;
- electromagnetic procedures to enhance blood flow;
- mud treatment.
to the menu ↑
Prevention of arthrosis of 1 degree
May be primary and secondary. In the first case, we are talking about weight control, prevention of injuries, the choice of comfortable shoes and other factors that will help reduce the risk of disease. In general, about a healthy and correct way of life.
In the second case, there are preventive measures to prevent the recurrence of the disease, which mainly consist of maintaining a diet, regular exercise, controlling body weight and using medications prescribed by the doctor( for example, vitamins to strengthen the cartilage).
Arthrosis of 2nd degree - symptoms and effective treatment
- 4.4 Diet
Causes of arthrosis
The main cause leading to arthrosis is incorrect and untimely treatment of the primary stage of this disease. In this case, only a certain thinning of the cartilage and loss of its working properties are observed. The second stage implies a significant destruction of the cartilaginous tissue, as a result of which the bones become bare and experience unwanted friction.
To a greater extent such organ damage is attributed to age-related manifestations, but young people are also susceptible to it. Specific factors cause arthrosis.
- Injuries - posttraumatic arthrosis.
- Disorders in the metabolic processes of the body.
- Some diseases that are infectious or autoimmune in nature.
- Flat-footed, as well as continuous static loads.
- The problems that arise in the vessels of the lower limbs, which causes a deficiency in the supply of cartilaginous tissue.
- Irreversible age changes.
Symptomatology of arthrosis diseases
To treat arthrosis of 2 degrees is quite difficult. In this case, time is already lost and the appeal to the people's means becomes hopeless. The disease progresses, and the joints begin to significantly deform. The characteristic signs are revealed, according to which the presence of the disease can be determined independently:
- joint pain;
- feels some stiffness or stiffness of the joint;
- the amplitude of the necessary movements is limited.
Symptoms occur more often with exertion, weakening and retreating after sufficient rest. For the present there is no constant sharp pain. Diagnosing the disease at this stage is not difficult. An x-ray examination clearly shows a decrease in the joint gap.
The main types of arthrosis
Since this lesion affects all the joints of the body, it can be observed in specific joints.
Osteoarthritis 2 and the subsequent degree of the shoulder joint can be determined by impairing the freedom of movement of the hands. For the first stage only painful sensations are characteristic, the second is manifested by persistent strong pains and complete limitation of movements. It is impossible to raise a hand to try to get something or just scratch it.
The pain can continue even in the static position of the hands. The most dangerous and severe form of this disease is arthrosis deforming.
Symptomatic of arthritis of the foot is similar to manifestations of arthritis. But arthrosis at 2 degrees of foot has its own peculiarities:
- in joints can appear a characteristic crunch;
- physical activities are accompanied by unstable blunt pains, which can intensify in wet and cold weather;
- awakening can be accompanied by stiffness of movements, and during the day the mobility of joints is limited;
- gradually deforms the joints, which is caused by bone growths;
- changes the gait and position of the body due to the desire to relieve the diseased part of the foot;
- area of the affected area is periodically swollen;
- the temperature rises;
- appears specific calluses, working capacity decreases;
- function of the joints are broken, and their thickening occurs.
If untimely treatment will degenerate processes that will form a permanent pain syndrome.
Osteoarthritis in 2 degrees of the hip joint is characterized by severe pain manifestations. In this case, pain is observed not only in the joint itself, but also in the thigh and in the groin. Unpleasant sensations can occur even if the body is in a static state.
Continuous walking can cause lameness. The femoral joint bends poorly and unbends, and the muscles are markedly thinned. The second stage of the disease sometimes involves treatment with surgery.
This type of arthrosis is the least common. Most often it occurs as a result of injury - a fracture or dislocation. The course of the disease is accompanied by a crunch and pain during the bending or extension of the joint until it stops.
The mobility of the joint is reduced by 30-50%, and no external manifestations are observed. The hygroma of the wrist joint in the photo is very similar to the manifestation of arthrosis. But this is only outward, and the deformation becomes noticeable only on the condition that it appeared due to a fracture with displacement.
People of some professions may also suffer from this arthrosis. This is especially true for workers who constantly handle jackhammers or vibrators.
Arthrosis of the second degree, striking the knee joint, accompany the pain in any movement. They cease only when lying down. Especially painful are the first steps after a night awakening or after a long stay in one position. This type of pain is given the name of "starters".
The friction between the surfaces of the joints contributes to the painful manifestations, and the constant stress of the shin and thigh muscles prevents the normal bending of the knee. Muscle tension also causes pain and a feeling of fatigue in the leg, which limits the mobility of a person. Requires the use of support when walking.
The patient diagnosed with arthrosis of the 2nd degree treatment is long and rather complicated. Its main tasks are:
- relieving the suffering of the patient;
- localization and arrest of the disease;
- prevention of the onset of disability.
The main drugs can be divided into medicament, physiotherapy and diet. If the conservative treatment is ineffective, a situation may arise that a surgical operation will be required.
There are traditional tools used to treat arthrosis. These are:
- preparations from the group of non-steroids that relieve inflammation;
- preparations that dilate blood vessels.
The use of chondroprotectors is also very effective. They contribute to the restoration of cartilaginous tissue. Good results are observed when hyaluronic acid is injected into the joints. It is able to partially replace the synovial fluid and stimulates the regeneration of the cartilage.
This type of treatment is more often used for arthrosis of the knee joints. When the violation of their function is clearly expressed and the cartilage is completely destroyed, surgical methods are applied:
- endoprosthetics - the damaged area is replaced by an artificial one;
- osteotomy - bone deformities are removed;
- arthroscopic manipulations - removal from the joint cavity of particles of the destroyed cartilage and the introduction of medications.
Arthrosis of the second degree can be treated not only drug or operative. It is possible to alleviate pain symptoms with physiotherapy methods. Widely used and very effective:
Arthrosis. Degree of arthrosis. Treatment and prevention.
Osteoarthritis is a disease of the bones in which the cartilaginous layer in the joint or between the vertebrae gradually deteriorates, which disrupts the mobility of the joint. The disease begins with damage to the articular cartilage, then it breaks down until it disappears completely.
Osteoarthritis of joints has different classification, the most common is osteoarthrosis or deforming arthrosis primary .To its development leads to premature aging, articular cartilage wear associated with a violation of its metabolism. The causes of arthrosis are still not accurately determined.
Post-traumatic arthrosis .It is believed that professional arthrosis occurs as a result of permanent microtrauma, the wear of the joint under the influence of large loads, for example, in athletes. Doctors and the role of the hereditary factor, as well as endocrine disorders and circulatory disorders, do not exclude medicine.
Cartilage, which is destroyed, serves as a shock absorber, therefore, after its disappearance, compaction and deformation of the joint surfaces begins. The joint is deformed, its normal functioning becomes impossible.
Osteoarthrosis is most affected by women aged 40 to 60 years. The most common arthrosis of the extremities is ( osteoarthritis), which affects first of all the hip and knee joints, as well as interphalangeal joints of the hands.
Symptoms of arthrosis
External signs of arthrosis appear gradually increasing by the evening pains, external deformation of the joints, swelling in the joint area. Sometimes, as a result of infringement of a piece of cartilage between articular surfaces, acute pain may occur. Pain in arthrosis is the main symptom of all types of arthrosis.
The most severe form of arthrosis is coxarthrosis - arthrosis of the hip joint .It causes severe pain when walking, restricting movements, shortening the limb due to subluxation of the femoral head. In especially severe cases, coxarthrosis is treated with complete prosthesis of the affected joint. Total degrees of arthrosis of the hip joint 5, starting from the 0th( no arthrosis) to the 5th( pronounced osteoarthritis).Determine the severity of arthrosis from the result of X-ray examination.
Other forms of arthrosis are less dangerous, their prognosis is usually favorable, the work capacity is preserved. In Eastern Siberia and the Trans-Baikal region, this form of arthrosis is common, like arthrosis deforming endemic. Scientists associate its occurrence with infection with the fungus of cereals and lack of calcium in water and soil. Endemic arthrosis children under 16 years of age. The disease is steadily progressing. As a treatment, physiotherapy is used, preparations with a high content of calcium and phosphorus are taken.
The causes of arthrosis
As with many other diseases, there are a lot of causes of arthrosis. Despite the fact that arthrosis is considered an age-related disease, it also occurs in young people. Call arthrosis can:
- joint injury( such arthrosis is called post-traumatic);
- hereditary factor;
- prolonged static load on the joint;
- , as already mentioned, the age-related changes in the structure of the articular cartilage;
- is overweight, which at times increases the load on the joints, especially the joints of the lower limbs.
- metabolic disorders( diabetes mellitus, disease of endocrine glands), which leads to malfunctions in the synthesis of cartilaginous tissue;
- flat feet - shifts the center of gravity and increases the load on the joints;
- problems with the vessels of the lower limbs, which complicate the nutrition of the cartilaginous tissue.
It is possible that over the years there will be some other causes of arthrosis. But at the moment, if you fall into the "risk group", be sure to do the prevention of arthrosis!
Degrees of arthrosis
In medical practice, there are three stages of arthrosis. Patients with this disease are very common. To determine at what stage of development is the arthrosis is fairly easy, the main thing to know the symptoms. So, the first stage consists in metabolic disorders, the second one is associated with traumas, as well as with infectious non-specific arthrosis, and the last, the third stage is the most dangerous, it is caused by disorders in the joints of a person. The treatment and detection of each degree of arthrosis are described in detail below.
Osteoarthritis of 1st degree
At this stage the joints move, however, not fully, but only in the direction in one direction. It is rather difficult to see the seriousness of the disease with the help of an X-ray, since it is not able to detect any abnormalities at the initial level of the disease.
Symptoms of arthrosis of 1 degree .Identify the disease is very simple, on the uneven surface of the place where the joints are located, and according to their solidified state. At the first stage there are no edematous conditions on the joints, the temperature does not appear, the skin, on the joints does not change color. What can be disturbing is the barely audible cracking of the joints, as well as aching pain, and a slight tingling in them. Many simply ignore their illness, but not because they do not care about their own health, but because the signs of the first stage are completely unsettling.
Treatment of arthrosis 1 degree .To further not develop the disease will help the lotions based on horseradish, also perfectly helps the rubbing of various ointments, which include propolis, wax, horseradish. With arthrosis is strictly prohibited the use of any alcoholic beverages, it is recommended to do regular exercises, to balance nutrition.
Osteoarthritis of 2nd degree
Many patients forget about their health due to their employment, and they reach the second degree of arthrosis, and then they turn to the physicians for help. The second degree is able to recognize not only the doctor, but also the patient himself, because joint disorders are obvious. However, arthrosis of this degree does not strike at once, but warns of its onset from afar.
Symptoms of arthrosis of 2nd degree .There is a slight fatigue, there is a feeling of pressure on the joints, especially after any stress on the legs. Knee arthrosis is revealed in very painful sensations, even with the slightest movement. Such painful sensations are accompanied by a knee crunch, and it is becoming more difficult to bend or unbend the leg each time.
The risk of arthrosis of the second degree is a partial deformation of the knee joints. And if you do not start treatment at the time, the disease will not recede, but on the contrary, it will gain momentum.
Treatment of arthrosis of 2nd degree .Unfortunately, to treat arthrosis of the second degree is much heavier than arthrosis of the first degree, because traditional medicine in the second case is powerless. Only modern medicine can help here, and physicians will necessarily prescribe chondroprotectors, as well as drugs that dilate blood vessels.
Osteoarthritis of 3rd degree
The most palpable and painful degree of arthrosis is the third.
Symptoms of arthrosis of the 3rd degree .In the joints gives a sharp pain, and even when the person is in complete peace, that is, the joints are not tense. Not only that the weather conditions directly affect the sensitivity in patients with joints, so also the joints themselves stop working, which leads to total leg incapacity.
Treatment of arthrosis of the 3rd degree .With arthrosis of the third degree, the patient is prescribed a complex treatment. That is, a patient, not only takes all sorts of medicines, but also goes to various procedures, such as: electrophoresis, diadynamic therapy, magnetotherapy, laser therapy, microwave resonance therapy, and electrosleep.
Deforming arthrosis of the joints of the hands
Chronic diseases of the joints of the hands, in which degenerative-dystrophic changes are combined with hyperplastic ones. The disease, extremely widespread, deforming arthrosis is caused by numerous causes, among which, along with trauma, metabolic and endocrine disorders, infection and, what is very important, age changes play a big role. Thus, deforming arthrosis is undoubtedly a polyethological disease, and the summation of microtrauma, usually associated with occupational activity, can be only one of the causes of this disease.
During the deforming arthrosis, 3 phases are marked, each of which is characterized by anatomical features and clinical manifestations. In the 1st phase, aching and gnawing pains in the joint are noted, sometimes worse at night, and movements in the joint are not limited, or some of them are slightly limited and painful. In the second phase, an increasing number of different movements are limited, the pains in the joint become more and more persistent and strong, often accompanied by a sonorous and coarse crunch. In this phase, it is possible to detect a moderate atrophy of the muscles of the corresponding segment of the limb. At the same time, the joint itself is slightly enlarged in volume, which is clearly visible if the process develops in the wrist, metacarpophalangeal, or interphalangeal joints of the hands. In the III phase, the deformation of the joint increases, the movements in it are further restricted, and only the preservation of swinging( pendular) movements indicates the absence of ankylosis. The patient often fixes the joint in a forced position, and it takes a lot of effort to passively conduct a series of movements. The destruction of cartilage in this phase reaches its maximum, the bony marginal growths that deform the articular surfaces of small and large joints are very large. Some areas of bone growths undergo a fracture. Usual are not only muscle malnutrition, but also trophic bone disorders in the form of osteoporosis.
Rheumatoid arthritis manifests itself as a sharp pain in the joints of the hands and feet. As a rule - symmetric. Painful sensations with reactive arthritis of infectious origin are often asymmetric: no joints are aching, but one. The pain moves from foot to foot. Especially vigilant in this case should be those who have already had cases of reactive arthritis in the family. For safety, you can pass a special analysis for the presence in your blood of the ill-fated antigen HLA.B27, and therefore - a predisposition to this kind of rheumatological diseases. To confirm the diagnosis will help and X-ray: with reactive arthritis and with Bekhterev's disease - pelvis, with arthrosis - knees and brushes, with rheumatoid arthritis - brushes and feet.
Treatment of arthrosis of joints
Many are looking for information whether it is possible to cure and how to cure arthrosis. So cure arthrosis to the end is impossible! There is no cure for arthrosis! It is possible only to suspend the course of the disease, to prevent the joint cartilage from collapsing. The main goal of arthrosis therapy is to prevent the progression of cartilage degeneration and the maximum possible preservation of joint function. Treatment of arthrosis should be only complex, that is, to combine several types. To establish the diagnosis, the doctor will send you to X-ray, and only having a picture on hand, he will be able to establish the degree of arthrosis and prescribe treatment. It is also necessary to identify the cause that caused the appearance of arthrosis, if possible, eliminate it and immediately begin treatment. Methods of treatment of joint arthrosis:
- Anesthetize. Most often, the doctor is treated at the stage of the appearance of pain in the joints. Therefore, usually prescribed painkillers - analgesics.
- Relieve inflammation. If there is inflammation, swelling of the joint, it must be eliminated. Anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed.
- Restore cartilage tissue. This is the most important task of the entire treatment. Even if it can not be restored, it is simply necessary to suspend degenerate processes. To do this, medicines containing chondroprotectors are prescribed. It is not worth waiting for an instant result. Nevertheless, if you take the medication at an individually selected course for several months, the result will be obvious.
In the event that joint damage occurs without severe symptoms, the patient may be prescribed ointments for arthrosis with a warming effect, the main purpose of which is to improve local circulation in the affected area.
As examples of such ointments, you can bring Menovazine and Nikoflex - cream, which usually do not provoke the occurrence of allergic reactions and manifestations of side effects. Patients only note a pleasant sensation of warmth and even comfort, which in no way interferes with them.
Prevention of arthrosis
Prevention of arthrosis, as with any other disease, can be primary and secondary. Primary prophylaxis of arthrosis is aimed at controlling weight( fighting obesity), preventing injuries( excluding traumatic sports, choosing a profession that does not burden the knee joints).The risk of arthrosis can significantly reduce the wearing of adequate shoes, as well as regular exercises that strengthen the muscles and support the volume of movement in the joints.
If the disease has already occurred, treatment of it will not have a sufficient and lasting effect if the patient does not change the way of life to a healthier and more rational one. In this case, it is a question of secondary prevention of exacerbations and relapses of arthrosis. Secondary prevention of arthrosis also includes proper nutrition, maintaining optimal body weight and fitness. It is not recommended: red meat, foods with high content of animal fat. It is advisable to replace these products with white poultry meat and fish, especially marine( salmon, tuna, sardines).Eat plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables. In addition, you can take capsules with fish oil. You should drink at least 6-8 glasses of water, this is more than is usually necessary to quench your thirst, so this should become a habit.
There are vitamins and minerals that are especially useful for bones and joints, you need to be sure that you get them in sufficient quantity. Antioxidants are essential vitamins A, C and E. These vitamins are known enemies of free radicals, which destroy cartilage in the inflamed joint. Boron, calcium, copper, magnesium and zinc - these minerals are necessary to provide healthy joints, either alone or in combination with each other or with vitamins. Calcium, for example, is digested only in the presence of a sufficient amount of vitamin D.
Finally, glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate are not only used as pharmacotherapy, but also contribute to the preservation of cartilage elasticity in a healthy joint, preventive administration of these drugs may be appropriate in those cases,when the cartilage is not yet damaged.
Treatment of 1, 2, 3, 4 degrees of knee arthrosis
Discomfort, tenderness, knee crunch - these symptoms can be a sign of developing arthrosis of the knee joint( gonarthrosis).In this disease, the cartilages lining the articular surfaces of bones, thin, crack or just wear out, which leads to a disruption of the normal functioning of the joint.
At the heart of the development of arthrosis are degenerative processes, and not inflammatory, in contrast to arthritis, although quite often inflammation becomes the trigger mechanism for the subsequent destruction of cartilage.
Reasons for arthrosis of the knee joint
There are five groups of causes of the development of this disease:Excessive strain on the joint. This is a problem with overweight, and some sports, and physical labor associated with the transfer of goods or a long stand.
Degrees and symptoms of gonarthrosis
There are three stages of the course of the disease. Each of them has its own clinical picture.First degreeTak, for 1 degree of gonarthrosis is characterized by the appearance of pain and discomfort in the knee after a long walk, physical work. After rest, these symptoms usually disappear. Degenerative changes in the cartilage at this stage are still insignificant, so when examining the knee X-ray, doctors detect only a slight narrowing of the joint slit. The second degree is the development of arthrosis in the knee joint, in which severe pain, stiffness of movements occurs regardless of physical exertion. These symptoms do not decrease after rest. The patient begins to spare the joint, which gradually leads to atrophy of the muscles of the lower limb. Radiologically at this stage, there are obvious signs of arthrosis - areas of cartilage destruction, bone growths, joint deformation, an even narrowing of the joint slit. Third degree In stage 3 of the disease, any movements in the joint are accompanied by intense pain. The patient has to take a forced pose, and to use crutches for movement, because at the reflex level, he simply can not walk normally on the aching leg. Visually, the violation of the limb axis and pronounced deformity of the joint becomes noticeable. The fourth degree is the extreme degree of development of this pathology, called ankylosis, that is, the fusion of articular surfaces and complete immobilization of the joint.
How to treat gonarthrosis?
In the initial stages of this disease, mainly conservative treatment is used. It includes medical therapy, physiotherapy exercises, physiotherapy.
Drug treatment for arthrosis of the knee is aimed primarily at eliminating pain( the patient is prescribed various analgesics).Then, the restoration of the cartilaginous tissue is stimulated. To do this, prescribe drugs that improve microcirculation, as well as specific drugs containing chondroitin and glucosamine. Apply such medications not only in the form of tablets and ointments, but also as intra-articular injections. Treatment of gonarthrosis with chondroprotective agents usually lasts at least a year.
Physiotherapy in gonarthrosis is based on the principle of dosed load, that is, the doctor suggests that the patient should perform movements that do not damage the cartilage, do not load the joint, but contribute to the improvement of cartilage tissue nutrition and, as a result, to its faster and more efficient recovery.
With 2 degrees to treat arthrosis of the knee joint, some conservative methods are not enough, so patients are minimally invasive operations using optical technology. During such interventions, fragments of damaged cartilage, bone growths are removed, that is, they do everything to improve joint mobility. At the third stage of gonarthrosis, it is impossible to restore movements in the joint without a full-fledged operation, such a replacement shows the replacement of articular surfaces with special prostheses.
Disease In the development of this pathology, excessive weight plays an important role, therefore its normalization is a priority preventive measure. Also, one should not forget about motor activity: it is recommended to walk 5-7 km every day on foot.
In addition, it is worth taking care of a variety of nutrition. It should contain enough protein, calcium and healthy fats. That is, in the diet should be present low-fat sour-milk products, lean meat, fish, vegetable oils, dishes based on gelatin.