VetPraktica - network of vet clinics, treatment of arthrosis in dogs
Arthrosis is a degenerative-destructive joint disease caused by premature wear of the intraarticular cartilage. With it, irreversible changes occur inside the joint, which, without timely treatment, can cause serious problems, up to the deformation of the joint and loss of its ability to act.
Arthrosis in dogs begins with damage to the cartilage, and then spreads to other joint components: the synovial membrane, bones and ligaments.
There are a lot of causes of arthrosis, it can develop with metabolic disorders, excessive overload, with osteodystrophy, joint weakness and tissue aging. The origin of arthrosis is divided into primary and secondary. Arthrosis in dogs depends on the nature of the onset and the stage of the disease.
Primary arthrosis, as a rule, occurs in older dogs. With this form of the disease the joint can not withstand excessive loads.
Secondary arthrosis occurs when the mechanics of the joint are broken due to excessive overloads in some parts of the cartilage or as a result of traumatic changes. This form of the disease can develop at any age, especially in large dogs.
Arthrosis in dogs Symptoms of
Arthrosis in dogs develops slowly enough. The main sign of arthrosis is the appearance of lameness, which eventually becomes more pronounced. The pet shows pain when climbing the paw, there is increased fatigue. On the surfaces of the joints, bone formations are formed, there is a gradual narrowing of the joint gap and other structural changes in the joint. Therefore, it is very important to call a vet when light-headedness occurs, in order to prevent the further development of the disease.
Osteoarthritis in dogs treatment
Treatment of arthrosis in dogs is mostly symptomatic and depends on the stage of the disease. The pet needs to provide complete peace and minimize physical activity, the litter should be soft. As a drug therapy, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs( medaza injections) and painkillers are used. At the initial stage, the swollen area is smeared with an alcohol solution of iodine and made cold lotions, alternating them with warming compresses of paraffin and ozocerite.
At the advanced stage of the disease, surgical methods are used: osteotomy, arthrodesis, sometimes limb prosthetics.
Prevention of arthrosis in dogs
Prophylaxis of the disease consists in the timely diagnosis of the disease and proper treatment. Do not engage in self-medication, writing off the appearance of lameness on the injury, because an accurate diagnosis can only be made by a veterinarian.
Diseases of the joints in dogs
The joint is a formation that promotes the movable junction of two or more bones. Joints form the surface of the epiphyses of bones. It is surrounded by a capsule, which is lined inside with a kind of synovial membrane, which contributes to the development of intra-articular fluid - synovia. Synovia is a colorless liquid of viscous consistency, which contains special elements such as hyaluronic acid and mucopolysaccharides, which in turn contribute to normal functioning and nutrition of the cartilage of the joint. The cartilage does not consist of blood vessels, so the substance for nutrition gets through the synovial fluid.
Symptoms of joint diseases in dogs
The most important and obvious sign of all joint diseases is lameness, which is often caused by pain. If the dog is limping, then this is an occasion for immediate treatment to the veterinarian, while the sick limb needs rest.
It is vital to provide the dog with the maximum conditions for rest. It must be remembered that at this stage any physical load can cause the transformation of minor lameness into serious problems throughout life.
Finding the true cause of lameness is quite difficult.
The most common articular diseases in dogs are:
Purulent arthritis develops on the ingress and presence of staphylococci, streptococci and other pathogens of purulent infection in the joint. Infectious carrier, getting into the joint by a damaged joint capsule: through wounds, joint punctures, an unsuccessful operation, or through the blood.
|Causes of arthrosis |
Arthrosis in dogs is the most common joint disease in dogs. The term implies a so-called degenerative pathological process that requires treatment.
In all places where the joint surfaces touch and are not congruent( not completely coinciding with each other so that it corresponds to the anatomical norm), their coating( articular cartilage) wears out badly. Osteoarthritis can affect any joint, often it occurs as a consequence, for example, trauma, fracture or anatomical disparity of articular surfaces.
Symptoms of arthrosis in the dog
A symptom of arthrosis is lameness, especially noticeable after the period of rest( rest) of the animal, when it begins to move. If the physical load on the animal is great, lameness after rest becomes more noticeable. Many dogs do not show bright lameness, but they begin to move reluctantly. For example, this may be the case if several joints are affected and a smaller load per paw increases pain in others. It is necessary to carefully examine the animal, since the dog may not show obvious signs of the disease.
Diagnosis is based on clinical signs and radiographic examination. It is necessary to make an x-ray and an opposite symmetrical limb( for example, when the right front paw is limping, you need to make an x-ray and the left forepaw).In addition, all images are recommended to be performed in two projections( direct and lateral).One projection( in the back position), as a rule, is sufficient only in case of a hip joint failure, but the study should be carried out under sedation or mild anesthesia so that the animal allows lying on the back to keep the limbs strictly parallel and the muscles holding the joint are relaxed.
Treatment of arthrosis
Degenerative diseases of the joints are not treated, but it is possible to slow down their progression, relieve pain and compensate for the joint( or joints) by strengthening the muscles. For the treatment of arthrosis used: painkillers, physiotherapy, acupuncture, the use of certain feed additives. There are ready-made industrial feeds that contain the listed supplements, as well as antioxidants( they help prevent further development of arthrosis).
Painkillers not only relieve the symptom of pain, but also prevent the development of joint inflammation when the joint fluid becomes non-uniform and can not act as a lubricant between the joint surfaces, but, on the contrary, turns them into a kind of sandpaper. From anesthetics can be discarded, but this will not have the best effect on the development of the disease and the condition of the animal.
Causes of arthrosis
As mentioned above, arthrosis occurs with incomplete matching of articular surfaces. Sometimes such defective( dysplastic) joints are congenital, some breeds of dogs have a genetic predisposition to them. The most common genetically determined causes are dysplasia of the hip and elbow joints.
With , hip dysplasia( ) of the hip joint does not correspond to each other. This disease affects all dogs of large breeds, especially the German Shepherd, Golden Retriever, Labrador Retriever, Boxer.
DTBS is not treated to the end, but it is possible to reduce the effect of a defect on the health of the animal, while strictly controlling the weight of the animal and the load on the hip joints, for example, to limit jumps and climbing the stairs. It is necessary to strengthen the surrounding joints musculature through mild physical exertion: jogging, swimming and walking in the water( these goals are perfectly answered by a water running track).In difficult cases, a surgical operation is shown, there are many correction methods that need to be discussed with a veterinarian - a specialist( orthopedist).
Elbow dysplasia is often found in breeds such as Labrador Retriever, Bernese Mountain Dog, German Shepherd, Golden Retriever, Rottweiler, Weimaraner and Mastiff, but the risk of disease exists in dogs and other large breeds. This predisposition is explained by the fact that in large dogs the joint consists of many bones and is fully formed only towards the end of the dog's growth: in large dogs about 1.5 years old, in very large dogs - about 2 years.
If a trauma is added to the hereditary defect during the growth of the body, the risk of developing various types of elbow joint dysplasia is very large( fragmentation of the hook-shaped process, fragmentation of the medial coronal process( internal coronary process), exfoliating osteochondritis, medial compartment syndrome).
In this case, "trauma" means not only real( visible) injuries, but also small daily joint overloads: walking on the stairs, too fast weight gain, jogging loads( jumps).
When limping on the chest extremity, especially in young animals, you should immediately call a veterinarian. If the elbow joint dysplasia is associated with one of the listed pathologies, the correct actions of the doctor and the owner of the animal is the only way to prevent the development of arthrosis in the dog. If a so-called "articular mouse"( a fragment lying freely in the joint space) was formed, then surgery is necessary. Today, this operation is performed by specialists with the help of arthroscopy, with minimal tissue damage.( c) Veterinary Center for the Treatment and Rehabilitation of Animals "Zooostatus".Warsaw highway, 125 p. Tel. 8( 499) 372-27-37
For the initial stage of the disease is characterized by damage to the synovial membrane. This stage is still known as purulent synovitis. If you do not promptly consult a specialist and do not perform the necessary treatment, the articular cartilage will collapse, and fibrin will be deposited in his cavity, which will provoke deforming fibrotic arthrosis or ankylosis of the joint.
The main symptoms of purulent arthritis in dogs are:
- Increase in the volume of the affected joint: it becomes strained, hot to the touch;
- Severe pain: the dog is not able to use its limb;
- Elevated body temperature: above 39.5 ° C;
- Purulent synovia, emerging from the wound of the joint.
Osteoarthritis is a chronic deforming process of joint inflammation;a disease that is accompanied by damage to the cartilage and synovium. Arthrosis eventually spreads to the neighboring parts of the joint and causes in it processes associated with its deformation, which subsequently leads to the loss of its functions.
As a rule, arthrosis appears due to violations of the mechanics of the joint, which is due to the numerical overload of individual areas of cartilage, joint dysplasia.
Arthrosis first occurs in dogs between the ages of two to four years. Most often, large joints are affected: the elbow and shoulder joints on the forelimb, the knee and hip joints on the back.
The clinical picture of this disease in dogs is formed gradually.
The main symptoms of arthrosis in dogs are:
Osteoarthritis in dogs. Veterinary "Zoostatus"
Osteoarthritis in pets
Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease that gradually leads to their deformation. In veterinary literature, this disease is also called osteoarthrosis, deforming arthrosis or osteoarthritis.
Recently, the number of patients with joint pathology has greatly increased, so it is not superfluous to learn something about arthrosis, as the most frequent consequence of any joint disease.
Mechanism of joint arthrosis
As mentioned above, arthrosis is a degenerative disease. This means that the disease is associated with a change in the internal structure of the joint at all levels. Therefore, it is necessary at least in general terms to imagine the structure of the joint.
So, simplistically, the joint is the junction of two or more bones. The contact points of the bones are covered with hyaline cartilage. It is rather dense, yet elastic. The surface of the cartilage, at first, looks perfectly smooth, but its internal structure resembles a sponge. When moving from the cartilage body, the joint fluid is squeezed out, which simultaneously nourishes the cartilage and lubricates the joint, ensuring glide.
The figure shows a simplified structure of the joint: 1 - joint bag, 2 - synovial membrane, 3 - articular cartilage, 4 - synovial cavity with synovial fluid.
The unusual properties of hyaline cartilage are due to its structure: its basis is collagen fibers intertwined in a dense "network" with entwined proteoglycans.
Collagen fibers impart strength to cartilage:
- proteoglycans are special molecules that can absorb and hold water in the joint;
- water is up to 70-80% cartilage, and is a "cushioning" liquid in it;With age, cartilage loses water, which makes it less elastic and more fragile;
chondrocytes - cells that produce new molecules of proteoglycans and collagen fibers, as well as utilizing the old ones.
Any joint is enclosed in a cavity that is surrounded by a capsule. The inner part of the capsule is lined with a synovial membrane that performs both nutritional and excretory and protective functions.
When arthrosis occurs, the proteoglycan molecules are the first to be damaged, resulting in the cartilage losing the ability to keep water in sufficient quantity, which leads to loss of elasticity. Then there is a gradual destruction of collagen fibers. They are thinned and partially destroyed, which leads to a violation of their intertwining. As a result, the cartilage becomes thinner, dry and rough, covered with cracks, so the articular surfaces begin to rub against each other. Over time, the cartilage on the joint surfaces is erased, becomes thinner and denser, which increases the load on the underlying bone.
All these changes constitute the first stage of arthrosis. It is at this stage of the disease that treatment gives the best effect, but because of the absence of external signs of the disease or their complete absence, the presence of the disease is often overlooked.
The second stage of arthrosis is characterized by the reaction of compensation from the bones and the beginning of joint deformities.
Under increased load, the heads of bones "flatten out".The articular areas increase, along the edges develop the regenerated bone tissue, which forms osteophytes( bone fragments freely lying in the joint cavity).At this stage, there is pain, which causes lameness. The animal "protects" the sick limb, trying not to work the damaged joint. But this protective mechanism leads to a "stagnation" in the articular bag, because without load hyaline cartilage does not release fresh articular fluid, which means that it does not receive normal nutrition, the synovial membrane swells and does not cope with the release of degradation products and enzymes of inflammation, which leads to atrophyarticular structures. The joint fluid becomes viscous and dense, the joint is poorly "lubricated", which leads to a rapid destruction of the remaining hyaline cartilage.
When the distance between the bones is reduced by 50-70%, the rate of joint destruction will greatly increase, which will lead to the third stage of arthrosis, which means a strong deformation of the joint with complete or almost complete disappearance of the joint space. The mobility of the joint is reduced to a minimum, since the joint head of one bone is "pressed" into the joint cavity of the other during movement.
Treatment of the disease at this stage will not lead to complete recovery, becausedeformation of the bones of the joint led to the impossibility of its normal functioning. To improve joint mobility in the third stage of arthrosis, complex combination therapy or joint replacement surgery is used.
In the figure of the part of the hip joint: on the left - the joint is normal, on the right - arthritis of the hip joint.1 - the cartilage is worn out, 2 - the joint cavity is narrowed, 3 - thorns on the bone.
The causes of arthrosis
1. The most common cause of arthrosis is still the age-related changes in cartilaginous tissue.
2. Another cause, well-known to the owners of "sports" animals, are injuries and micro-injuries. Especially dangerous are repeatedly recurring injuries and micro-injuries. For example, 80% of sports horses that compete in jumping have arthritis of wrists or putovy joints after 10-15 years of age, which is associated with increased loading upon landing, after a jump. In dogs that have been participating in agility competitions for a long time, it is often possible to detect arthrosis of the hock, elbow and carpal joint.
3. A joint infarction or aseptic necrosis, which is usually the result of a trauma or a strong single overload, but also occurs in dwarf dogs without them, also causes arthrosis. And in most cases, because of the violation of blood supply, the disease progresses very quickly.
4. Anomalies in the development or underdevelopment of the joint also play an important role in the spread of the disease. Unfortunately, not all breeders take this factor into account. In practice, one often has to deal with the fact that animals that have a weak bone structure and sometimes pathologies in the joint structure receive offspring, fixing an abnormal structure in the genotype. A vivid example of such a pathology is dysplasia of the hip joints. Receiving a healthy offspring from an animal already having such a disease, some breeders insist that the vice of the joint is not inherited. And later, from "healthy" animals, their owners get their offspring, and now they just have dysplasia "to bloom with a violent color" and, without treatment, arthrosis in the altered joints will not keep you waiting.
5. Another cause of arthrosis associated with breeding is hereditary predisposition. This term does not mean that arthrosis is transmitted from parents to children by inheritance. Based on recent research and veterinary and medical science, it can be said with certainty that this is not so. However, the features of metabolism, the structure of the cartilaginous tissue and the organization of the skeleton are genetically transferred. Therefore, if parents have a serious form of arthrosis, special attention should be paid to the correct content, feeding and use of offspring.
6. Previous arthritis can cause arthrosis, because inflammation changes the composition of the joint fluid, which leads to the inferiority of the cartilaginous tissue. In addition, the circulation of the joints is impaired, the properties of the synovial membrane change.
7. Some types of metabolic disorders also lead to arthrosis. For example, with gout, chondrocalcinosis, or metabolic syndrome, crystals( uric acid or calcium pyrophosphate) are deposited in the joints, which damage the cartilage and cause its atrophy.
8. Excess weight alone does not cause arthrosis, but its presence will greatly accelerate the development of the disease, if any. In addition, if the animal has a predisposition to arthrosis for other reasons, most likely, the disease will manifest itself in him, if there will be excess weight.
Symptoms of arthrosis in pets
1. The main sign that can be easily detected is the pain that occurs when moving. But, pet owners often ignore this symptom at the beginning of the disease.
The fact is that in the first stage of arthrosis pain occurs only with a heavy load on the joint. With moderate work, the joint does not cause concern for the animal, the lameness goes away and the owners write off what is happening to the fact that the animal "pulled" the muscle or ligament.
To distinguish pain in the tendons or muscles from arthrosis is really not easy. When moving, this will not work, but an experienced veterinarian will be able to identify arthrosis pain with passive flexion of the joint, since in this case there will be no pain in the tendons.
Pain arising from blockage or infringement of the joint, also manifests itself only when moving. Its main difference is that it develops very quickly and immediately there is a strong lameness. This is due to the fact that the blockade is caused by a pinch between the articular surfaces of either the meniscus, or the osteophyte, or the folds of the synovial membrane.
The first stage of arthrosis practically does not cause pain under normal load. In the second stage, the pain appears from the minimal load or immediately after it, but after a sufficient rest, it usually completely passes.
Therefore, if the pet periodically begins to limp after a long walk or after heavy workload, and the next day shows no signs of illness - this may be a sign of the onset of arthrosis. And, if you start treatment at this stage, it is possible to completely restore the joint.
The third stage is characterized by the appearance of permanent lameness, which is the result of pain. Sometimes the pain recedes if the animal manages to find a comfortable position. Therefore, some animals acquire the habit of keeping the injured limb in the balance or sitting and lying in unaccustomed poses. If there is a violation of blood circulation, the joints can "twist", which is manifested by increased lameness when weather changes.
2. When moving in the affected joint, a crunch often occurs. It should not be confused with a slight crunching of the joints with its excessive mobility( for example, with the weakness of the ligamentous apparatus).Arthrosis crunch is coarse and "dry", resembling a sharp click.
Slight mobility of
3. Already in the second stage of the disease, a veterinarian, when examined, can detect stiffness in the joint. The longer the disease lasts, the less mobile becomes the joint.
4. A deformation of the joint is a sign that is noticeable at the first glance at the animal.
The change in the usual joint contours can be caused by deformation of bones, the formation of osteophytes and other changes in bone tissue, while the amount of joint fluid remains unchanged or decreases, and the synovial membrane of the joint either does not change or is atrophied. This process is sometimes called "dry" arthrosis. Most often it is observed in elderly animals. And also, for animals forced for a long time is in a very limited, enclosed space or constantly bearing an uneven load on the joints. A vivid example can serve as horses, working in circus programs. Because of the content in the stalls, where one can not walk, they constantly experience a static load on all the joints of the limbs, and constant movement in a circle speeds up the deformation.
Often the deformation is manifested by an increase in the joint, it acquires rounded contours, becomes "loose", sometimes painful. This picture is typical for synovitis - inflammation of the synovial membrane of the joint. Which leads to an increase in the amount of intra-articular fluid, as a result of which there is a change in the joint.
Treatment should be comprehensive and be prescribed after an accurate diagnosis, because arthrosis caused by an incorrect joint structure or its dysplasia can not be cured without removing the cause of its occurrence.
Medical treatment of
If early stages of arthrosis are detected, the hodroprotecters are well suited for treatment, these are substances that promote moisture retention in the cartilage, its proper nutrition and recovery.
The main substances in this group of medicines:
Glucosamine is an aminosaccharide that is present in the cartilage tissues of a healthy body. It stimulates the activity of cells of chondrocytes and is a building material for the creation of proteoglycans. Thus, in the presence of glucosamine, more molecules of proteoglycans are formed that retain liquid in the cartilaginous tissue, which means that the cartilage does not lose its elasticity. Under its action, a sufficient amount of articular fluid is formed, which reduces the friction of the joint surfaces.
Chondroitin sulfate is another component of cartilaginous tissue. It increases the ability of proteoglycans to capture and retain liquid, is the main component for the formation of hyaluronic acid( the main component of synovial fluid) and neutralizes the action of enzymes that destroy cartilaginous tissue.
Sodium hyaluronate ( hyaluronic acid) - is found in many tissues of the body and is responsible for water balance, that is, does not allow "drying out" of the tissue. In the joint fluid plays the role of lubricant for the joint.
All these drugs are indispensable in the treatment of early stages of arthrosis, when it is still possible to restore cartilage. In addition, they have virtually no side effects.
However, the specificity of their action does not allow achieving a quick effect. For persistent improvement of the condition, it is necessary to undergo at least 2-3 courses of treatment, which takes from 6 to 12 months. Anti-inflammatory drugs are much faster. They can be roughly divided into hormonal ( steroid) and non- steroid .
Steroid preparations ( kenalogue , diprospan , hydrocortisone , metipred , depot-) are usually injected directly into the joint.
These substances can quickly and effectively suppress pain and inflammation in the joint, but at the same time do not contribute to the restoration of cartilage tissue. Therefore, it is best to apply them in cases where arthrosis is complicated by a strong synovitis, because the inflammation of the joint can not normally proceed with recovery processes.
In the case of "dry" arthrosis, the administration of corticosteroids will lead to an even more drying out of the cartilage and a rapid progression of the disease.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ( NSAIDs) are also used to suppress inflammation and pain. As a rule, they are used orally, in severe cases in the form of injections.
In veterinary medicine the most widely used ketoprofen and its derivatives, phenylbutazone , ibuprofen and diclofenac .Limited nemisulid and acetylsalicylic acid .
In short-term courses and the correct dosage, these drugs are very helpful, especially if used in combination with chondroprotectors.
However, with prolonged use, they can cause significant side effects. In addition, there are a number of serious contraindications, in which the use of NSAIDs is dangerous. For example, with peptic ulcer of stomach and duodenum, ulcerative colitis or gastritis, liver and kidney diseases.
Since almost all cases of arthrosis are accompanied by a violation of blood circulation in the joint region, the use of vasodilating drugs is justified. The most commonly used trental is ( aka agapurin , pentoxifylline ) and theonikol ( xanthinal nicotinate).
These substances improve joint blood flow and relieve spasm of small vessels, as a result the affected joint receives more nutrients and is quickly restored.
Ointments and Gels
Nowadays, all kinds of medicinal ointments and creams for the treatment of arthrosis are often advertised. In practice, most of them do not work. The fact is that the skin misses not more than 5-7% of the active substance.
Therefore, in veterinary practice, ointments with an irritant or warming effect on the skin are usually used to improve blood circulation in the joint.
Gels based on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory substances are used for compresses. For a deeper penetration, they are mixed with dimexide. This chemical in itself has a good anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect, but unlike others it can penetrate skin barriers and conduct substances mixed with it.
Bischofite and medical bile are also used for compresses. Their action is also aimed at improving blood circulation in the joint, removing pain and inflammation.
In addition to medication, it is used to treat arthrosis and physiotherapy. These include laser-, cryo-, magneto- and ultrasound therapy. Physiotherapeutic procedures are aimed at improving blood circulation, reducing muscle spasm, and relieving pain.
With complex treatment and proper application, physiotherapy procedures allow you to quickly remove inflammation and swelling in the joint.
Dietary nutrition is not the last component of the treatment of arthrosis.
In the presence of excessive body weight, the load on the joints increases, so for successful treatment it is necessary to seek a normal weight. Since the increase in physical activity in case of illness is impossible, the only option is a strict diet.
The ration of the animal must be complete. To restore a healthy cartilaginous tissue, you need "building material", which the animal receives only with food. The feed should not contain dyes, preservatives or stabilizers.
Preservatives complicate the work of the kidneys, provoke an increase in blood pressure, increase the level of cholesterol, promote weight gain and accumulation in the joints of microcrystals of uric acid, chondrocalcinates and substances that worsen the condition of the joint fluid.
It is also important to monitor the water consumption. Since arthrosis begins with the "drying out" of cartilage, it is necessary that the body has enough fluid. An animal should always have access to fresh, clean water. Especially fastidious to the quality of water cats. They prefer to drink running water or lap from large containers.
Active load, oddly enough, is also an obligatory component of arthrosis treatment. The fact is that the tissues surrounding the joint form a kind of natural corset for him. And if the muscles, tendons and ligaments do not work, they will soon lose their tone and elasticity and will not be able to support the joint.
The main rule for the movement of animals with arthrosis is no sharp and heavy loads on the joint. That is, a long unhurried walk with the dog is much preferable 10-20 minutes of game with Frisbee.
An excellent exercise for animals can be swimming or walking in water. At the same time the load on the joints decreases, and the muscles and tendons have to work much more actively.
For games or active training it is better to use a loose natural soil. Hard surfaces, such as asphalt or pavement, do not absorb and create an increased strain on the joints, even at an average speed. Very deep, viscous soil( sand on the beach or arable land) creates an extra burden on the joint capsule.
Finally, if arthrosis is caused by a violation in the structure of the joints or is in the stage when other types of treatment do not bring results or are meaningless, surgical treatment is used. For each individual case, the type of operation is determined individually. It can be the stabilization of the joint, the removal of "extra" bone fragments, the fusion of the joint or its complete replacement.
Prophylaxis should rule out the causes of arthrosis, that is:
- , if possible, avoid sudden or excessive stress on the joints, especially without prior preparation;
- not to allow constant and unilateral loading on joints or to reduce time of such influences to a minimum;
- should not be used in pedigree breeding of animals that have a severe degree of arthrosis or the structure of the skeleton that contributes to the onset of this disease. If possible, exclude from breeding healthy animals, whose descendants have arthrosis of 2-3 degrees;
- not to allow the emergence of excess weight.
In practice, it is not always possible to prevent the occurrence of arthrosis, but if you take the disease seriously and do not let things go "on your own", in many cases you can prolong the animal for a long time, feeling well.
Veterinary Physician Kormanovskaya EV