Osteochondrosis of 3rd degree of cervical department of
Doctors confidently state that recently such a disease as osteochondrosis of the spine is becoming more common. Probably, in any modern person at the examination it is possible to reveal this or that stage of the disease. In most cases, an insidious disease affects the lower back and cervical vertebrae. There are several stages of development of this disease, each of which is characterized by symptoms and treatment. And if the symptoms of osteochondrosis are barely noticeable at the first stage, osteochondrosis of the 3rd degree of the cervical region becomes very noticeable, and often in such cases it can not do without surgical intervention.
Stages of osteochondrosisThe spine of a person undergoes a tremendous load, it carries the entire body weight, and such loads sooner or later cause the tissues to change, deform the intervertebral discs, and infringe the muscles, ligaments and vessels. Such processes in the body are accompanied by strong pain sensations. In order to diagnose osteochondrosis in time and start treatment, it is necessary to know what are the degrees of this disease, how they manifest themselves and what methods of treatment exist at each of the stages. The stages of the disease:
- The first degree of the disease is characterized by the compaction of the intervertebral disc. In this case, the hook-shaped processes increase. Such manifestations of osteochondrosis are treated with pain medication, then swelling is removed. With this therapy, the spine is straightened, which allows you to remove the load from the discs. The patient is prescribed non-steroidal and antihistamines.
- In the second stage of osteochondrosis, an unstable condition of the spine itself is noted. There is a narrowing of the intervertebral openings and the spinal canal, the height of intervertebral discs decreases. At the expressed second stage of an osteochondrosis as treatment appoint manualnuju therapy. To relieve the pain, prescribe antihistamines, ointments and calcium. In addition, physiotherapeutic procedures aimed at stretching the spine with fixation of the vertebrae will be helpful. Massage is also prescribed.
- Osteochondrosis of the 3rd degree spine is considered to be the most difficult, as there are serious changes in the intervertebral discs. Usually, the patient significantly narrows the vertebral canal and intervertebral foramen. The result of these changes usually becomes a hernia. Cope with it can only be through surgical intervention. Before making a decision about surgery, the patient is prescribed the same treatment as in the second stage, and if the symptoms do not abate after two weeks of such treatment, then they resort to operating a hernia.
- Fourth degree of osteochondrosis is usually not considered a separate stage of the disease, as it flows smoothly from the third and is a recovery stage in the fight against this disease. At this stage, treatment is only conservative.
The severity of osteochondrosis in each individual case can be judged only by a specialist based on the results of the X-ray. Therefore, do not try to diagnose yourself this disease yourself and prescribe yourself a cure. When there are unpleasant sensations in the spine, you need to see a doctor.
If the patient is diagnosed with osteochondrosis of stage 3, then in the spine there are processes of destruction in the fibrous ring of the vertebrae and the nucleus is displaced. As a result, an intervertebral hernia is formed. The spine of a healthy person consists of elastic discs located between the vertebrae. The discs are quite strong. In the case of eating disorders or lack of physical activity, parts of the vertebrae lose their elasticity and are destroyed. This is the development of the third stage of osteochondrosis.
In addition, with thinning of the spinal tissues, intervertebral discs become more mobile. This invariably causes disks to move. So, for example, cervical dystrophic disorder of articular cartilage of the third degree is often accompanied by a dislocation of the vertebrae of the neck.
Cervical osteochondrosis 1, 2 and 3 degrees: symptoms, treatment
1 degree of osteochondrosis
In the first stage of the disease, the capsule of the intervertebral disc of the cervical spine is broken, degenerative changes in muscle tissue occur.
During this period, cracks appear on the fibrous ring( fibrous ring - the outer part of the intervertebral disc, formed from collagen fibers).This pulls for a violation of the fixation of the gelatinous core, which is the central part of the intervertebral disc and consists of cartilaginous gelatinous tissue.
Osteochondrosis progresses very quickly and it is very important to start treatment on time and not to start the disease
The first degree is characterized by the presence of symptoms that indicate that the ailment has begun its destructive actions:
- . The shoulder periarthritis syndrome is characterized by pain in the neck, shoulders, jointsinactive. Infringement of nerve roots leads to spasm, narrowing of arteries and blood vessels, which leads to insufficient blood supply to the joint, muscles, tendons. There is a hotbed of inflammation.
- Radicular syndrome occurs due to squeezing of the spinal roots. This pathological condition is called "radiculitis".Slight turns of the head cause severe pain. Seeking to avoid such headaches, the patient holds his head unnaturally.
Heart pain is not always associated with cardiac problems. Be sure to check with your doctor.
In cardiac syndrome, a person is afraid that the pain is caused by heart disease. At inspection cardiological pathologies are not found out.
- The presence of vertebral artery syndrome initiates the occurrence of dizziness, burning headaches of the occiput and neck area. Sometimes there is a deterioration of vision, there are "flies" before your eyes or suddenly they are covered with a "veil".
The aim of all the therapeutic measures being carried out is to prevent the next, 2nd degree, from osteochondrosis. At this stage of the disease, surgery is not necessary. Treatment consists in the appointment:
- physiotherapy, which eliminates pain, reduces inflammation;
- therapeutic exercise, which reduces the burden on the spine, improves its mobility;
- massage, eliminating muscle strain, improving the blood circulation of affected areas.
The first stage of the disease is effective local treatment - special ointments and gels will relieve inflammation, swelling, eliminate pain, warm up painful areas, relax muscles, improve blood flow and nutrition of affected areas.
Osteochondrosis of 2nd degree
Because of the pinch of the vertebral artery, the brain suffers: it does not receive the proper amount of nutrients, which affects the health of the patient.
Further degenerative-dystrophic changes inside the nucleus of the intervertebral disc and fibrous capsule lead to a decrease in height between the cervical vertebraeof the gap. As a result, the roots of the spinal cord nerves are jammed. During this period, patients are disturbed by sharp point pain, which increases with tilting and turning the head. Pain sensations go beyond the neck area, accompanied by a decrease in efficiency, general weakness. Pain sensations during this period of the disease can be not only point, but also spilled, spreading to the back, shoulders. When turning the head or unbending the neck, there are sharp pains, similar to lumbago.
In the second stage, the posture is disturbed, due to the displacement of the cervical vertebrae. Disturbed posture provokes further deterioration of metabolic processes of the affected spine. All conditions for the transition of osteochondrosis from the second degree to the third are formed.
Osteochondrosis of the cervical department of the 2nd degree does not yet affect the vertebral artery, but already during this period of the disease the patients complain not only of neck and back pain, but general weakness, fatigue, fatigue. Many patients experience sleep disorders due to pain.
Treatment is aimed at eliminating pain, swelling and inflammation, as well as normalizing the metabolism inside the cartilaginous tissue, strengthening the muscular framework.
Doctors prescribe a comprehensive treatment:
- additional treatment( massage, manual therapy, physiotherapy, etc.).
Osteochondrosis of 3rd degree
Intervertebral hernia requires urgent surgical intervention. Do not expose yourself to such a danger!
Cervical osteochondrosis of the 3rd degree is characterized by:
- by the presence of intervertebral hernias;
- during this period of the disease development it is difficult for patients to restrain their head;
- with irradiating( giving) pains in the arm, shoulders, heart;
- reduced sensitivity;
- paralyzing the muscles of the hands.
Especially dangerous is osteochondrosis of the 3rd degree by squeezing arteries. This leads to deprivation of the brain full nutrition, disruption of oxygen supply, as a result - brain areas may die. This pathological process is called a "spinal stroke".Spinal stroke is the most serious complication in osteochondrosis.
The disease in the third stage is the most complicated, it is during this period that irreversible degenerative changes occur in intervertebral discs and cartilage tissues.
The lifestyle of modern people often provokes osteochondrosis of the spine. In more than 30% of patients, doctors detect foci of inflammation and painful sensations of the cervical region. The disease manifests itself in different symptoms, the most characteristic is pain.
Unfortunately, not all patients immediately turn to specialists, attributing fatigue, fatigue, tension of the back muscles and headaches to other causes. Osteochondrosis starts to think about when the disease goes to a more serious, second stage, which is accompanied by sharp pains and degenerative changes in the cartilaginous tissue of the vertebrae.
Remember, with timely access to a doctor, accurate diagnosis of cervical osteochondrosis can be suspended, and even completely cured.
Osteochondrosis 1, 2 and 3 degrees of lumbar
Symptoms of early osteochondrosis
At the first stages of pathology development there is a compaction of intervertebral discs of the lumbar region. The patient has a slight pain with sudden movements or after considerable physical exertion.
The risk group includes office workers, motorists. The constant presence in one sitting posture adversely affects the lower back.
A visit to the doctor at the first stages of the disease increases the patient's chances for a speedy recovery.
Acute pain in the first stage does not happen. Therefore, few people turn to the clinic. Mostly they are treated at home with ointments and compresses. Then the disease of the lumbar region goes to the second stage.
Symptoms of Stage 2
Further development of the pathological process of the lumbar region leads to a deeper disc change. This causes it to go beyond the bodies of the vertebrae - protrusion appears( destruction of the fibrous ring of the disc).
Visual change of the intervertebral disc during progressive osteochondrosis
In the course of the development of the disease appears vertebral syndrome - lumbago. The patient's pain arises suddenly when performing a sudden movement or lifting the load.
Recommended posture for "lumbago"
The lumbar spine is also subjected to a chronic manifestation - lumbolgia. This syndrome is not associated with the load on the lower back. The pains are constant, aching, slightly worse with physical exertion.
Pain can be removed in the lying position. This reduces the pressure on the intervertebral discs. Lumbling can take a long time. It lasts for months, periodically receding and intensifying.
With the second degree of the disease, exercise therapy and massage help. You can take the following medicines as prescribed by your doctor:
- for pain relief - preventing pathological reflexes and reducing inflammation;
- non-steroidal and vasoactive drugs - for the prevention of inflammation in affected areas;
- antihistamines and pyrazolone preparations - to stop the development of the disease;
- calcium - to strengthen bone tissue.
The third stage of the development of the pathology of the waist
The third period foreshadows the rupture of the fibrous ring and the release of the internal composition of the gelatinous nucleus with the formation of the intervertebral hernia. To the previous symptoms is added:
- frequent urge to urinate;
- acute spasmodic pain in the lumbar region;
- sensitivity of feet;
What is the diagnosis of
What does the diagnosis mean - osteochondrosis of the third degree of the lumbar region? This is a situation where destructive processes in the fibrous ring of the vertebrae begin to occur inside the spine. And this, in turn, leads to the displacement of the nucleus. As a consequence of all this - the formation of the intervertebral hernia.
In a person who is completely healthy, the spine looks like elastic discs located between the vertebrae. These discs have excellent strength. If there is a violation of physical activity, or if a person takes improper food, the parts of the vertebrae begin to lose their elasticity, and as a consequence they are susceptible to destruction. In this case, they speak of the development of osteochondrosis of the third stage of the lumbar region.
If the spine is thinning tissue, then the intervertebral discs begin to show great mobility. This always leads to the fact that the disks are shifted.
In the common people such a disease as lumbar osteochondrosis is commonly called radiculitis. This is one of the most common types of diseases that exist today.
Important! Such an unpleasant ailment can appear at the most unexpected moment. For example, both during static actions, and when a person is engaged in active activities. This is due to the fact that the spine significantly increases the load.
Osteochondrosis of the third degree of the lumbar spine makes itself felt by the onset of acute pain syndrome. He appears in the area where the waist is located. The patient develops pain due to the transmission of nerves that are located inside the spinal cord. Along with this, there are cases when inflammation develops in one area.
Naturally, with the help of massages or therapeutic exercises such a disease can not be overcome. That's why doctors give the sick person a recommendation in the form of taking medication with analgesic action, and the acquisition of certain ointments. If such advice is rendered useless, physicians decide to resort to surgery. In the third degree osteochondrosis, a number of the following symptoms are observed:
- chronic pain in the lumbar region, which is given in the limbs;
- bound motion;
- sufficiently reduced sensitivity of the hands and feet, the appearance of numbness in the fingers. In this case, the limbs can remain cold;
- the work of the gastrointestinal tract is intermittent;
- occurs the development of herniated intervertebral discs;
- is often observed such a phenomenon as the displacement of disks located between the vertebrae. That's why doctors are beginning to insist on the
- operating hernia.
It is this stage that is harder to treat, because there are significant changes in intervertebral discs. Very often, a person suffering from such a condition narrows the intervertebral foramen and the vertebral canal. And as a result, there is such an unpleasant ailment as a hernia. In order to cope with this type of osteochondrosis, doctors perform surgical operations.
Treatment consists in the removal of the intervertebral hernia and special procedures are performed in order to strengthen the vertebrae.
But before deciding whether there is a need for surgical intervention or not, conduct manipulations that resemble procedures in the second stage. In case the symptoms continue, the physicians begin to operate a hernia.
Treatment with folk remedies
As a help in this disease, folk medicine offers a variety of means. Among them are poultices, sprays, baths with the addition of medicinal plants and compresses. Traditional healers are advised to take tinctures and decoctions.
All these products have a warming and anesthetic effect. It should be remembered that it is necessary to take such "medicines" with great care and only if this is the permission of the doctor. Otherwise, the independent reception of these funds can lead to the emergence of complex poisoning, a possible allergic reaction, as well as a number of side effects( this primarily applies to the reception of plants that are recognized as poisonous).
Tincture of pine buds
In order to make such a tool, it is necessary to harvest pine cones in the spring. They are still green at this time, and their length reaches 2 or 3 cm. All the material obtained must be crushed( for example, using a meat grinder).The resulting mass is covered with sugar, in an amount equal to half of the total number of ground cones. The mixture is placed in any cold place( for example, in a refrigerator) for a period of about a month. When the medicinal mixture is ready, it begins to take 1 teaspoon three times a day. The course of taking the tincture is approximately three weeks.
Interesting! This liquid can stand for a year and does not lose its healing properties.
The disability group in such a disease is determined by how the patient feels, what his condition is at the moment, whether he is competent and whether the symptoms of the disease are observed. Disability of the third group is assigned to those people who can service themselves, but it takes much more time for them. The second group is characterized by the fact that the periods of exacerbation of this disease occur more and more often. The first is given to the patient when the functions of the spine are either reduced or completely lost.
Osteochondrosis in the lumbosacral
Occurrence in this department of osteochondrosis is very common and quite complex in the treatment of the disease. Pain in the lower back is more common than in other parts of the spine. The lumbar department takes on the main burden associated with moving the body in space, holding the pose and performing physical work, and therefore is damaged more often.
If the lower back is affected, the sacral department is most often involved in the process. Isolated osteochondrosis of the sacrum is extremely rare. Consider the possible causes of osteochondrosis, as well as various methods of treatment.
What changes in the spine occur?
Due to age, genetic predisposition, increased strain on the spine, there are degenerative-dystrophic changes in interarticular cartilage. There is a decrease in the height of the intervertebral disc, which gradually loses moisture, dries and flatters. Elasticity of the disc tissue is reduced, and it is no longer able to perform an amortization function, this is the osteochondrosis of the lumbosacral spine.
Hernias of the vertebral column appear, narrowing of the interarticular gap is the cause of compression of the nerve roots. Over time, there are growths along the edges of the body of the vertebrae, the vertebral column seems to "ossify".
The result of the destructive process with osteochondrosis is periodic or persistent pain, deformity of the spine, and in the advanced stage - the inability to move, which leads to disability of the patient.
There are 4 degrees of disease
- Osteochondrosis 1 degree. The lumbar spine is already affected by the destructive process, but the symptoms are still missing or mild. There may be discomfort after heavy workload, slight pain in the lumbar region and buttock after lifting weights, sudden movements of the body. At 1 degree of an osteochondrosis in a quiet status of the person disturbs nothing.
- Osteochondrosis of the 2nd degree is manifested by sharp pain in the lower back, which gives to the buttock or the external surface of the thigh. At the 2nd stage, further destruction of the fibrous cartilage continues, which leads to a narrowing of the lumen between the vertebral bodies. It is in the 2 stages of osteochondrosis that there are so-called lumbago, the symptoms are accompanied by excessive sweating, paresthesias( crawling "creepy" on the body).
There may be other symptoms: the unnatural mobility of the lower part of the spine develops, the patient may feel cold or fever in the lumbar region, the sensitivity of the skin of the thigh or lower leg is disturbed. The first attack of the disease develops, as a rule, suddenly, but the symptoms pass fairly quickly - within 1 week.
- Osteochondrosis of the 3rd degree. This stage of the disease is characterized by rupture of the fibrous ring and the appearance of intervertebral hernias. The spine of a person in stage 3 is deformed, scoliosis, lordosis or kyphosis develops. Symptoms are as follows: pain is intense, it bothers a person for a long time. The patient is difficult to sit or stand, the slopes forward and the body turns sideways cause severe pain. If the fibrous ring protrudes toward the spinal canal, it causes compression of nerves, spinal cord, vessels.
- Osteochondrosis of the 4th degree is a serious disease that leads to disability of a person. Movement can be difficult, the spine is severely deformed, all symptoms of osteochondrosis are almost constantly present in the patient. Sometimes the pain can subside for a short time, but this only indicates the appearance of bone sprouting in the spine.
Sometimes there is a chronic or subacute course of the disease. In this case, pain in the lower back( lumbalgia) develops 1-2 days after hypothermia or excessive physical activity and is characterized by a lower intensity. Long sitting in the office promotes relaxation of the muscular corset and provokes symptoms of osteochondrosis. Chronic lumbosacral osteochondrosis is characterized by pain, which has a one-sided character and is localized only in the right or left side of the lumbar region.
Osteochondrosis of the sacral department
Most often it develops simultaneously with osteochondrosis of the lumbar part, but it can also occur as an isolated process( more often in women).Pain with sacral osteochondrosis is localized at the bottom of the back and in the coccyx region. Despite the fact that a strong burning, raspiruyuschaya pain is very painful, some people can not pinpoint the painful place.
With sacral osteochondrosis, urination, urinary incontinence, pain in the rectum, inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary sphere can develop.
The more advanced the disease, the greater the effort will be needed to treat osteochondrosis.
- So, osteochondrosis 1 degree, the symptoms of which can be manifested only by the heaviness in the loin with prolonged sitting, is treated with the help of massage and therapeutic gymnastics. If the soreness in the lumbosacral section is still expressed, the patient at 1 stage is well helped by external methods of treatment: rubbing, warming compresses, plasters or light analgesics. At 1 degree of osteochondrosis it is necessary to apply chondroprotectors for treatment to prevent further destruction of the cartilaginous tissue. At the moment, effective means of this group are the following: Teraflex, Flexinovo, Collagen ultra.
- Osteochondrosis of the 2nd degree requires prescription of medicines. You may need dehydrating, anti-inflammatory drugs, muscle relaxants, antihistamines, calcium preparations to tighten the bone tissue. Good anti-inflammatory properties have such drugs as Diclofenac, Naise, Indomethacin, Meloxicam. At the 2 stages of osteochondrosis, physiotherapeutic methods of treatment are prescribed: magnetotherapy, electrophoresis with medications. Acupuncture and treatment with leeches are of great help to patients. Undoubtedly, you should not completely abandon therapeutic gymnastics, but all exercises are performed in a sparing mode. When performing complex exercise therapy a person should not feel pain in the lumbar region.
- 3 stage of osteochondrosis. Symptoms manifest themselves sharply with pain caused by a lumbar hernia. At the 3 stages of osteochondrosis, performing exercises without doctor's permission becomes dangerous. Massage and exercise therapy are unlikely to help the patient. At 3 stages of the disease resort to treatment with hormonal drugs. And if they are ineffective, surgical intervention will be required.
As can be seen, osteochondrosis 1, 2 and 3 stages are treated with the same techniques( exercise therapy, massage, medication), but their choice depends on the patient's condition and the severity of the process.
Do not forget about the eastern methods of treatment, including about Tibetan medicine. Acupuncture in combination with acupressure and phytotherapy give a very good effect.
To treat the disease can be folk remedies, they have not lost their effectiveness. Various ointments, rubbing, compresses with medicinal plants help reduce inflammation and relieve painful manifestations of lumbar osteochondrosis. However, one should remember about the possibility of developing an allergic reaction in a modern person, so use folk remedies for treatment should be carefully.
Rubbing and compresses
- Tincture of hot pepper for the treatment of low back pain. You will require 20-30 grams of ground ground red pepper and a glass of vodka. The remedy is insisted for several days, not forgetting to shake it regularly. Used for grinding painful places.
- Camphor and mustard against osteochondrosis. To prepare the ointment, you need 50 g of mustard in powder, 50 ml.camphor alcohol, 100 grams of medical alcohol and 100 grams of egg white( usually 3 proteins).Dissolve the mustard in the alcohol mixture, whisk the proteins separately. Mix all the ingredients, while getting a liquid ointment. Rub in the lower back before going to bed, but not dry. Wipe off with a dry cloth.
- Honey and aloe for the treatment of osteochondrosis. Mix 100 grams of honey with 50 ml.juice of aloe, add here 150 moz vodka or diluted alcohol. Stir well and leave to stand for 10 hours. Use a mixture for compresses: moisten the tissue and apply to a sore point, keep until dry. The procedure should be done 2 times a day.
- Horseradish with alcohol for the treatment of the disease. Squeeze the juice from the roots of horseradish and mix with an equal amount of vodka or alcohol. Stretch the mixture with a loin, after which the diseased area is wrapped with woolen cloth for an hour to warm up.
- Grate the garlic on a fine grater and mix with a double volume of pork fat. When osteochondrosis rub the remedy into sore spots.
- Compress from cabbage leaf. Cut the upper leaf of cabbage from thick veins, knead and lower for a few seconds in hot water( 50-60 degrees, but no more).After that, attach to the sore spot and bandage. When the sheet darkens, it should be replaced with fresh one.
- Lilac with kerosene for the treatment of osteochondrosis. Pour into the 3-liter jar of lilac flowers, but do not tamp them, fill the jar to the brim with kerosene and insist for 2 weeks. Heal the mixture in painful areas.
To enhance the mobility of the lumbar spine and use the following exercises:
- Become on all fours, hands to rest on the floor. Raise the right arm and left foot to the horizontal position and hold this position for a few seconds. The same is done with the left hand and the right foot. The purpose of the exercise - as long as possible to keep your arms and legs on weight, gradually bringing the time to 1-2 minutes.
- Get on your knees beside the chair, with your hands to rest in the seat. On inhaling, bend your back back, pulling in at the same time abdominal muscles. Relax, take the starting position. Repeat the exercise 8-10 times.
- Lie on your back and pull your knees to your stomach, then straighten your legs. Repeat the exercise alternately for the right and left legs, and then for both legs simultaneously.
- Stand on all fours, hands rest on the floor. Turn the body in the right side, without taking your hands off the floor. Repeat the exercise with turns to the left. Gradually, the amplitude of the exercises should be increased as the stiffness of the lumbar region decreases.
It should be said that all exercises help only with their regular execution. If doing exercise therapy on a case-by-case basis, there will not be much use. Therapeutic gymnastics is aimed at strengthening the muscular corset of the back, and this is the key to the health of the spine. Regular exercise helps relieve pressure on the intervertebral joints, which helps stop the disruptive process.
When acute pain in the lower back exercises exercise therapy should not be, usually during this period the patient is assigned to rest. Treatment is also carried out with the help of supporting corsets. It is desirable in the acute period of adherence to bed rest. Then, with positive dynamics and the absence of painful manifestations, they pass to therapeutic gymnastics.
It's important to know!
All folk remedies should be used only with the permission of a doctor. They can help cure lumbosacral osteochondrosis, but do not replace basic therapy. It is not necessary to conduct treatment yourself, as well as doing exercises without the permission of an orthopedist. The exercise complex of exercise therapy should be developed for each patient by an experienced physician taking into account the state of health of the spine.
Osteochondrosis of the lumbosacral spine: treatment and symptoms
Symptoms of lumbar osteochondrosis
Osteochondrosis of the lumbar spine is characterized by a wide variety of clinical manifestations. The symptomatology of the disease depends on the stage of the pathological process and the degree of degenerative changes in the affected vertebral column. The disease develops gradually, beginning with minor changes in the cartilaginous tissue of the intervertebral discs, and at the initial stages is not manifested.
As the degenerative processes progress, pathological changes in the discs become more pronounced, and over time, the patient begins to appear some signs of osteochondrosis. Depending on the severity of the lesion of the cartilaginous tissue of the spine, three degrees of the process can be distinguished.
Osteochondrosis 1 degree
In the initial stages of lumbar osteochondrosis, small seals of the intervertebral discs are observed, which does not disturb the patient in any way or is manifested only by orthopedic symptoms: a feeling of stiffness in the lower back, unpleasant sensations in the form of weak pulling pains with tilts and corners of the trunk. Acute pain in the loin associated with osteochondrosis in this stage does not happen. A typical sign of the initial manifestations of lumbar osteochondrosis is the appearance of rapid fatigue with a static load, it becomes difficult to sit for a long time in one position. After a prolonged sitting, there may be a crunch in the lower back while moving in the lumbar spine.
Osteochondrosis 2 degrees
Further progression of the pathological process leads to more pronounced changes in the disc, which causes its protrusion beyond the vertebral bodies - protrusion occurs. At first it arises only with the vertical position of the body, but with time it assumes a constant character. At this stage, osteochondrosis is manifested by vertebral syndromes.
Lumbago is often the first manifestation of lumbar osteochondrosis. The pain arises suddenly, usually with an awkward movement: a deep tilt forward, an attempt to abruptly rise from a sitting position, lifting the gravity in front of him. Pain in lumbago is usually compared with a shock of current. When a patient is shot, the patient freezes in a pose in which there is no sharp pain and is afraid to move. In this case, a constant, pronounced muscle tension is observed. They protrude, in the form of ridges, located on both sides of the spinous processes. Muscular hypertonus is a protective reflex that facilitates the physiological immobilization of the lumbar spine.
Another manifestation of vertebral syndrome may be lumbolgia - chronic pain in the lower back. Unlike lumbago, there is no clear connection with the movements and the appearance of pain. Painful sensations of aching slightly increase with quiet movements. Patients can perform not hard work, but it is usually difficult for them to bend and even more difficult to unbend. The pain is aggravated after prolonged sitting or standing, because of this, patients try to change the position of the body more often. Adopting a horizontal position leads to a reduction in pain, since the load on the intervertebral discs is significantly reduced. Pain can last for months, periodically receding and intensifying when there is another exacerbation of the disease.
Osteochondrosis of 3rd degree
With far-reaching destructive changes, the formation of herniated intervertebral discs occurs. As a result, a pronounced compression of the spinal structures develops and a number of other manifestations of the disease are added to the vertebral syndrome in the clinical picture.
Radicular syndrome, most often, develops against a background of long-lasting vertebral manifestations. In most cases, there is a sudden sudden pain localized in the lumbar region on the one hand with irradiation to the buttock, the hip joint, gradually spreading to the entire leg. Aggravation is usually associated with awkward movement, prolonged forced position or lifting of weights. Painful sensations in the root syndrome increase with movement, increased intra-abdominal pressure( coughing, sneezing, straining).After a while there are disorders of sensitivity in the lower limb, such as hyperesthesia, hypesthesia, paresthesia, in severe cases - anesthesia. The muscle tone decreases, weakness develops, there is a hypotrophy of the leg muscular tissue.
Compression myelopathy( compression of the spinal cord) at the level of the lumbar region is manifested by motor disorders in the lower extremities, there is a significant decrease in the volume of the thigh, shin, decrease and even absent reflexes. There may be a malfunction of the pelvic organs: incontinence or retention of urine, feces, a violation of sensitivity in the perineum. This symptomatology is extremely unfavorable in terms of prognosis and requires immediate treatment. The spinal cord disturbance syndrome is manifested by intermittent claudication, a feeling of weakness in the legs, pain, painful paresthesias during walking, extending to the lower parts of the trunk and into the perineum. The patient can be persecuted by constant urge to urinate, later there are violations of the function of the pelvic organs. There is a tendency to develop bedsores.
Neurotic disorders develop in the long course of the disease, when severe pain and various motor and sensory disorders are severe. In patients, irritability increases, there may be manifestations of aggression towards the surrounding people, the mood changes rapidly, sleep is often disturbed, and disability declines. As a rule, very hypochondriacal people with a labile psyche are susceptible to neurologization.
How to treat lumbosacral osteochondrosis?
In the case of 1 and 2 degrees of osteochondrosis, treatment is usually carried out at home with conservative methods. In most patients, properly prescribed therapy allows you to stop the symptoms of the disease for several weeks, after which a remission occurs, the duration of which depends on the patient's lifestyle, the severity of osteochondrosis, and the use of therapeutic and prophylactic measures. Constantly conducted prophylaxis allows to achieve remission for many years.
Surgical treatment of the osteochondrosis of the lumbar spine is used when an intervertebral hernia occurs. It is indicated by 15-20% of patients and is used in the development of serious neurological complications or inefficiency of conservative methods for several months.
When the disease worsens, the main focus is on drug treatment, the main purpose of which is to combat pain. For this, the following medicines are used:
- Drugs that have an anti-inflammatory effect, are given by mouth or intramuscular injections. In most cases, drugs are used that belong to the group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: diclofenac, indomethacin, ketarol, ibuprofen, nemisil, moovales, etc. In parallel with the general application of NSAIDs, these drugs are also prescribed for topical use, in the form of medicinal forms such as ointment orgel. In the absence of the effect of nonsteroidal agents, local anesthetics are used in combination with hormones in the form of epidural and paravertebral blockades.
- Muscle relaxants give a good effect in combination with diuretics and vasoactive substances. The use of these drugs allows you to remove muscle spasm and reduce tissue swelling, improve blood circulation in the area of compression.
- Sedative drugs, daytime tranquilizers, antidepressants are used to treat and prevent the development of neuroticism.
- Group B( B1 and B12) vitamins improve nerve tissue nutrition, promote its rapid recovery after compression effects.
After the acute period of the disease treatment should not stop. To fix the positive effect of drug therapy, during remission the following treatment measures are applied:
- Therapeutic massage is considered one of the most effective therapeutic and prophylactic measures in combination with other therapeutic methods. It allows you to significantly reduce the rigidity of the lumbar muscles, improve blood circulation, lymph circulation directly in the tissues adjacent to the lumbar spine. In the case of hypotrophy associated with radicular syndrome, lower limb massage contributes to the improvement of trophism and the innervation of hypotrophic muscles.
- Physiotherapy is prescribed in conjunction with a massage after relief, in the absence of pain syndrome. Classes are held daily, therapeutic gymnastics begins with minimal, gradually increasing loads, since otherwise one can provoke another exacerbation. The complex of exercises must be started, avoiding sudden movements and refraining from doing high-amplitude exercises. Exercises for the waist are shown to patients who used the corset for a long time. Systematic exercises of exercise therapy will significantly strengthen the muscles of the waist, thereby reducing the undesirable load on the intervertebral discs.
- Strict compliance with the sparing regimen is an integral part of the successful treatment of osteochondrosis, as well as the prevention of its exacerbations. For the back, especially the lumbar region, it is extremely important to fulfill the following conditions: to sleep on a bed equipped with an orthopedic mattress and a special cushion of medium stiffness of small sizes;under the neck you need to put a special roller.
- Avoid prolonged stay in uncomfortable position. After a long sitting, you need to get up slowly, without sharp jerks. After that, the elementary charge and a small self-massage should be performed, which will allow to eliminate stagnant phenomena in the lower back.