Transverse flatfootFlatfoot - a change in the shape of the foot, characterized by flattening, reducing the relief of its plantar surface. This negatively affects not only the foot, but also the entire musculoskeletal system. A heavy degree of flatfoot is the basis for refusing to conscript young men. Few people know that this ailment has varieties. There are flatfoot transverse, longitudinal and transverse-longitudinal.
A bit of anatomy
The main parts of the foot: tarsus, plyusna and fingers. All the bones of these sections are interconnected by a multitude of joints( their number in the foot is 24).In addition, the foot is additionally strengthened by numerous muscles, ligaments, connective tissue tendon plates( fasciae, aponeuroses).All these elements ensure the strength and elasticity of our foot, because it accounts for a significant part of the load when moving and maintaining the body in a vertical position.
Nature has taken care to minimize this load as much as possible. The plantar part of the foot is uneven - due to this it springs when moving, and the load does not apply to the whole surface, but to certain places. The unevenness of the sole has the appearance of bends on its surface, called vaults. In the foot, there are 3 vaults - one transverse and two longitudinal( internal and external).The transverse arch is formed by bones of the tarsus( cuboidal and 3 sphenoidal), and also by the heads of 5 metatarsal bones. What is the transverse flatfoot? This decrease in the height of the transverse arch of the foot, leading to changes in its overall configuration.
The main causes of
Depending on the reasons, this kind of flatfoot can be congenital and acquired. Congenital flat feet mainly develop due to genetically caused disorders of the skeletal structure of the foot or the inconsistency of fixative ligaments and aponeuroses. It should be noted that the foot is finally formed by the age of 6, and many diseases and injuries of the musculoskeletal system in children are potentially dangerous in terms of flatfoot development.
However, the acquired flattening of the transverse arch is most often observed in adults in the age range from 35 to 50 years. The main reasons leading to this:
- excessive load on the foot - constant long walking, wearing weights;
- sedentary lifestyle;
- osteoporosis - decrease in density and structure of bone tissue;
- inflammatory diseases affecting the musculoskeletal system( rheumatism, rheumatoid arthritis, gout);
- trauma of the foot( fractures of bones, ruptures of fascia, tendons, muscles);
- age-related degenerative changes in the musculoskeletal apparatus;
- paralyzes of the lower limbs with defeat of the brain or spinal cord( strokes, craniocerebral spinal cord injuries);
And the most common reason is incorrectly selected shoes - flat sole or too high heel. In the first case, with a load on the foot, her bones diverge, all the arches of the foot fall. Apparently, this is connected with the fact that in many cases there is a transversely longitudinal flatfoot, when a decrease in the transverse arch of the foot is preceded by a decrease in the longitudinal arches. At too high a heel( more than 4 cm) the pressure on the anterior parts of the metatarsal bones grows, which diverges to the sides. With the excessive height of the heel, the fact is connected with the fact that among the people suffering from transverse flatfoot 75-80% are women.
Clinical signs of
The main symptoms of transverse flatfoot are:
- pain in the legs and in the foot, increasing with walking;
- increased overall fatigue;
- edema of the feet;
- appearance of characteristic scuffs and corns at the base of the fingers;
- difficulties in the performance of certain movements( for example, to stand on your toes).
Decreasing the height of the transverse arch leads to the fact that the length of the foot in the longitudinal( anteroposterior) direction decreases, and in the transverse direction, it increases. This changes the distribution of gravity to the foot. Normally, most of the load goes to 1 metatarsal bone. With transverse flatfoot, almost all of the load falls on the middle sections( 2 and 3 metatarsal bones).
In this case, the height of the metatarsal bone over the remaining bones increases, 2 and 3 fingers are deformed( beak-like, hammer-shaped deformation), and the 1st finger is deflected outwards. The deviation can be so pronounced that the first finger can be placed over the second one. In this case, at the base of the first finger, the cartilaginous tissue grows excessively in the form of a characteristic cone. It is from the angle of the deviation of the first finger that one can judge the degree of transverse flatfoot. Normally, it is 150. Depending on the severity of the deviation, there are 3 degrees of disease:
- 1 degree - no more than 200;
- 2 degree - 20-400;
- 3 degree - over 400.
The change in the shape of the foot leads to an increase in the load on the other parts of the musculoskeletal system - the lumbosacral spine, shin, knee and ankle joint. In the future this can cause the development of osteochondrosis of the spine, articular arthrosis.
Treatment of the disease
Treatment of transverse flatfoot can be conservative and operative. It should be borne in mind that it is impossible to completely get rid of transverse flatfoot, and all medical measures are aimed at eliminating symptoms and preventing flatfoot progression. Conservative treatment is effective with flat-foot 1-2 degrees and includes:
- therapeutic exercise;
- folk remedies;
- orthopedic appliances.
Exercises for feet involve walking on toes and on the heels, on the outside and on the inside of the foot, rolling from the heel to the toe and back, lifting the light objects( pencil, handle) with your toes. It is also recommended, while sitting, to flex and unbend fingers. All these exercises are designed to strengthen the musculoskeletal apparatus of the shins and feet. This is also facilitated by the massaging of the shins and feet, held in the self-massage. All this is quite feasible at home, but on the recommendation of a massage therapist and specialist LFK.
Among the folk remedies used for transverse flat feet are floral and herbal infusions, decoctions( linden, sage, plantain, yarrow), as well as various mixtures of honey, onions, garlic, sea salt, iodine. All this is used in the form of foot basins, compresses, lotions, which strengthen muscle tone, reduce pain, prevent the development of inflammation.
With flat feet, you should always use special orthopedic insoles. Such insoles are made of polymer materials, repeat the contours of the foot and have thickenings in the problem areas - at the base of the fingers. They use it constantly. To wear shoes must be strictly in size, not tight and not narrow. The optimal height of the heel is 3-4 cm. And it is best to use a special orthopedic footwear, equipped with insoles insole and made to order.
For transverse flatfoot of grade 3 with severe pain, surgery is prescribed. In the course of surgery, correction and fixation of transverse water bones, plastic of ligaments, removal of excess cartilaginous tissue are carried out.
Treatment of transverse platypodia
Treatment of transverse flatfoot often occurs through various forms of fixing the foot, such as insoles in shoes, or even special shoes. Operative intervention is used in the treatment of flatfoot extremely rarely.
With a disease such as flat feet, every second person on Earth is familiar. If flat feet were not in their youth, this does not mean that in old age it will not overtake you. The foot may deform with age due to various external factors( incorrect shoes, load on legs, etc.).Now this disease is very often diagnosed in children. Flatfoot is a change in the foot. Doctors almost recommend flatfoot prevention. From the correct form of the foot depends our spine, and from it all the organs.
Treatment of transverse flatfoot in adults
The first and most frequent flat-footed clients are women. To look beautiful, they go to great sacrifices. Wear the wrong shoes, big heels, platforms blindly following the fashion.
In men, transverse platypodia are much less common. This disease can be in men, when they spend a lot of time on their feet and the whole weight of the body presses on them or aggravates the problem with the wrong footwear. According to statistics, the transverse flatfoot is found in the ratio 8: 2( female men).Also, the transverse flatfoot is transferred genetically along the maternal line.
The treatment of transverse flatfoot in adults is divided into two stages( a kind): conservative and surgical. The orthopedist doctor chooses the method of treatment, after examining the foot and taking an X-ray photograph. At an early stage, it is recommended to treat the transverse flatfoot simply with a warm foot bath. Recommend massages that the specialist does to correct transverse flatfoot. The doctor can prescribe corrective gymnastics and physiotherapy. When pronounced flatfoot designate wear special insoles or orthopedic shoes. Serious deformities of the foot are prescribed surgical intervention.
The most unpleasant thing about this disease is that it can not be completely rid of. The longer you tighten the treatment of transverse flatfoot, the less likely it is to cure. Completely get rid of transverse flatfoot for an adult is almost impossible, but if he was diagnosed as a child, then there are chances.
Treatment of transverse flatfoot in children
According to statistics, 60% of children aged 6 -7 years have flat feet. If you diagnose the disease in time, you can cure it and forget about it forever if you wear the right footwear. In fact, in young children, it is difficult to treat a transverse flatfoot. Only at the age of 12-13 years, when the arch of the foot is not fully formed, but the whole organism is in the process of active growth, it is possible to influence the proper formation of the foot. At a more mature age, the chances of curing the transverse flatfoot greatly diminish. This means one thing that a child will wear orthopedic shoes and insoles. Very rarely there are cases with congenital flat feet. Then the treatment begins with the moment when they have been diagnosed. For the treatment of congenital transverse platypodia children are prescribed plaster bandages or langets. When flat feet, children do not practice surgical intervention.
During treatment it is necessary to attach a lot of attention as the child walks. One should try to put the feet in parallel and lean on the outer edge of the foot.
Treatment of transverse-longitudinal platypodia
The transverse-longitudinal flatfoot is associated with weak foot muscles. There is a movement of the foot muscles, the front part of the foot deviates to the outside, and the heel bone - inside. With transverse-longitudinal flat feet, people often suffer from swelling and pain in the legs. This type of flat feet is most often seen in women who wear narrow shoes with excess weight. In this combination, the stop incorrectly distributes the load and deforms with time.
Treatment of transverse-longitudinal flat feet is first carried out by conservative methods. The treatment package includes hot foot baths with saline solution, which removes swelling. Also recommended baths with chamomile, they will help with pain in the foot and relieve inflammation. From the physiotherapy technique for the treatment of longitudinal-transverse flat feet, electrophoresis with herbal preparations, paraffin applications is very helpful. To support the foot in the correct position will help orthopedic insole. If walking is disturbed, then an operation is performed, otherwise the transverse-longitudinal flat foot will lead to limited movement. Operative intervention will help to get rid of pain and edema, to eliminate discomfort in the foot.
Treatment of transverse platypodia insole
Unfortunately, the first thing that promotes transverse flatfoot is the shoes. Today, when we live in the modern world, walking barefoot is a luxury for us. Therefore, we suffer from flat feet and are forced to improve our shoes to make our feet comfortable. So for the treatment of transverse flatfoot orthopedic insoles and various arch supports were developed. Orthopedic insoles cope with their task in full.
They well cushion the foot, reduce the load on the feet. Before you buy yourself insoles, you need to consult an orthopedist. With the wrong choice of orthopedic insoles, you can damage the foot and exacerbate the flatfoot. For correct selection of the insole, you need to measure all changes in the foot. Ideally, orthopedic insoles should be worn not only for treatment, but also for the prevention of transverse flatfoot.
Surgical treatment of transverse flatfoot
In modern clypeus, surgical operations have been performed for many years to eliminate transverse flatfoot. Surgical intervention is prescribed in the case when conservative treatment does not yield any results, and the pain in the foot increases, the foot deforms further. Most often, the essence of the operation is, to change the angle between the bones of the foot and to correct the transverse arch. After surgical intervention, the foot restores correctly, pain and leakage disappear. An important fact is that after surgery the transverse flatfoot will no longer return.
Folk treatment of transverse platypodia
Folk treatment of transverse flat feet involves physical exercises. No herbal tincture can cure platypodia, but it helps to reduce pain and leakage. To relieve fatigue, chamomile and various coniferous plants will help. They should be added to salt baths. A good effect is observed when walking on tracing paper. You can also make a special rug with different pebbles, which have different shapes and sizes, and walk on them. A somewhat unusual, but effective method can be accounting accounts. Stop putting on the abacus and doing a massage. It is very useful to walk barefoot, even on level ground. This implies walking not on the asphalt, but on the grass. A good effect is the rocking of the bottle with his feet on the floor. If such exercises are done qualitatively and for a long time, the result will not be long in coming.
Treatment of transverse flatfoot 2 degrees
First you need to understand what a transverse flatfoot 2 degrees. In medicine, there are three degrees of flatfoot. The second degree is the level of the arch of the foot from 141 to 155 °, the height of the vault is 24-17 mm.
The second degree of transverse flatfoot is characterized by an increase in the angle of up to 15 degrees. The pain mainly comes from the middle metatarsal bone located under the heads. At the second degree, the corns become more and more, and continue to grow. The thumb twists and grows inside. At this stage, the pain becomes more significant with loads on the foot.
Treatment of transverse flat feet of the 2nd degree consists in wearing orthopedic shoes and limiting interruption in an upright position. Massages, physiotherapeutic procedures and therapeutic gymnastics are very effective. Often, an orthopedic doctor recommends surgery. After surgery, the transverse flatfoot of the 2nd degree completely disappears and does not return.
Treatment of transverse flatfoot exercises
Treatment of transverse flatfoot with physical exercises( LFK) is to strengthen the ligament and the muscle of the foot. Therapeutic exercises should be performed every day for 15-20 minutes, and it is better to do several approaches. Treatment exercises are effective only with transverse flat feet. Such therapeutic exercise is the following process. Connect the straightened legs so that the knees and feet touch one. Try to unbend the left foot and start the front part under the right foot. Repeat for the other leg. Repeat this exercise for 10-15 minutes.
For the following exercises you need to sit down. Take a small ball and try to lift the inside of the foot. Lay out small items on the floor, these can be pencils, batteries, pens and try to collect these objects with your toes. Take a newspaper or paper and crumple your feet.
For the following exercises, you need to take standing positions. Be like on the outer foot while bending your fingers. Also, walk around the room on tiptoe.
Exercise is one of the components of successful treatment of transverse flatfoot.
How to treat transverse platypodia
Flat-footedness is a disease that leads to a change in the arch of the foot. It can happen for various reasons. Doctors say that most often this is due to the development of civilization. Previously, mostly children ran barefoot on the grass, sand, earth. Thus, they perfectly trained the muscles and ligaments of the legs, which allowed the normal formation of the arch of the foot. Now, early wearing of shoes and even sex lead to flat feet. But do not worry. This ailment can be corrected, it is important to turn to the orthopedist for advice in time.
There are several types of this disease: transverse, longitudinal flatfoot, longitudinal-transverse flatfoot or combined flatfoot. Most often, all the blame for the hereditary nature of the disease. Weakness of the ligaments leads to a violation of the formation of the arch of the foot. But all the blame can be excessive physical activity or their complete absence. Diseases associated with endocrine disorders or with connective tissue disorders can also lead to flat feet. But it is more important not to determine the reasons, since they can interact in a complex, and start a timely correction.
Transverse flatfoot manifests a number of symptoms: fatigue by the end of the working day, burning in the shin, pain in the feet, cramps. If you do not start treatment at this stage, the disease progresses. After that, the inconvenience begins to appear in the hip and knee joints. In the future, this can lead to the development of arthrosis.
X-ray will help determine the transverse flatfoot. Photo can also make a picture of the development of the disease, but will not give an accurate diagnosis. Therefore, the orthopedist may ask you to walk around the office. So he will analyze your gait. Visually the foot looks flattened. Later, deformation of the first toe occurs and a defect such as a "bone" appears. In the future, it can seriously disrupt the biomechanics of the entire musculoskeletal system.
How is a transverse flatfoot treated? It all depends on the stage of the disease. Conservative methods often help. They are to use special corrective insoles or orthopedic shoes. It is important to reduce the load on the feet. If the whole blame is overweight, then you need to reduce it. If bursitis or arthrosis already manifests, thedoctor prescribes medications that reduce inflammation. To slow the development of flat feet, you can use physiotherapy, massage, complexes of special exercises. This will help improve the condition of the muscles, and, consequently, will stop the process of deformation of the foot.
In severe cases, surgery is performed. It is very traumatic, that's why it is used only when conservative methods did not help, and the pains became acute. During the operation, the surgeon removes the deformed bone, restores the joint capsule and tendons. But given the long rehabilitation period and the possibility of repeated deformation of the finger, surgery is not the best method of treatment. The transverse platypodia consists, first of all, in the weakness of the ligaments and muscles. Therefore, it is important to consult a doctor in time when you have pain in your feet and begin timely treatment.
What is transverse platypodia and its causes
Flatfoot is a disease of various etiologies, characterized by a progressive flattening of the anatomical arches of the foot.
Depending on which of the arches are involved in the process:
- Transverse flatfoot
- Combined flatfoot
Independent types of flatfoot are quite rare, mainly in patients there is a combined flat-foot - longitudinal-transverse.
Flattening refers to polyethnic diseases. This means that there are many reasons for its development. The hereditary nature of this disease is most often traced. Among the acquired types of flatfoot are the following:
- static flatfoot is the most common type. They suffer about 80% of all patients. It is led as a hereditary predisposition( " aristocratic stop "), and professional harm( long static load on the limbs or inactivity).Another prerequisite is endocrine diseases, overweight, systemic connective tissue diseases, etc.
- rickety flatfoot - occurs when the foot is deformed due to a lack of vitamin D, is rare.
- paralytic platypodia is observed after paralysis, most often in poliomyelitis due to paralysis of muscles supporting the arch of the foot and tibial muscles.
- traumatic platypodia - it is observed as a result of the transferred traumas( fracture of tarsal bones, ankles of heel bone, etc.).
Congenital platypodia is a rather rare form, preventive examinations help to reveal this kind of flatfoot. An accurate diagnosis can be made no earlier than 2 years of age( since all young children have a flattened foot due to physiological reasons).
Symptoms of transverse flatfoot
Symptoms of transverse flatfoot are the most common: pain in the feet, burning sensation, muscle cramps in the leg muscles, fatigue in the feet towards the end of the day. In far-reaching stages, complaints of pain in the knee are added.hip joints.pain in the back, which can cause the development of arthrosis of these joints.
Visually the front part of the foot increases in size, - the so-called transversely spreading foot is formed. As a result of incorrect load distribution due to flatfoot, the often appears the deformation of the first finger in the form of its valgus deviation. In the area of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, an exophyte is often formed, called " bone" patients, or "cone " on the foot.2-3-4th fingers, which are carried a large load, take a hammer-shaped form. Thus, during the progression of the disease, the changes acquire a persistent character in the form of a deformation of the anterior part of the foot, leading to disruption of the biomechanics of all links of the musculoskeletal system involved in walking.
Diagnostics of flatfoot
Diagnostics of flatfoot includes the examination of a specialist physician - traumatologist-orthopedist. X-ray examination of the feet. And analysis of the patient's gait. If necessary, the survey spectrum can be expanded.
Treatment of transverse flatfoot
Treatment of transverse flat feet should be performed by a trauma doctor, after an accurate diagnosis of the disease. Treatment depends on the degree of flat feet. Treatment of transverse flatfoot can be both operational and conservative( without surgery).
Conservative treatment of transverse flatfoot is complex and involves limiting the load on the feet, selecting orthopedic shoes, using orthopedic devices to normalize biomechanics, reducing excess weight. In the presence of a bursitis clinic or arthrosis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents are used to stop inflammation. In some cases, immobilization, physiotherapy, and massage are used, which helps to reduce the increased muscle tone, and as a result - to reduce pain. Conservative treatment is aimed at reducing pain, as well as slowing the progression of transverse flatfoot
Surgical treatment of transverse flatfoot is used for severe and persistent pain in the feet and with inefficient conservative treatment. In the center of traumatology and orthopedics, the whole range of operations is performed in the treatment of static deformities of the forefoot. The most modern surgical techniques are used.allowing to minimize the negative impact of operational stress on the patient and to shorten the rehabilitation period after the operation, without using immobilization plaster casts and crutches.
It can be interesting
User questions about transverse flatfoot
it( hygroma, fibroma), what can it be and how to get rid of? On the other leg all is well.
Response of the physician:
Transverse platypodia is a disease that occurs mainly in older people. To characterize the disease, the term transversely spreading foot is also used. The development of this pathology is directly affected by the condition of the plantar aponeurosis. This dense connective tissue film that runs from the calcaneus to the bases of phalanges of the fingers. To correct a transversely spreading foot, modern medicine is not able. At the moment there are no methods that restore ligaments and fascia, which for a long time were subjected to stretching.
If in the process of walking or standing at least half the body weight is the first metatarsal bone that connects to the thumb of the foot, this is the norm. In this case, weaker loads fall on the average metatarsal bones, and quite small ones on the fourth and fifth bones. In patients with transverse flatfoot, the load is distributed quite differently, and the second and third fingers have to bear the main burden. In this case, the first finger accounts for less than fifteen percent of body weight.
With a transversely spreader foot, there are other pathologies. The first metatarsal bone rotates about its axis and ends up higher than it should be in the norm. Smaller bones, which should be located under the first metatarsal, move to the outside of the thumb so that they can be palpated. The thumb, as well as the little finger, also deflects outwards.
- Transverse flatfoot 1 degree - the angle between the first and second metatarsal bones is ten to twelve degrees. The first degree of transverse flatfoot usually manifests itself in periodic pain in the feet, especially in the anterior part.
- Transverse flat-foot 2 degrees is characterized by an increase in the named angle to a mark of fifteen degrees. The second degree brings pains localized under the heads of mid-metatarsal bones.
- Transverse Platypodia 3rd degree - the angle is further increased, to twenty degrees. The third degree makes itself felt by constant and severe pains under the heads of metatarsal bones, in the same place, as a rule, significant corns are formed.
Degrees of transverse flatfoot
The clinical picture of transverse flatfoot is such that it is not difficult to recognize the disease. With prolonged walking in the uncomfortable shoes of a man with a transversely spread foot, the pain in the area of the first metatarsal bone periodically disturbs. Unpleasant sensations can also appear spontaneously, mostly in the evenings. This is due to inflammation in the joint bag of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. The joint swells, and the skin around it blushes.
The transversely spread foot is easy to identify when viewed: it has a very distinctive appearance. Errors in diagnostics are practically excluded. For transverse flatfoot, the nasolids are characteristic, which are located below the base of the fingers. Immediately striking and deviation of the thumb.
For the treatment of transverse flatfoot, both conservative and surgical methods are used. Conservative is used with a slight degree of transverse flatfoot and deviation of the big toe. In this case, patients must necessarily wear special orthopedic shoes, limit the length of stay in an upright position. Physiotherapeutic procedures, massage and therapeutic gymnastics are very effective.
In those cases where the transversely spreading foot is expressed in the middle or to a high degree, there is no way to do without surgical methods of treatment. In modern medicine there are about one and a half hundred different methods, while none of them can not be called absolutely perfect.
The essence of almost all of them consists in excising fragments of metatarsal bones, which are given the correct configuration. During the postoperative period, patients are assigned the use of gypsum longi, which is applied to the leg up to the upper third of the shin.
It is necessary to wear a linget for two months. After it is removed, it is time for restorative treatment. It consists of physiotherapy procedures, massage, as well as physiotherapy. The pledge of the absence of serious consequences of transverse flatfoot is timely treatment begun. Surgical intervention completely eliminates the existing deformation.
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Longitudinal and transverse platypodia - proskstopia treatment, prevention, massage, physiotherapy exercises with flat feet
Continuing the discussion of flatfoot, today we will examine in more detail the transverse flatfoot, as well as ways of treatment and prevention astransverse, and longitudinal flat feet.
The most unpleasant truth about this disease is that it is almost not treated. The later you start to heal flat feet, the less you will have chances to get rid of it. Therefore, prevention is the main way to prevent this formidable disease.
Completely get rid of flat feet for adults is impossible, but when it is discovered in childhood, there is still a chance.
In the case of transverse flatfoot, the bones of the foot diverge, which are located in the area of the toes. In this case, the inner part of the big toe is deflected outward and a painful lump is formed. Significant changes occur with the middle finger, it curves to the bottom and looks like a hammer or a hook in appearance.
The transverse flatfoot is subdivided into 3 degrees, which are determined depending on the angle of deviation of the thumb from its normal position when it is directed forward.
- Flattened first degree. The thumb is diverted by an angle of not more than 20 degrees. As the bones of the foot "part", when walking in the shoes, the fingers change their normal position and begin to rub themselves more intensely with shoes, they appear uncomfortable thickening of the skin, which is called natoptyshi. In the case of prolonged stress on the legs, walking or standing, at the first degree of transverse flatfoot, the legs begin to get tired more quickly. In addition to these symptoms, the thumb of the thumb begins to bulge sideways, which acquires the soreness
- Platypodia of the second degree. The corncobs continue to grow and increase in size. The arch of the foot in the area of the fingers almost disappears, and the thumb curved inwards by an angle that can be up to 35 degrees. Since the leg is already hard to put on the shoes in width, the shoes begin to press on the foot from the sides and on the outstretched bone of the thumb starts to form a considerable size of the foot. At this degree of transverse flatfoot there are already significant pains with prolonged load on the legs.
- Flattened third degree. The big toe has a very significant bend inside the foot( from 35 degrees and above), the foot around the fingers is completely flattened, the other fingers look like a hook bent to the bottom. It is very difficult to walk, painful sensations are noted at any load.
The degrees of longitudinal and transverse flatfoot, described in this and the previous article, can be only their combination. In that case, as they say, "it's all very sad."
Having studied the transverse flatfoot a little, it's time to move on to the most important issue of this article, "How to treat flatfoot?"
Fertility prevention and treatment of flatfoot
Plane-foot therapy is divided into 2 main types
The main goals of the treatment of flat feet are primarily aimed at strengthening the muscles and ligaments, because their weakening is the main reason for the appearance of flatfoot. Since it is impossible to completely heal, especially adults, it is necessary to somehow secure the body, in particular the spine from traumatic influences and prevent, or at least significantly slow the development of this disease.
If possible, conservative flat foot therapy is used, including curative gymnastics, the use of special orthopedic insoles and shoes, massage and other methods. Apply it in cases when the disease is not very neglected and has not reached grade 3.
The third degree of flatfoot, unfortunately, almost does not give in to conservative treatment, and patients are forced to resort to surgical intervention, in which ligaments are cut, the curvature of the thumb is removed and the vaults of the foot are corrected.
About how the platypodia is surgically treated, I will not be widely spread, in practice at home, it is not possible to apply surgical methods for treating this disease. I will dwell on the methods of conservative treatment and prevention with which I am not familiar by hearsay and which are accessible to all and allow either to slow down or completely stop the development of flatfoot.
The main components of conservative treatment and prevention of flatfoot
- Physiotherapy( ASF)
- The use of insteps and orthopedic insoles
The main goal of all measures of conservative treatment is, first of all, to prevent the development of the disease and to remove the soreness caused by the deformation of the foot.
Physiotherapy exercises with flat feet
The goal of exercise therapy with flatfoot is to strengthen the weakened ligaments and muscles, to consolidate the results achieved in treatment( including surgical) and thereby prevent the development of the disease. Therapeutic exercise should be practiced every day for at least 10-15 minutes, but it will be better if you do this several times a day. Just want to warn you that exercise therapy is effective only in longitudinal flatfoot, with the transverse influence of it minimally due to the fact that the muscles of the shins, which in this case are trained, have practically no effect on the transverse arch of the foot.
Below I present a small complex exercise exercise therapy with flat feet. Study it, and again, do it daily.
Exercises exercise with flat feet
The first 2 exercises are performed sitting on the floor:
- Tightly connect the straightened legs, so that the heels and knees touch each other. Maximize the leg of your left leg and try to wind the front of your right foot under the soleplate of your right foot. Repeat the exercise by changing your legs.
- The starting position too. Bend the right foot and stroke the lower leg of the left foot with the sole of the right foot, placing emphasis on the inner surface of the foot.
For the next 5 exercises, it is necessary to sit on a chair or sofa
- For a minute, slowly bend the toes of the foot
- For the next exercise, you need a ball. Grab it with the inner surfaces of the feet and lift it up. Repeat several times.
- Take any small object: a pen, a pencil, a finger battery. Grab it with your toes and lift it up. Repeat several times, then change your legs.
- Replace the small object with something soft, like a sponge and repeat the previous exercise
- Spread the towel on the floor and try to crush it, and then spread it with your toes
Exercises in the standing position
- Stand straight, put the feet in parallel and climb to the toes. From this position, smoothly go to the outside of the feet and again take the initial position on the toes of the
- Walk around the room on the outside of the foot, bending the fingers
- Walk around the room on tiptoes
Symptoms of the disease
Our stop is complicated. Its numerous bones are united by ligaments, tendons and, of course, joint joints. The metatarsal bones associated with the flanking toes of the legs should ideally be held in parallel by the ligaments. But often they diverge in a fanlike manner, often exceeding the limit allowed by doctors. The reason for this phenomenon is a weakened musculoskeletal apparatus.
A significant discrepancy of metatarsal bones leads to a deviation of the big toe from the rest. This situation creates in the foot a redistribution of muscle traction. There arises that is designated by the medical term hallux valgus. In this case, a strong pull of this finger outwards occurs due to the passing along the tendon, which has changed its location. In this case, there is a displacement, and the bulging of the metatarsal head. In this place, when contact with the shoes first of all, erasures are formed, and then a strong inflammation of the joint arises after it. As a result, the "bone", "cone", the so-called growth of the osteochondral type is formed. A large load on 2, 3, 4 fingers causes their "hammer-shaped" shape.
This is a common kind of flatfoot. However, the vaults can be deformed in different ways, causing longitudinal and transverse flatfoot, as well as its combined version.
When the transverse manifestation of the characteristic symptoms: pain that occurs in the feet, cramps of the muscles of the shins, burning. In the evening, the day is associated with severe fatigue. The more severe cases are characterized by pain in joints such as the hip and knee, which is a direct threat of joint arthrosis.
Stages of transverse flatfoot
When there is a transversely-flattened type, there is a strong increase in the anterior part of the foot. Due to an incorrectly distributed load, the big toe is deformed, causing a so-called valgus deviation.
Degrees of longitudinal flatfoot
It is recommended to undergo a physiotherapy if, in addition to the above, there are such symptoms as puffiness of the legs, foot and ankle often suffer, and many problems with shoes. Its sole often wears and tramples from the inside of the foot. Fashionable shoes with high heels and pins cause pain in the legs and complicate the process of walking. The foot extends considerably, for this reason it is required to purchase shoes more for a size or two.
Normal and flattened
The most common type of such disease is combined or transverse-longitudinal flatfoot. Independent types of it are much less common. There are many reasons for this polyethological disease. Basically one of the classic reasons for the appearance of a flat-footed transverse type is heredity along the female line.
Other reasons are the widespread "sedentary" lifestyle, which results in loosening of ligaments and muscles. To problems leads and excessive load in the form of sports cross-country and jumping classes, as well as long-term work in the standing position. There are different types of acquired flat feet. Among them:
- Statistical, which accounts for up to 80% of all diagnoses for this disease. In addition to the hereditary, sometimes called "aristocratic foot," it causes hypodynamia or long statistical stresses on the forefoot. This type causes such problems as overweight, diseases of the endocrine system and so on. A considerable contribution to the spread of this problem is made by uncomfortable shoes.
- Deformation of the foot occurs due to a lack of vitamin D and is called rachitic flatfoot. This type of disease is very rare.
- Also distinguish the paralytic appearance that occurs after the paralysis of the tibial muscles, as they support the vaults at the feet. This problem arises, as a rule, because of poliomyelitis.
- In men, traumatic platypodia is diagnosed. The reason for its appearance is the consequences of fractures of the ankles, tarsal bones, heel bone.
- In young children, after two years during a preventive examination in very rare cases, they can identify congenital flat feet.
There are 3 degrees of development of transverse flatfoot.
- At 1 stage a small cone is formed, and the thumb is diverted by 20 0, which leads to the curvature of the toes and the formation of all known corns.
- At 2 stages the angle of curvature is 35 0, the size of the corns is increasing, severe pains appear.
- The third degree is characterized by the bend of the thumb inward of more than 35, the spreading foot around the fingers, they bend downward. The pain increases, it becomes difficult to walk.
What can this disease lead to? To a number of very serious consequences for the body. It significantly accelerates the wear and tear of the musculoskeletal system. The consequences include:
- To arthrosis and osteoarthritis of the joints.
- To such diseases of the pelvis, as coxarthrosis.
- The foot deformity is caused by "neurological disorganization", the efficiency of the whole body movements decreases, and there are problems with coordination and balance.
- Because of muscle imbalance, there are "trigger points".
- The gait is reduced. The person suffers because of lameness, stagnation of blood in the legs, varicose extension of the lower limbs.
- There may be a very painful heel spur, caused by plantar aponeurosis.
Deterioration of activity of the entire vascular system due to slowing of blood flow in its lower parts. With age, this will all be accompanied by pathological edema, ulcers on the feet and lower legs.
Treatment of the disease and operation
After the diagnosis is established, the doctor-traumatologist appoints the required type of treatment. It directly depends on the type and extent of this disease. Distinguish conservative and operative its kind of treatment. With a conservative treatment option, a number of complex measures are used, including: the selection of an orthopedic instep and a shoe, which allows you to redistribute the load on the entire foot. Specialists recommend to limit the load on the legs, reduce excess weight, to normalize the biomechanics to use a variety of devices.
- Indications for the appointment of analgesics and remedies for inflammation stopping symptoms is the diagnosis of bursitis or arthrosis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint.
- Reducing the increased muscle tone and reducing pain can be achieved by such activities as foot massage, immobilization, physiotherapy, warm baths. For prevention requires the implementation of a number of exercises that allow you to strengthen the feet of turns turning them to the right, left, down, up, and also circling.
- Growth of cartilage is suspended with a 10% solution of iodine.
- Relieve inflammation of the joints and nourish the tissues of the legs with ointments prescribed by an experienced orthopedist.
- For flat feet, shoes with a heel of up to 4 cm inclusive are required. It is very useful to have replaceable comfortable shoes at work.
It should be noted that conservative treatment is designed to reduce pain and slow the progression of the disease, but not cure.
The question arises: "How will be cured of this disease"?
In the case of transformation of cartilage on the head of metatarsal bone into bone material, a surgical operation is required here. Indication for its conduct is considered ineffective classical treatment and constant pain in the legs. Conduct them in the centers of traumatology and orthopedics. They are characterized by the use of a variety of surgical techniques, which today there are more than three hundred. They make it possible to minimize the negative impact of operations and significantly reduce the rehabilitation period without using crutches and immobilization plaster bandages. One common type of technology is to "reshape" the foot, in particular its anterior section, where the cartilage is removed from the bone head, the bone is leveled and the tendon is pulled in such a way that the big toe can hold straight. From the inside of the foot it is fixed with a tape made of lavsan. The complexity of such an operation and a long period of rehabilitation is compensated by high efficiency of treatment without the appearance of repeated deformation.
The reason for the formation of flat feet is not least of all shoes. The risk of the onset of the disease depends on the time it is worn. To reduce the negative impact of shoes on the legs and prevent the appearance of flat feet, orthopedic insoles and various arch supports were created. Insoles and arch supports, ameliorate, correct the changes occurring in the feet, significantly ease the pain in the legs, the very well helping people with transverse and combined flatfoot. For their correct selection, you should consult an orthopedist for advice. Making an independent choice, there is a danger of aggravating the disease. When selecting orthopedic insoles, an accurate measurement of the foot strain is required. Pick up the insole is required, without waiting for the signs of this disease, thus trying to prevent the appearance of this disease.
Exercises for transverse flatfoot
There are a number of exercises to treat this disease. They are conducted barefoot for 16-24 weeks. Gymnastics includes 12 types of exercises, each of which is performed 10 times.
- Movement with the deployment of the feet is carried out while sitting. After it do standing, leaning on the back of the chair. The legs are set on the width of the shoulders. The feet unfold in a straight line, connecting the socks, then the heels.
- The feet are placed alternately on the ribs, external and internal. Do this movement, sitting, then standing.
- Sitting, rotate the feet to the right, then to the left. After this, the exercise is done standing.
- Raising the foot on the outer arch is carried out on a chair, then on the floor. The feet are placed on the outside. The task is simple - to get up.
- Rise from heels to socks. The initial position is legs on the width of the shoulders, the feet are placed in parallel. Exercise is slow, first on both legs, then alternately on each.
- Raising the feet from the heel to the toe with one straight, heels are put together, socks - apart. After the exercise, the position of the feet changes. The heels are put apart, the socks together.
- Performing low kicks. When performing the exercise, the back should be straight. When changing the support leg, a 180 ° turn is performed.
Fast walking on site. Socks in this case, tear off the floor categorically impossible, knees slightly bend, the feet slightly tilted inside. Hips during gymnastics should be strongly swinging sideways. The back is straight, the shoulders are motionless. The lead time is 20-40 seconds.
- Sitting as high as possible, the leg rises in turn, while lifting it should be straight and fixed when lifting.
- Exercise, sitting with a lift of both feet.
- To walk on toes, heels, "to claw" on the inner and outer ribs of the foot for 30-50 steps.
- Goose step in( half crouching).In this case, the legs are dragged along the floor. This gymnastics improve the blood circulation of the legs. Remember, it's better to just warn the disease than to treat it for a long time!
Transverse flat feet in children
The underlying cause for the manifestation of the disease in childhood is weak ligaments, bones and, of course, weak muscles. However, even congenital flat feet is not an indication for the operation. Treatment is carried out using gingival tapes or bandages. Treatment is carried out with the use of exercise therapy and massage. Improving the blood circulation of the body and increasing the tone of the muscles in the legs are due to special hardening procedures, one of which are contrasting foot baths.
In children, flat feet are not treated with
operations. Flat-footed children are treated with orthopedic insoles and shoes. Children with this diagnosis can not walk barefoot on the floor or asphalt, but it is extremely necessary to run through the sand, grass, gravel and other irregularities.
Pay attention to the gait of the child. When walking, his feet should be parallel and lean against the outer edge. Children should try to detect any disease as early as possible. Then they will have the opportunity to fully recover.