Flat feet flatfoot symptoms prevention

Flat feet in adults: a photo of flatfoot and exercises in the prevention of flatfoot

Flat feet of some are perceived as a "frivolous" disease, which is not worth paying close attention to. However, this is not so - this disease can cause a violation of posture, lead to varicose veins and even thrombophlebitis. Therefore, the prevention of flatfoot should not be ignored - and should begin at least with the abandon of uncomfortable shoes.

This seemingly "trifling" disease can turn into a terrible torture for a person( "lucky" only to some recruits: they can by means of pronounced degrees of flatfoot avoid the performance of "sacred military duty").

Types and causes of flatfoot

Flattening is the descent, flattening of the transverse or, more rarely, longitudinal arch of the foot.

Note the photo: with flat feet the foot looks almost completely flat, without a pronounced dimple between the toe and the heel.

There are three types of flatfoot:

1. Paralytic caused by poliomyelitis or resulting from paralysis.

2. Traumatic , resulting from fractures of the bones of the feet or ankles.

3. Static is the most common, usually hereditary or acquired as a result of overloads of feet.

As seen above in the photo, all types of flatfoot differ from each other in the degree of expression of the longitudinal and transverse arches of the foot.

The causes of flatfoot may be a lack or excess load on the legs. This can be a person's professional activity, for example, a forced working posture standing( workers or sellers who stand all day standing on their feet), playing sports that undergo inadequate loads on their feet, wearing inefficient shoes( for example, heels on shoes, onstiff platform, high heels.).

Flat feet can form in early childhood due to diseases of rickets, and also at a later age due to pregnancy, diabetes or obesity. In adults, flat feet are more common in women than in men.

Symptoms of flat feet Feet

The main symptoms of flat feet - fast fatigue of the legs, aching pain in the foot and ankle, swelling of them, often arising in the evening and disappearing by morning. With flatfoot, there may also be a violation of the circulation of the lower extremities.

Flat-footed enough easy to recognize. To do this, just smear the foot with oil or cream, and then leave it imprinted on a sheet of white paper lying on a flat surface. Usually, with flatfoot, at least half of the width of the original part of the foot is imprinted, since the foot does not have the proper size of the notch.

Understand that you have flat feet, you can, and found a quick wear on the inside of the soles of your shoes.

But most accurately the degree of flatfoot is established clinically-roentgenologically in conditions of physiological load of the examined foot at the patient's position standing on a specially made stand. This technique allows you to assess the entire condition of the musculoskeletal, ligamentous and articular apparatus.

How and what to treat a flatfoot

Before treating a flatfoot, you need to determine the causes of its occurrence. To remove the pain caused by walking or other loads on the feet, you can use ointments such as viprosal, finalgon, diclofenac, etc. Also, in the group of drugs, than you can treat flat feet, the usual analgesics.

To restore the natural form of the foot, you should use the correcting insoles( arch supports).

In case of severe, neglected cases, it is necessary to wear special orthopedic shoes( usually shoes with lacing, solid sole and lateral support of the foot).

It is recommended to take regular courses of massage.

It is desirable to be engaged in swimming.

In the evenings( and if necessary, then still in the afternoon) make hot baths with sea salt.

And, perhaps, the main thing here is a physical therapy.

Complex of exercises with flat feet Feet

1. To perform the first exercise with flatfoot, take the initial position sitting on a chair. Knees and heels are connected, the right foot is strongly unbent. You should bring the anterior section of the left foot under the soleplate of the right, and then repeat this exercise by changing your legs.

2. Stroke the left shin with the inner edge and plantar surface of the right foot. Then repeat the exercise, also changing your legs.

3. To bend and unbend the toes of the feet. This exercise should be repeated 10-15 times.

4. Set feet on shoulder width with heels to the floor. Then start rotating the feet in different directions, changing the direction of rotation. Then do the same, already standing, holding on to the back of the chair. Run this 10 times.

5. At both stops, grab and lift the ball.

6. Grasp and lift the pencil several times with your toes.

7. Starting position: sitting on a chair, then standing on the floor( feet shoulder-width apart).Unfold the feet on one straight line, first the heel to the heel, and then the toe to the toe. You can hold your hand by the back of the chair. Perform this exercise 10 times.

8. Expand the feet to the outside, and then - to the inner side. Perform 10 times.

9. Also in the complex of exercises with flat feet is the following: standing on toes and holding the feet in parallel, go to the outer edge of the foot, and then return to the starting position.

10. Sitting on a chair, and then on the floor, climb to his feet, leaning on the outer arch of the feet. When lifting from the floor, you can help yourself with your hands. Perform 10 times.

11. Starting position: standing. To rise on socks and on the heels: a) by placing the feet on one line with their toes inward, b) placing the feet on one line with their toes outwards.

12. Starting position: standing. Make a right foot forward, then turn around 180 °, changing your leg. Do this exercise 10-12 times.

13. Standing on your toes, shifting from one foot to the other. Do this exercise 10 times.

14. Sitting on a chair, raise one and the other leg one at a time, as high as possible. The leg should be straight. Perform 10 times.

15. Standing, make 30-50 steps on the heels, on the toes, on the inner ribs of the feet, and then - already on the outer ribs of the feet.

16. Final exercise: walking from heel to toe in standing position. It is recommended to do 30-50 steps with each foot.


There are 2 main methods of treating flatfoot: surgically and conservatively.

Conservative treatment of flatfoot includes -

foot massage, foot baths, electrophoresis, curative gymnastics, wearing orthopedic shoes, special insoles, etc. and is prescribed in the first and second stages of flatfoot development. In some cases, conservative methods of treatment are ineffective, and therefore require surgical treatment.

Also surgical treatment is required for the treatment of the third stage of flatfoot. There are several types of operations for flatfoot, but the main goal of surgical treatment is to shorten the ligaments, correct the arches of the foot and eliminate the effects of flat feet( for example, the deviation of the first toe).

Flat feet in children.


All children are born with imaginary flat feet, which is explained by the abundance of subcutaneous fat in the foot. A peculiarity of imaginary childish flat feet is that as children grow older, they naturally get rid of flat feet: with the development of walking and running, muscles develop and the child's foot takes on the usual outlines. The full formation of the arches of the foot is completed by 3 years. In this regard, a flat foot in children under three years can not be attributed to a true flat foot.

In childhood there is congenital and acquired flat feet. The cause of congenital flat feet are the developmental defects of the foot in the intrauterine period.

Acquired flat feet in children, usually due to the following factors:

  1. Overweight child
  2. Wearing substandard shoes( too soft or too hard sole, rubber shoes, too high heel or missing)
  3. Rickets and calcium and phosphorus metabolism in the child
  4. Incorrectly fused fracture
  5. Prolonged bed rest for serious illnesses
  6. During the periodpuberty hormonal changes cause prolonged muscle spasm and can lead to flat feet
  7. Excessive mobility of joints
  8. Weight lifting( for example, when worn on handss younger brothers or sisters)
  9. Reinforced ballet classes

What consequences resulting flat in a child?

Children with flat feet are disturbed by an important function of the foot - depreciation. As a result, the vibration of the body during walking and running is transmitted to the shin, hip joints, spine, etc. Prolonged irritation of the joints leads to their inflammation-arthrosis. The effect of flat feet on the spine is the development of curvature of the spine, or scoliosis in children. Such symptoms of flat feet, such as leg pain, fatigue, headaches lead to reduced school performance.

How to determine whether there is a flatfoot in a child?

To determine the presence of flat feet in a child can a doctor orthopedic, but at home you can conduct a simple test for the presence of flat feet in the child.

To carry out the test( planotography), it is necessary to lubricate the sole of the baby's foot with vegetable oil and put it on a clean sheet of paper.

The result is a footprint of the child, from which you can determine the state of the arch of the foot. Normally, the cut on the foot is 2/3 of its width.

When flatfooted, there is either no or a small cutout. If you notice a change after this test, you should show your child an orthopedic doctor.

How to choose the right shoes for a child?

For the correct formation of the arches of the foot, the child must buy high-quality shoes. The child's shoes must have a hard back, fixing the heel, a small heel with a height of half a centimeter( no more and no less), and an insole with a small elastic thickening( instep) on the inside of the foot.

Treatment of flat feet.

The main goal of flatfoot treatment is to eliminate pain in the foot, strengthen the muscles and ligaments of the foot and restore the functions of the foot. There are two main methods of treating flatfoot: surgically( surgery) and conservative way.

Among the conservative methods of flatfoot treatment is allocated therapeutic gymnastics, massage, foot baths, physiotherapy, wearing the right orthopedic shoes or insoles.

Treatment of flat feet in a child in the earliest stage of the disease, with the inconsistency of the ligaments of the foot is reduced to the appointment of rest, the temporary cessation of sports. We recommend warm foot baths and massage. An effective method of treatment at an early stage of flatfoot development is the foot bath, the bottom of which is packed with river pebbles. The child is offered to roll stones in the water with his feet.

For the prevention and treatment of flat feet in children, the following set of exercises can be applied:

  1. Skate on the floor with a foot of a rolling pin or a small ball.
  2. The floor is laid napkin, which is suggested to crumple with the help of a foot.
  3. The child is offered to collect his toes and move from place to place the objects scattered on the floor.
  4. Circular movements with feet outwards and inwards.
  5. Standing on socks, reduce and spread the heels, without taking your fingers off the floor.
  6. Grasp the ball with both stops and lift it, keeping it between the feet.
  7. Alternately walk on toes, on the heels, on the outer edges of the feet.
  8. Rolling from heel to toe.
  9. Walk on the ribbed surface( massage mat, sand, pebbles).
  10. Walking on a log, climbing a rope.

Get rid of flatfoot, and prevent it from appearing in your child's help a simple, but very effective set of exercises. It is important not to be lazy and engage in as often as possible. Everything is in your hands!

Treatment of flat feet at home

Treatment of flatfoot, above all, involves strengthening those muscles that support the arch of the foot. For this, there are various options that can be used at home:

1) Strengthening the body .

A natural foot contact with the ground provides a massage for a variety of active points located on the surface of the foot. As a result, not only the muscles of the foot are strengthened, but the whole organism as a whole.

It is especially useful to walk barefoot on sand or pebbles, on uneven ground( hillocks), and also on logs.

Swimming also refers to this kind of strengthening of the foot muscles, especially the use of the crochet style. Rowing with a foot, which is actively used in this form of swimming, also helps to strengthen the muscles of the foot.

2) Physical training ,

However, it should be remembered that in severe clinical manifestations of the disease( such as pain and swelling), some physical exercises cause excessive load on the feet.

In such a case it is necessary to avoid such sports exercises as running skates, skiing. Light exercises, in any case, will be useful, since they help strengthen the body.

3) Gymnastics .

In addition to sports, it is necessary to accustom yourself to the daily execution of a set of exercises, and they need to perform not one, but at least 2-3 times a day. We present you a list of such exercises, they must be done barefoot, each 8-12 times.

  1. Starting position - sitting with straight legs .It is necessary to stroke the lower extremity of the left foot with the inner edge of the right foot. Then do the same, but changing the legs: the inner edge of the left foot strokes the lower leg of the right leg.
  2. Starting position - sitting on the chair :
  3. bend the toes


When rest, massage and other methods do not help to eliminate the pain, you can resort to medical therapy. Systemic analgesics: aspirin, flugalin, ibuprofen, diclofenac, indomethacin, paracetamol, etc. Topical application: indomethacin ointment, Dolgit cream, voltarenic gel, etc. Special treatment procedures : Novocain electrophoresis, hydropharmacy with hydrocortisone,paraffin-ozocerite applications, etc.

Release from the army of conscripts with flat feet( according to RF norms).

Based on the Regulation on Military Medical Examination No. 123, dated 25.02.2003, military service and admission to military schools and schools does not prevent people with the following disabilities:
  • I-II longitudinal flat-foot
  • Transverse flatfootI degree, in the absence of arthrosis in the joints of the foot( middle section), exostoses( bone-cartilaginous sprouting in the form of a spine) and contractures( restriction of joint mobility).
For the liberation from the army with a flatfoot, the following conditions must be met:
  • Longitudinal or transverse flatfoot II degree c presence, expressed pain syndrome, deforming arthrosis of the II stage of the midfoot joints, contracture of the fingers;
  • Longitudinal flatfoot III degree, transverse flatfoot III-IV degree
Conscripts with such types of violations fall into the category - limited to go( "B"), that is, they will only be called in wartime. They get a military ticket on their hands, and they go to the reserve.

Flatfoot prevention

  • The formation of the right gait, not to breed socks when walking - this overloads the inner edge of the foot and its ligaments.
  • With the predisposition to flat feet to choose the right place of work( work not associated with long loads on the legs).
  • Correctly matched shoes, on a thick and soft sole, heel not more than 4 cm.
  • Wearing insoles for long loads.
  • In his spare time, give rest to his legs, at least 30 seconds, 3-4 times a day to stand on the outside of the feet.
  • After work it is recommended to take warm baths for feet, with their subsequent massage.
  • Walking barefoot on an uneven surface, over pebbles, along the sand, walking on the heels, the inner surface of the feet, tiptoe, moving games.
  • Maximum limit the wearing of shoes with high heels
  • Correctly dose physical exercise, avoid excessive loads
Healthy lifestyle, rational nutrition, take food rich in vitamins and trace elements, especially calcium.

Why does postural flaccidity disturb the posture?

The human body works as a whole. Between bodies there are not only anatomical, but also functional interrelations. With flatfoot, the center of gravity is displaced backward. In order to maintain balance, the spine has to deviate forward. Over time, deformation increases, posture is formed - round back .The normal arch of the foot works like a shock absorber. With flatfoot this function is violated. As a result, the spine and knees have increased loads. This leads to an even more severe violation of posture, scoliosis, herniated discs. In the knee joints arthrosis can develop. Flattening and problems on the part of the spine have some common causes: weakness of connective tissue, ligaments and muscles, obesity, increased physical activity.

Which mats can I use for flatfoot? How to choose them correctly?

Special massage mats have on their surface a variety of pebbles, protrusions, "pimples".They are widely used for the prevention and treatment of flat feet. Effects of massage mats :
  • effect on reflexogenic foot points;
  • improvement of blood circulation and lymph drainage( due to this there is a decrease in edema on the legs);
  • strengthening of muscles and ligaments;
  • elimination of cramps, pain;
  • elimination of stresses, increase in general tone.
Massage mats from flat feet are prophylactic and therapeutic .Usually preventive are made of softer materials, and therapeutic ones are made of more rigid materials. One-part massage mat is a single unit. The modular consists of several parts that can be interconnected. They can be marked with "pimples" of different sizes and shapes. Materials from which massage mats are made may also be different. Most often there are rubber( usually based on natural rubber), plastic, made of foamed polymers, on a silicone base. Many models have inserts from stones, for example, river pebbles. Rugs from the Altai birch are very popular. The right choice of a massage pad with flat feet will help the advice of :
  • First of all - consult a doctor .The expert will tell you which model of the rug is best to buy in your case.
  • It is best to buy a mat in the orthopedic salon .Before you buy the product, be sure to deploy it, stand with your bare feet and try to walk. If it causes pain or severe discomfort, it is better to choose another model.
  • For a child under 3 years old, a mat made of rubber is best. Later you can buy a model on a silicone base. Adults often recommend rugs from the Altai birch.
  • Try to choose a rug on which there is not one, but several different types of relief .This will provide different types of impact on the sole. For example, in addition to the "stones" on the surface may be villi for soft massage soles.
  • Inspect the mat before buying .Make sure that all the protrusions and "pimples" are strong enough. Think about how convenient it is to wash, store the selected model.
How to use a massage mat for the prevention and treatment of flat feet? Begin with a daily walk on the rug for 3-5 minutes, gradually increase the time. Usually 5-10 minutes is enough. It is worth remembering that the massage mat can not be used as the only method of treating flatfoot - the effect will bring only its use in combination with other techniques. Who is recommended to use massage mats:
  • for children and adults diagnosed with flat feet;
  • for children, in order to prevent flat feet;
  • to people, leading a sedentary lifestyle, to those with sedentary work;
  • to women, who walk a lot in shoes with stilettos.

How to choose orthopedic insoles for flat feet?

Orthopedic insoles can be used for preventive purposes or to combat flatfoot. Medical orthopedic insoles need to be selected together with a doctor. Usually they are made individually, according to one of three methods:
  • Computer modeling .A person stands on a special platform, which registers the pressure of various parts of the foot and transfers to the computer. An image is displayed on the monitor.
  • Manufacture of plaster casts .
  • Thermoforming . Insole is made of special material, which takes the form of a patient's foot.
  • Obtaining a print with a special bio-foam.
Orthopedic insoles are usually made of genuine leather or synthetic materials( flexible plastic, expanded polyethylene, microporous rubber).If a person has a lot of weight, more rigid materials are used: graphite, special plastics, steel. Also, the insole is made of silicone, but they are less comfortable, have a low elasticity, wear out more quickly. But due to its flexibility, silicone insoles adapt well to the relief of the sole. In the manufacture of insoles for athletes take into account increased loads and intense sweating. Orthopedic insoles for diabetics have additional protection.

How is flatfoot encoded in the ICD?

In the international classification of flatfoot diseases, two codes are assigned:
  • M21.4 - acquired flat foot;
  • Q66.5 - congenital flat foot.

What gymnastics can I perform with flatfoot?

Gymnastics with a flat foot are chosen individually, depending on the type and severity of flatfoot. Start classes only after you consult a doctor and find out what exercises are recommended in your case. Some exercises that can be performed with a flatfoot : In prone position : 1. With your legs slightly apart, squeeze and unclench your toes for about 2 minutes. 2. With your legs spread out, rotate the feet clockwise, then in the opposite direction. 3. Pull your foot socks over. You can perform both legs simultaneously or alternately. 4. Detach the heels from the floor, leaning their toes. 5. Bend your knees, spread them apart, simultaneously folding the soles together, so that they touch. Then "clap" your heels: dilute and reduce them, resting with your toes. 6. Place the right foot on the left ankle joint. Move the right foot along the left shin towards the knee, while trying to clasp her leg. Repeat with the left foot. In sitting position on a chair : 1. Squeeze the right hand into a fist and tightly clamp it between the knees. Raise the inner parts of the feet, and the outer one is pressed harder against the floor. Repeat several times. 2. Detach the heels from the floor - at the same time with both feet, then alternately. 3. Exercise similar to the previous one, only this time tear off the socks. 4. Place different small items on the floor. Grab their fingers with your feet and shift from one place to another. 5. Bend your fingers while pulling your heels forward, then straighten them. The foot should "crawl" on the floor, like a caterpillar. In standing position : 1. Stand several times on your toes. Then alternately tear off the right and left heel from the floor. 2. Stand on your heels several times. In this case, the toes must be completely detached from the floor. 3. Perform several sit-ups and half-squats on your toes.

Is the release of physical education given to a child with flat feet?

This question is solved individually, depending on the type and severity of flatfoot, other factors. With severe deformity and violation of foot function, the child can be completely released from physical culture. In other cases, it is classified in one of four groups:
  • group LFK: children who have a disease requiring an individual program of study;
  • special group: for children, for whom the load in ordinary lessons is too high, restrictions are required;
  • preparatory group: no restrictions in physical activity, but the child is exempted from the delivery of standards;
  • main group: no restrictions.

How does flatfoot differ from clubfoot?

Flat feet are any deformation of the foot at which the longitudinal or transverse arch falls. The reasons for this violation can be different. Clubfoot is a congenital disorder whose causes are not yet fully established. In this case, the foot is most often turned down and inward.

What kind of sports can you practice with flatfoot?

For flat feet, the following sports are recommended: :
  • Free style swimming .It has a beneficial effect not only on the legs, but also on the spine column, the muscles of the back, helps to fight with impaired posture and other pathologies. But with flat feet, you should not get involved in swimming with a crawl, as this increases the load on the muscles of the legs.
  • Skiing .In this case, the load on the legs should be small. Intensive skiing is contraindicated.
  • Equestrian sport . Horse riding helps strengthen the muscles and tendons of the back, legs.
  • Some types of martial arts .Aikido, karate and kung fu do not assume an increased strain on the legs, but help strengthen the tendons and muscles.
When flatfoot is not recommended for sports such as skating, dancing, weightlifting, weight training, jumping, figure skating, hockey, walking on the steppes. Specialty: Practicing doctor of the 2nd category

Published: 03.7.2013


Flat feet - Causes, symptoms and treatment. MF

Flattening is the most common deformation of feet. Directly the foot performs the function of human support, movement and depreciation due to a complex structure. In a normal physiological structure, the foot has two arches - a transverse( between the bases of the fingers) and a longitudinal( along the inner edge of the foot).Vaults carry the function of shock absorbers and soften shaking when walking. The bone-ligamentous apparatus of the foot works well when the load that falls on the foot is completely balanced. With the weakening of the muscles and ligaments that connect the 26 bones of the foot, subsidence of the arches and flattening occur, which leads to loss of the spring function. With flatfoot this function goes to the spine, knee, ankle and hip joint. These joints are not intended to perform this function and cope badly with it, and therefore quickly fail.

Causes of flatfoot formation.

There are quite a few states that lead to flat feet, here are some of them.

  • Congenital flat foot is a fairly rare pathology found in 11.5% of the total number of foot diseases. The cause may be various pathologies of intrauterine development of the fetus, due to ionizing radiation, harmful habits of the mother.
  • Children with rickets develop a rickety foot, as a result of a decrease in the production of vitamin D, the strength of bones decreases under mechanical stress, the musculoskeletal apparatus is weakened.
  • Paralytic platypodia develops after the transferred poliomyelitis, and the degree of flatfoot is directly dependent on the severity of paralysis.
  • Traumatic platypodia develops in fractures of the foot bones or with improperly intergrown fractures.
  • Static flatfoot is one of the most common types of flatfoot. The main reasons for it are reduced muscle tone, excessive fatigue due to prolonged stay on the legs.

Symptoms of flat feet.

Usually a person who spends a lot of time on his feet does not notice the development of flat feet, and the appearance of pains and unpleasant sensations in the legs and feet is associated with fatigue. There are several basic signs on which you can suspect the development of this terrible disease in yourself.

• Your legs begin to swell by the end of the day, marks of socks appear, there may be a feeling of heaviness and cramps that may not be long and pass after the massage • You begin to notice that the length of the working day remains the same and the legs are fatigued much faster.• Shoes start to wear out much faster than before, mostly on the inside.• Periodically creates the feeling that the leg has increased in length, and because of this, you have to buy shoes for a size larger.

There are several stages of foot deformation, the passage of which leads to complete clinical flat feet. The prodromal stage, the stage of alternating flat foot, the stage of development of the flat foot, the stage of flat-footed foot and the contractual flatfoot are distinguished.

The first stage of flatfoot is manifested by pain in the foot and calf muscle after a long load on the foot, a statistical character, a pronounced feeling of fatigue appears.

In the , the intermittent flatness stage is characterized by pain intensification towards the end of the day, the pain arises from overexertion of the ligamentous foot apparatus which maintains the optimal position of the foot. Increased fatigue often appears in the middle of the day, and people with flat feet have to change their activities or more often rest. The longitudinal arch of the foot at the end of the working day visually flattened, but after rest, especially in the mornings, the height of the vault is restored.

The stage of development of flat foot occurs when, due to further overfatigue of the leg and foot muscles, the longitudinal arch of the foot is not restored to rest after rest. The patient quickly develops fatigue due to fatigue of the muscles. The pain becomes permanent and aching due to overstretching of the ligamentous apparatus. The height of the longitudinal arch decreases due to the elongation of the foot and the expansion of its longitudinal part. The gait changes, the amount of movement in the foot joint is limited. In this stage of the disease there are three degrees.

Diagnostic measures for flat feet.

In addition to clinical signs, there are several methods that can determine the severity of this pathology. These include planktonography, the analysis of the face line, the dodging and clinical and radiographic methods of diagnosis.

Plantography - a method that allows the determination of the expression of flat feet with the help of prints. The feet are smeared with methylene blue solution, then the footprints are made on a blank sheet of paper, working on the feet evenly with all the weight.


Friedland's method is the determination of the percentage of height of the foot and its length.

The clinical method of measurement is to construct a triangle with a base equal to the distance from the metatarsal head I to the heel of the calcaneus. The top of the triangle is at the top of the inner ankle, one leg extends to the apex of the calcaneal angle, the other to the head I of metatarsal bone. Normally, the height of the vault is 55 - 60 cm.

The X-ray method is based on the construction of a triangle on the lateral radiograph of the foot that connects the apex of the heel of the calcaneus with the metatarsal I head, and the vertex of the triangle falls on the lower edge of the scaphoid bone, the vertex angle should normally be 120- 130 degrees.

Determination of the degree of flatfoot by X-ray.

Flat-footedness is one of those diseases with which young people are not called to military service( service in the army).II and III degrees of the disease are an absolute contraindication for service in the armed forces. This is due to the large power loads that a man with a flatfoot can not bear. Otherwise, the pain syndrome may increase, and in the future, with the preservation of this load, go to one of many complications.

Flat feet in children.

Newborns are characterized by well-defined arches of feet, but the children's foot is filled with fatty tissue, and when viewed it appears flat. Since 3 years, there has been a significant strengthening and development of the ligamentous apparatus, due to which there is a significant increase in the height of the arch and the foot begins to acquire the appearance of the foot of an adult person. The older the child, the more pronounced the vaulted structure. Thus, the external flat feet of a child can not be taken as a true disease.

The development of flat feet in children is promoted by congenital disorders of the ligamentous apparatus, muscle weakness, obesity, endocrine diseases, improperly selected footwear. Due to its anatomical features, the definition of flat feet in children by the fingerprint method is not always informative and can give a false result.

Very often, children can not complain about leg pain or discomfort, so periodic examination by an orthopedic doctor is an integral part of the annual medical check-up. Treatment of flat feet in children is reduced to rest, temporary prohibition of exercise, massage of the plantar part and walking barefoot on uneven surfaces, it is possible to design orthopedic insoles.

Treatment of flat feet.

Treat flat feet is difficult, and it will not be possible to say with certainty after a period of time that this disease is a thing of the past. Completely get rid of this pathology can only be in childhood, because the ligamentous apparatus and the bone system is pliable enough. In adult patients, this disease can only be stopped with the help of special rehabilitation measures.

Parents need to remember - "the earlier the symptoms of flatfoot, the more favorable conditions for stopping the progression."

Treatment should be combined and include removal of the pain syndrome, strengthening of the ligamentous apparatus and the muscles of the foot. To relieve the pain, you need to use anesthetic ointments with a relaxing effect and physiotherapy.

To begin the treatment is necessary with gymnastics, which can be performed daily at home. The therapeutic form of gymnastics is used to achieve correction of the arch of the foot, strengthens the muscles, trains the ligament apparatus, forms the correct type of gait. There is a large number of exercises that are selected individually and depend on age, complaints, position of the foot and its shape. All exercises and their intensity to you will be picked up by an orthopedist.

Treatment in the stage of flat deformation of the foot should be strictly differentiated, along with exercise therapy and massage it is necessary to wear insoles that support the relief of painful areas and correct the deficiencies in the initial stage of the disease and orthopedic footwear at grade II, and at grade III it is often shownsurgical treatment.

With congenital planovalgus deformation of foot of easy degree, children are treated with foot and shin massage, physiotherapy exercises. When a child begins to walk, it is necessary to make orthopedic shoes for him. With insufficiently effective treatment and late treatment, surgical treatment is indicated.

The correct choice of shoes is of great importance in the treatment of flatfoot. Beautiful shoes with high heels, of course, decorate the legs of any fashionista, but do not wear them all the time. Otherwise, after a short time you will only need to wear orthopedic shoes. When choosing shoes, pay special attention to the flexibility and comfort of the sole, the height of the heel( not more than 3-4 cm), it is better to avoid shoes on the platform and excessively wide or narrow.

Complications of flatfoot.

• Strabism in walking, spinal curvature, unnatural posture • Pain in the knees, hips, back and feet • Dystrophic changes in the muscles of the legs and back • Disease of the feet themselves( deformation, curvature of the fingers, calluses, spurs, neuritis) • Diseases of the spine(herniated intervertebral discs, osteochondrosis), hip and knee joint diseases • Growth of nails.

Flat feet prevention.

To prevent the development of flatfoot, it is necessary to carry out preventive measures every week. The priority that needs to be done is to choose the right footwear, exclude the wearing of shoes with high heels, the optimal height is 3 - 4 cm. Periodically conduct an examination with an orthopedic doctor, at least once a year. People who have any problems with their legs should be examined more often. It is also necessary to do gymnastics and do physical exercises for the feet. Foot baths and massage will help relax the muscles and relieve tension after a hard day. It is necessary to get rid of excess weight, as it contributes to an additional burden on the spine and legs.

Doctor therapist Zhumagaziev E.N.


Platypodia: symptoms, treatment, photo, prevention

Flatfoot is a predominantly acquired disease of the musculoskeletal system, accompanied by a violation of walking mechanics, a change in the shape of the foot, which normally distinguishes between the transverse and longitudinal arches. Flattening promotes pathological changes occurring in the spine, knee and hip joints and other organs. Among several species, a transverse flatfoot is distinguished, accompanied by a flattening of the transverse arch of the foot, the characteristic feature of which is the formation of the so-called "bump" in the region of the big toe. The disease occurs mainly in women in the age range from 30 to 50 years. The appearance of flat feet directly depends on the excess excess weight, under the influence of which the foot becomes a little shorter and thicker.

Reasons for

An important structural element of the foot is its arch. Thanks to it, the foot distributes the load of the body during the movement. The lead contributes to depreciation, balances, etc. The main cause of transverse flatfoot is a disruption in the functioning of the ligament apparatus of the lower extremities, which is transmitted by inheritance. The predisposing factors of flatfoot include:
  1. 1) Extra kilograms of weight that increase the load on the ligament apparatus of the feet and especially the foot;
  2. 2) Paresis or paralysis of the muscles of the lower limbs;
  3. 3) Prolonged wearing of unsuitable close-fitting shoes with high heels;
  4. 4) Flat feet are often the result of professional activity( seller, hairdresser, etc.), when it takes a long time to stand in a standing position.

Symptoms of transverse flatfoot

In many cases, transverse flatfoot begins with subtle symptoms. At first, there are no visible changes in the foot area. By the end of the working day, a slight discomfort in the leg area worries. After a while, the symptomatology increases, including a change in the shape of the feet. For each degree of transverse flatfoot, the following symptoms are characteristic:
  1. 1) At the first degree of flatfoot there is fatigue of the feet, pain in the area of ​​the fingers. The skin on them becomes thicker. The angle of deviation of the thumb is 20 degrees( at a rate not exceeding 10 degrees);
  2. 2) With the second degree of flatfoot, the angle of deviation of the thumb reaches no more than 40 degrees. Physical exercise increases the feeling of pain and burning, which are noted not only in the fingers, but in the entire foot. Characteristics of the choice of shoes;
  3. 3) At the third stage of flatfoot symptoms of the disease are pronounced. The angle of deviation of the thumb is more than 40 degrees, which is outwardly manifested by the formation of a "cone".The shape of the foot changes noticeably. It becomes shorter and wider. Pain is noted even in rest. Corns and corns are formed. Against the background of flat feet develop joints of the legs and spine.
Patients with flat feet wear out shoes faster, especially the inner side of the heel, which is quickly worn off. There is a heavy gait, the posture is broken.

Diagnosis of the disease

The orthopedist is engaged in the diagnosis and treatment of transverse flatfoot. At the initial visit, an examination is carried out, complaints of the patient are taken into account. Additional methods of research, specifying the degree of flatfoot, include:
  1. 1) Plantography - a method that allows you to obtain a footprint on paper. A similar method of determining flat feet can be carried out at home. For this, it is necessary to lubricate the sole with any coloring material and stand on the sheet of paper, assuming the usual position of the body. From the obtained fingerprint it is indirectly possible to judge the presence and stage of flatfoot;
  2. 2) X-ray examination is one of the reliable methods, allowing to assess the nature of the changes, the degree of the disease, follow the dynamics of the pathological process. The X-ray is done in two projections in the patient's standing position;
  3. 3) The method of electromyography determines the condition of the calf and foot muscles due to the registration of the impulses sent from the surface by a special device;
  4. 4) Modern computer diagnostics methods include computer-hardware systems that can determine with the greatest accuracy the shape, width, length, foot index, etc.

Treatment of transverse flatfoot

Conservative treatment methods include:
  1. 1) Use in wearing special footwear andorthopedic insoles;
  2. 2) Performing special physical exercises that strengthen the ligamentous apparatus of the foot;
  3. 3) Therapeutic massage will improve blood circulation, eliminate swelling in the area of ​​the feet;
  4. 4) Physiotherapeutic procedures, for example, phonophoresis with hydrocortisone, electrophoresis with novocaine - will temporarily reduce the senses of pain.
  5. 5) The medications related to the NSAID group( diclofenac, indomethacin, voltaren, etc.) help to relieve pain. They are used in the form of tablets, ointments, creams.
In case of ineffectiveness of therapeutic agents, as well as in advanced cases with complications resort to surgical( surgical) treatment of transverse flatfoot. Operative techniques by which flat feet are treated are divided into the following groups:


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