Rheumatoid arthrosis symptoms treatment

How rheumatoid arthrosis develops: its symptoms

Feeling of stiffness, pain, decreased activity - this is how arthrosis of the extremities usually begins. It used to be assumed that rheumatoid arthrosis is reserved for elderly people, however, modern medicine refutes this view. Osteoarthritis of the legs and other parts of the body occurs even in infants. Moreover, rheumatoid arthrosis has the property of being inherited. If someone in the family has suffered or suffers from an ailment, there is a very high probability that others will be exposed to it. Osteoarthritis is a chronic disease. Various drugs and surgical intervention can only stop it, preserving the destructive processes.100% can not be healed of arthrosis, but there are effective preventive measures to prevent the disease. It is important to remember: the earlier the exact diagnosis is made, the greater the chance of effective treatment, to prevent disability and save a person's life.

The disease creeps up unnoticed to make itself felt

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Arthritis and arthrosis are different ailments of joints, however, they share a common symptom. Moreover, scientists suppose a number of varieties of the latter disease to be allocated to a separate group. Arthrosis is more correctly called osteoarthritis, since this disease is initially associated with a metabolic disorder, and not with inflammation of the joint. Psoriatic and rheumatoid arthrosis causes destructive changes in the body, destroying the joints. The destruction of the cartilages of the legs, hands occurs initially at first. The deposition of salts is an indispensable companion of arthrosis of the foot, heel, thigh. Inflammation in the joints begins imperceptibly, and only painful symptoms suggest that the feet are already affected by arthrosis.

The reasons for the destruction of the cartilage of the heel or thigh, scientists have not yet been fully studied. The human body is initially arranged so that the processes of synthesis and destruction of cartilaginous tissue are balanced. Roll in the 2nd side causes arthrosis. The most dangerous are the destructive processes in the legs, which will never be completely stopped. The articular cartilage wears out. Bony joints become more and more uneven. The edges of the bones along the edges of the joint dynamically expand, the axis of the shin begins to deviate more and more in the lateral direction.

Osteoarthritis does not immediately and overnight hit the entire leg. He can "go" from the hip down or start with the heel and go up to the shin. Over time, the damage to the joints is not only aggravated, but also captures larger areas. Do not believe the statement: arthrosis - senile or female illness. They are equally affected and representatives of the stronger sex. On average, every 10th person on Earth has arthrosis. Arthrosis of the heel and hip is one of the most common places of primary localization of the disease, which carries with it disability. The number of disabled people aged 35-40 years in a number of countries in the world declined by an average of 3-4 times in 10 years. The process of population loss, as scientists predict, will not stop. Its cause is psoriatic and rheumatoid arthrosis.

What are the destructive changes causing the disease?

wrist joint

Rheumatoid arthrosis is often called "rheumatoid arthrosis", which accurately reflects the nature of the disease. Its symptoms are so individual that it will not allow confusion with other similar diseases. Its main symptoms are:

  • joint stiffness;
  • pain attacks experienced on a particular part of the body;
  • appearance of swelling in the area of ​​metacarpophalangeal joints of the middle and index fingers;
  • inflammation of the wrist joints;
  • lesion of small joints of the legs, which is strictly symmetrical;
  • morning stiffness in the affected joints;
  • signs of body intoxication;
  • deformation of fingers and hands;
  • innervation of the hands.

Stiffness of movements and pain symptom are the most recognizable signs of arthrosis. The more swollen the joint, the more pronounced are the pain symptoms. The duration of bouts of pain in the leg or other part of the body increases with time. Pain can also "give" to another area, when an ankle joint is struck, for example, and echoes of pain are in the thigh area. The biggest mistake of people, who feel pain in their legs, is the expectation that it will pass by itself. Alas, the pain in the affected leg is not weakened. Painful attacks will often be repeated at night, and at some point medications and traditional methods of treatment will not be able to alleviate it.

Treatment of rheumatoid arthrosis is a complex process. Its specificity depends on the stage of the disease. Arthrosis is divided into primary and secondary. The primary develops on a healthy joint, the secondary one - embracing the already affected one. The symptoms of arthrosis include deforming the joints. Its signs at the first stages of development of the disease are not noticeable. As a rule, the cause of deformation is increased physical activity and trauma. Arthrosis most often occurs in people whose professional activities are associated with lifting weights. In this category of patients, nerve trunks and muscle strain are disturbed. Therefore, when the first collision with the signs of arthrosis is not always possible to recognize it, because the above destructive changes are inherent in other diseases of the joints.

The main symptoms of the disease

Psoriatic arthrosis has its own distinctive symptoms. He is able to move: appear in the same area of ​​the hip and "spill over" to another part of the body. Can begin near the hip and affect the joints of the foot. This arthrosis is also very pronounced. However, it does not begin with the defeat of the joints, but with the diseases of the skin. Psoriatic arthrosis is recognized by external manifestations. Dry, flaky spots can occur near the hip, on the head, on the knees or elbows. This is not only the primary signs of psoriasis, but also the inflammatory disease of the joints, which it provokes. Psoriatic symptom of "red dew" is fairly easy to distinguish from other skin defects - if you slightly scrape or disturb the center of the spot, immediately appears a droplet of blood. Psoriatic arthrosis combines the symptoms of the usual rheumatoid arthrosis and psoriasis. Psoriatic character of the disease is reflected in the most common methods of its treatment, which include the coping of inflammatory processes on the skin by the use of medications and medical baths.

Psoriatic arthrosis and arthritis are accompanied by radish-like changes in the shape of the fingers and nails. In addition to joints and skin, the subungual tissues are inflamed. In the most severe cases, subluxations of the fingers begin to form. A similar process is distinguished by rheumatoid arthrosis. However, with his fingers and toes deflect symmetrically, with the psoriatic form of the disease, on the contrary, dislocations guide the fingers and toes in the asymmetric direction. Monoarthritis is often confused with rheumatic or psoriatic arthrosis. Symptoms of this ailment are somewhat similar. Monoarthritis can also have a psoriatic form, which makes it difficult to accurately diagnose the first stage of its development. The joint with monoarthritis is hot to the touch, but around it liquid also accumulates. Redness, swelling, swelling are common symptoms in arthroses and arthritis, but monoarthritis is able to flow, both faster and slower than arthrosis - it all depends on the general state of human health and the body's resistance.

What is the main symptom of arthrosis? Everyone will say that this is pain. Indeed, it is pain that clearly indicates to a person that something is wrong with his or her organism. Psoriatic arthrosis is characterized by pain symptoms, but they are not paroxysmal, as in rheumatoid. Many patients mistakenly believe: it is enough to eliminate the pain and the illness will pass. No, the relief of pain symptoms is only the first step in the fight against illnesses.

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What is arthrosis and how to treat it?

Osteoarthritis of the joints of hands Along with arthritis, arthrosis is one of the most common joint diseases, especially in the second half of life. In the absence of timely and quality treatment, this disease can lead to disability and immobilization of the limb.

What is arthrosis?

Osteoarthritis is a disease of the joints, which is based on the process of degenerative changes in the cartilage, developing as a result of a deterioration in its nutrition( trophism) or a violation of its configuration, for example, after the trauma.

Arthrosis-arthritis is a disease characterized not only by degenerative-dystrophic processes occurring in the joint, but also by its inflammation.

Deforming osteoarthritis - arthrosis, one manifestation of which is the growth of bone tissue, leading to deformation of the ends of the bones forming the joint.

Periarthrosis is a degenerative process in which degenerative changes are observed not only in the joint itself, but also adjacent tissues( for example, tendons, ligaments).

Hemarthrosis - a hemorrhage into the joint cavity.

Causes of arthrosis

The leading cause of arthrosis is a metabolic disorder that occurs in the cartilaginous tissue. As a result, the cartilage loses its elasticity and begins to gradually break down.

The causes of metabolic disorders and the development of degenerative joint changes are diverse. These can be:

  • hormonal disorders,
  • female sex,
  • loss of cartilaginous proteoglycan tissue,
  • aging of the body,
  • increased joint load due to exercise or overweight,
  • various chronic diseases.

In women, arthrosis of the ankle, foot can arise due to the long wearing of narrow and uncomfortable shoes, including high heels. Changes in the joints of the hands are observed mainly in representatives of those professions, where a significant part of the burden falls on the hands( while in women, arthrosis occurs more often).

In addition, arthrosis of the knee, hip or ankle provokes various injuries( posttraumatic arthrosis).

Types and symptoms of arthrosis

Shoulder-scapular periarthrosis
The degree of joint damage is distinguished by arthrosis:
  • 1 degree - the joints retain their mobility, on the X-ray, there are practically no visible changes. The patient may be disturbed only by a slight crunch or a slight aching pain.
  • 2 degrees - a person suffering from arthrosis, there is a feeling of discomfort in the joints, limb mobility is disrupted, periodic pain becomes more pronounced and prolonged, an early x-ray or ultrasound reveals early signs of joint deformity.
  • 3 degrees - movements in the joint are limited, the patient is experiencing severe pain( even at rest), there are characteristic changes in the X-ray images.

Sometimes experts also allocate a fourth degree of arthrosis, characterized by intense pain and severe deformities in this area.

Rheumatoid arthrosis

Most often this term denotes degenerative-destructive changes in the joint that have developed due to another disease - rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis itself changes the configuration of articular surfaces, which leads to a violation of their congruence and aggravation of dystrophic processes in articular and periarticular tissues.

Unco-vertebral arthrosis

This is the appearance of degenerative-dystrophic changes in the cervical spine. The main symptoms of osteoarthritis of this localization:

  • pronounced crunch when turning the head,
  • pain in the neck( especially after prolonged sitting or standing),
  • headache,
  • dizziness,
  • blood pressure fluctuations.

Radiographic examination may show subluxation of the joints of the cervical region.

In addition, there are arthrosis:

  • of the knee( gonarthrosis),
  • of the hip joint( coxarthrosis),
  • of the ankle joints( krizartroz),
  • of other areas of the spine,
  • of the temporomandibular joint, etc.

How and what to treat arthrosis?

Before deciding how to treat it at home, you should visit a doctor and establish the exact cause of this ailment. To do this, the doctor usually conducts an examination of the patient and appoints to undergo a number of additional laboratory and instrumental studies, including the delivery of all kinds of biochemical blood tests( for example, acute phase reactions, the presence of rheumatoid factor, etc.), as well as radiography, ultrasound, MRI or CT of joints. If necessary, the examination is supplemented by diagnostic arthroscopy.

Next, the doctor sets an accurate diagnosis and prescribes the appropriate joint treatment. On what principles is the treatment of arthrosis based?

  1. Elimination of the cause of the disease. In the case of rheumatoid, psoriatic arthritis, the underlying disease is treated, achieving its persistent remission.
  2. Normalization of nutrition of the joint, metabolism and circulation. For this purpose, chondroprotectors, hyaluronic acid preparations, drugs that improve local and systemic blood flow, antiaggregants, vitamins are used.
  3. Symptomatic therapy. As a rule, with pain of an intense nature, anti-inflammatory non-steroid agents with a good analgesic effect( ketanol, diclofenac, etc.) are prescribed.

Locally, on the joint area, 2-3 times a day are applied ointments, gels, creams, which have anti-inflammatory and distracting action, apply compresses with dimexidum, use rubbers.

Physiotherapy

For the removal of pain and inflammation, UFO is widely used in erythematous doses, laser therapy, UHF, microwave, electro- and phonophoresis. In addition to physiotherapy, arthrosis is useful for regular therapeutic exercises for joints, sanatorium and spa treatment.

Surgical treatment

Usually this is a partial or complete replacement of the joint, its plastic. It can be performed in a traditional way, as well as with the help of endoscopic and minimally invasive surgery, including arthroscopy. The operations are indicated in those cases when conservative treatment does not have the proper effect, as well as with severe joint deformity and loss of its mobility.

Prevention

First of all, the prevention of arthrosis includes diet, exercise and avoidance of hypothermia.

Diet

Nutrition for arthrosis does not require any serious restrictions. In general, this is a balanced diet, including all the main groups of products, consumption in sufficient quantities of liquid, as well as fresh vegetables and fruits. Many experts recommend that you periodically include in the menu cold meat, rich broths and other similar dishes, if they are not contraindicated by the doctor.

Balanced diet
The only significant limitation is the calorie content of food. It is necessary to monitor your body weight, because overweight speeds up the wear and tear of the joints.

Acute and burning food in itself does not have a significant effect on arthrosis, but it should be remembered that many people suffering from this disease have to use painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs, most of which have a negative effect on the mucous membrane of the stomach. It is also desirable to limit foods rich in cholesterol and leading to increased blood viscosity so that the blood supply to the joint is not impaired. For these reasons, such dishes for arthrosis should also be excluded from their daily menu.

Physical Exercises

Charge, exercise stress improves blood circulation and blood supply to joint tissues, and also strengthens muscles. The most useful exercises for arthrosis are swimming, walking, skiing. With coxarthrosis, gonarthrosis in combination with excess weight, cycling or exercising on a stationary bicycle proved to be a good idea.

Avoiding subcooling

Joints "love" when a person dresses in the weather, evenly protecting all parts of his body from the cold. Any local supercooling causes weakening of the body's defenses, which can result in the subsequent inflammation of the joints and the development of degenerative-dystrophic processes in them.

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Arthritis and arthrosis of the knee: symptoms and treatment

Among the diseases affecting the joints, two are more common than others - it's arthritis and arthrosis. These ailments with consonant names are often mistaken for the same disease, and in vain. Touching the tissues of the joints, these diseases have different causes and other differences, which will be discussed in this publication.

Contents

  • 3.2 Treatment of arthrosis has three main directions:

Let's look at what it is

Before we talk about the factors, symptoms and methods of treating arthritis and arthrosis, we will give a definition and a brief description of these ailments.

Osteoarthritis is a progressive joint disease that affects only the articular tissues, arises from trauma, fracture, lifestyle characteristics and is most often diagnosed at a later age. With this pathology, the cartilaginous tissue is destroyed and thinned, and the arthrosis itself is primary and secondary. When the primary is disturbed, the balance between cartilage wear and the rate of its recovery, the cells of the chondrocytes die in greater quantities than are formed. Secondary arthrosis develops in the affected joint, when the surfaces of the articulating bones are not correlated in the same way as in the normal joint. This option is observed due to severe injuries, regular stresses on the joint in the process of human activities and other reasons.

Arthritis - the pathology of the joint tissues, caused by a disruption in the work and inflammatory process in any organs or systems of the body, often begins to develop at an earlier age - up to 40 years. The defeat of joints with arthritis should be considered only as one of the most pronounced symptoms of any disease in the body, whether it is a malfunction in the work of immunity or an infection.

From the definitions it can be understood that the most important difference between arthritis and arthrosis lies in the causes provoking the development of the symptoms of this or that disease.

The causes of arthrosis

The most common causes of the disease are:

  • various injuries: knee meniscus injury, fracture, dislocation and others;
  • excessive load on the joint, for example, in sports( knee runner, etc.), with heavy physical work;
  • excess weight creates additional pressure on the joints, especially the knee, and acts as a provoking factor in the development of arthrosis.

In addition, the impetus to the occurrence of arthrosis can be dysplasia, in which there is abnormal cell development, inflammatory processes, congenital malformation of bones, mutation in the collagen structure, hereditary predisposition, old age.

Causes of arthritis

Arthritis is always based on inflammation in the body. Reaching the joint, it begins to develop in the synovial membrane, further spreading to other tissues: bones, tendons, etc. Let's name the main factors leading to the appearance of arthritis:

  • infectious diseases of the body;
  • problems with immunity;
  • allergy and metabolic disorders.
Heredity, injuries, overweight, hypodynamia, severe mental distress and trauma, improper diet only spur the development of a pathology such as arthritis.

Are the symptoms of arthritis and arthrosis similar?

Consider the main symptoms that concern patients with joint problems and find out what differences are present in the manifestation of arthritis and arthrosis.

Pain

Perhaps pain is a symptom that occurs in almost any disease that affects the joint. However, the pain in arthritis and arthrosis is different. If painful feelings visit you at night in a state of rest, especially between 2 and 5 o'clock, then this is a likely sign of the rheumatic origin of pain in the joints. In arthritis, it is more often this type of pain that appears when the limb is stationary. Pain can also decrease due to active movements, after gymnastics.

Osteoarthritis is manifested by pain during movement and increased load on the joint, for example, when climbing stairs, intense sports, lifting weights, etc. It is necessary to take a motionless and comfortable position, as the pain begins to subside and passes completely. Also, we note that in the first stages of arthrosis, there are practically no morbid sensations, or they appear as a result of very heavy loads on the joint.

So, remember: pain with arthrosis - with movement, with arthritis - at rest, more often at night and in the mornings.

Stiffness in joints

The nature of the limitation of mobility is observed in both arthritis and arthrosis, however this symptom is also somewhat different for these two ailments. In order to defeat the joints of inflammatory etiology, in particular arthritis, morning stiffness is characteristic, which disappears before lunch or even within an hour or two after awakening.

With arthrosis, the amplitude of motion in the joint decreases, this is due to the fact that as the pathological changes progress, the joint gap narrows, the bone tissue grows( spines, or osteophytes on the bone surface) and spasm of muscle tissue is observed. The later stage of arthrosis in the patient, the smaller the amplitude of motion.

Swelling, redness

In the area of ​​the affected joint with arthritis, there is swelling, redness of the skin, which is associated with the activity of the inflammatory process. This symptom of arthritis is often accompanied by pain, the nature of the swelling can be of a changing nature, when one joint swells and hurts first, then the swelling subsides and then the same symptoms move to another joint, etc.

In arthrosis, swelling and swelling in the joint area is also observed. However, this symptom is of a permanent nature, since it often appears as a manifestation of late stages of arthrosis, when irreversible changes are observed in the joint: deformity, growth of osteophytes and congestion of synovial fluid due to inflammation( synovitis).

Crunch

Crunch in the joint is observed mainly with arthrosis, and that is especially characteristic, it intensifies and becomes louder as the disease progresses. Do not confuse arthrosis crunch with a slight click on the movement in healthy joints, with arthrosis, the sound is deaf and squeaky. This symptom is related to the fact that the bone surfaces in the affected joint are disposed in relation to each other. As for arthritis, the crunch is not a characteristic sign of this disease.

Other features of

The most common symptoms of arthritis and arthrosis and their distinctive features are discussed above. However, in case of arthritis, additional manifestations of the disease are often observed, which need to be taken into account:

  • periodically arising chills, fever, increased sweating;
  • inflammation, redness, and itching in the eyes;
  • appearance of nodules under the skin;
  • decreased appetite, weight loss.

Features of treatment of arthritis and arthrosis

Both for arthritis and for arthrosis, timely initiation of therapy is very important, as it allows to preserve joint mobility, maintain a person's working capacity and prolong his normal life.

Treatment of arthritis includes the following components:

  • anti-inflammatory drugs, they help not only to eliminate inflammation, but also significantly alleviate the pain;
  • antibiotics are necessary for arthritis of infectious etiology;
  • chondroprotectors, or agents for preventing further destruction and repair of the joint tissue;
  • exercise therapy - a set of specially designed exercises for the affected joints;
  • physiotherapy: warming up, therapeutic baths, massage and other procedures;
  • surgery is indicated as an extreme measure of therapy.

Treatment of arthrosis has three main directions:

  • pain elimination with painkillers for internal and external use;
  • removal of inflammation, if any, with anti-inflammatory drugs;
  • maintenance of articular tissues through the use of chondroprotectors - preparations of glucosamine and chondroitin;
  • medical gymnastics for the prevention of further damage and unloading of the joints;
  • partial or complete replacement of the joint in advanced cases.

It is worth noting that it is impossible to completely cure arthrosis, but to stop the progression of the disease or slow it down is quite realistic. The main thing is to ask for medical help on time and begin treatment.

Look video doctor Bubnovsky on how to distinguish between arthritis and arthrosis:

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Rheumatoid arthritis: treatment, symptoms, folk remedies

How does this disease appear?

Antibodies of the human body react to the synovial membranes of their joints as a foreign body, so an inflammatory process occurs. It turns out that the body takes its own tissues as an enemy.

Experts believe that this may be due to the deterioration of the ecological situation, deterioration of food and water quality, alcohol consumption, smoking, wrong lifestyle. There is also a hereditary predisposition.

This is a very common disease today in older people. Rheumatoid arthritis is a systematically progressive disease that affects the quality of life, work capacity, worsening them.

Diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis

To diagnose this disease, the doctor conducts an examination of the patient, the patient undergoes an X-ray examination of the affected joints, laboratory tests are taken.

The doctor also asks the patient questions related to the nature of joint problems: is there stiffness in the morning, is there inflammation in more than three joints, lesions on the right and left, lesions of the wrist joints.

The presence of a special protein in the blood - rheumatoid factor - plays an important role in the results of laboratory tests. But rheumatoid arthritis can occur even without its presence.

There are often X-ray examinations of joints that help diagnose in a number of cases. Also, when the doctor estimates the activity of the disease and the effectiveness of treatment, the inflammatory indices are taken into account - an elevated level of the C-reactive protein and the rate of erythrocyte sedimentation.

Symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis

Symptoms include the presence of a specific blood indicator for the presence of this type of arthritis in humans.

Women suffer from this disease three times more often than men. It begins gradually with the defeat of small joints, which is manifested by pain and their swelling. These manifestations are preceded by the stiffness of the fingers, the sensation of "creeping crawl," and flowing. Characterized by the defeat of 2-5 fingers, the brush is deformed in the form of a seal fin.

Large joints are affected somewhat later. Under the skin, solid nodules are sized to the size of a pea or cherry. These nodules are a little painful. Together with these signs weakness and atrophy of muscles is observed.

Many patients with rheumatoid polyarthritis before this suffered prolonged various intestinal disorders: heartburn, eructation, flatulence, constipation, bloating, diarrhea. Because of these problems, intoxication occurs in the body. With a sick intestine, there can be no talk of persistent immunity, so a person is prone to disease.

Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

Treatment is usually aimed at reducing the degree of manifestation of this disease, maximizing the function of damaged joints, restoring metabolic processes in the articular cartilage, and this will help prevent further destruction of the cartilage.

For the treatment of this disease, usually used drugs used in inflammatory diseases of the joints. Medications that are ideal for a particular case for an individual patient can be chosen only by a doctor, then the treatment will be effective.

The following drugs are used for treatment:

  • in cases of severe exacerbations, glucocorticoids are used, as it is a synthetic analogue of the hormones of the adrenal cortex, which have a pronounced anti-inflammatory effect;
  • anti-inflammatory drugs;
  • is a non-steroidal agent that removes swelling, stiffness, and pain. But these drugs do not affect the cause of the disease, and their effectiveness in different people differs;
  • drugs that affect the course of the disease. They will not only remove the symptoms, but will also affect the course of the disease. Although they will not relieve rheumatoid arthritis, they will significantly slow down its development process.

Well with the therapy of arthritis, medication is combined with physiotherapy. It is carried out in order to reduce the burden on the joints, while the pain in the lesions should not increase.

You can also choose the technique of massage with pharmacological treatment. At the same time, a good circulation of blood and the effectiveness of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs will be at a good level.

For each patient, a physician selects individual treatment, independent treatment is not allowed. It is possible to use folk remedies, but this must be agreed with the doctor.

Find an orthopedist and make an appointment

lechenie-systava.ru

Rheumatoid arthritis: symptoms and treatment, diagnosis

Rheumatoid arthritis is a pathology of connective tissue that occurs most often in carriers of specific genes after a provoking factor and is systemic in nature. It affects mainly a few small joints, which develops an erosive and destructive process, which is irreversible. There are also extra-articular foci of inflammation. Women mostly are older than 40 years old.

What is the difference between arthritis and arthrosis?

In both these diseases joints are affected, but the causes, mechanism of development and treatment of these pathologies vary widely. Let's consider in more detail what is the difference between arthrosis and arthritis:
Comparable symptom
Inflammatory process triggered by infection - general or local, as well as antibodies developed in response to infection Degenerative process in which the joint tissue is destroyed due to circulatory disorders
"»Age Can develop at any age More common in the elderly. At risk are those who have long been engaged in activities with a monotonous load on the joint
The relationship of the two pathologies
Symptoms Pain in the joint that increases with physical exertion, long-term stay in one position. Increases local temperature above the joint Articular pain at rest decreases or disappears, increases with changing weather conditions. There is also a crack, a click, a feeling of friction in the joint. The temperature above the joint is normal( in the absence of arthritis)
A general blood test reveals an inflammatory process, characterized by a change in the rheumatic test No specific deviations
The anti-inflammatory and antibacterial therapy passed by the recommended protocol course causes complete regression of the disease. . Anti-inflammatory drugs are used as painkillers. Chondroprotectors( preparations of glucosamine and chondroitin) can stop the process, being appointed only in the presence of articular cartilage

Diagnosis of arthritis

The American College of Rheumatology has proposed certain criteria for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis, which are relevant in our time. If four of the seven criteria are found, this diagnosis is confirmed:
  1. 1) Joint stiffness in the morning, which lasts more than 1 hour for 6 weeks;
  2. 2) Symmetry is a lesion, that is, a disease of the same joints left and right;
  3. 3) Positive rheumatoid factor;
  4. 4) Lesion of three or more joints;
  5. 5) Lesion of the joints of the hand;

But, unfortunately, these signs can be found only at later stages of the disease.

Symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis

There are several forms of rheumatoid arthritis, depending on this the clinical symptoms will have significant differences. The classical version of the current, when the initial symptoms of the disease manifest themselves almost always in the cold season after the provoking factors, which include:
  • infections - viral or bacterial;
  • allergic reactions;
  • surgical interventions.
The first signs of rheumatoid arthritis are fatigue, weakness, minor pains in joints and muscles. Then the pain in one or several joints comes to the fore( usually the brushes, feet, wrist joint, elbow joint suffer):
  • constant;
  • when the weather changes, they recur;
  • joints are often affected symmetrically - on the right and left limbs.
Less often the disease begins to develop atypical. In one case, very quickly, without prodromal signs, the lesion of several joints can develop at once. In another - soreness, swelling and stiffness is revealed only in one, usually large, joint. In addition to the pain for rheumatoid arthritis, stiffness in the joint is characteristic: from the second half of the night and after a dream a person feels that it is difficult to make movement in the joint, then( after an hour or more) it passes. The heavier the degree of the course of the disease, the longer the stiffness is felt. With the progression of arthritis, the joints irreversibly deform, become completely immobile. The joints, whose lesions along with other symptoms are a sign of rheumatoid arthritis:
  • between the metacarpal and phalangeal bones on the second and third fingers of the hand;
  • between the first and second phalanx on the feet;
  • wrist band;
  • between the humerus and collarbone;
  • is one of the joints of the larynx.
Joints that are not affected by rheumatoid arthritis:
  • between the last and penultimate phalangeal bones;
  • on the thumb of the brush.
The variant with lesions of one or a small number of joints( oligo- or monoarthritis) differs slightly in the development of its symptoms. In this case, the disease begins acutely, with an increase in body temperature and pain in one or more joints. The pains are unstable, they migrate. This is observed 1-1,5 months, then the symptomatology, characteristic for the classical form of the disease, develops. The variant with pseudo-septic syndrome proceeds unusually: body temperature rises to high figures, chills appear, sweating. Man sharply loses weight, he develops muscle atrophy, as well as complications from the blood. Against this background, pain or stiffness in the joints goes to the background. There are other variants of the course of the disease when there is a combination of articular syndrome with the defeat of various organs: Skin:
  • there are small hemorrhages under the skin;
  • near the nails can develop areas of necrosis of the skin.
Defeat of muscles in the form of their atrophy. Inflammation of one of the digestive tract, which can manifest itself:
  • flatulence;
  • abdominal pain;
  • heaviness "under the spoon".
Lesion of the broncho-pulmonary system in the form of pleurisy or pneumonia. Kidney can develop autoimmune inflammation - glomerulonephritis;kidney failure may develop slowly. Rheumatoid arthritis can manifest as a lesion of any heart membrane. Read also how to treat arthritis of the knee joint.
  • presence in the blood of rheumatoid factor in high titre;
  • high titre of antibodies to citrulline-containing protein( anti-CCP);
  • a typical picture of joint damage( in their appearance and radiographically);
  • presence of subcutaneous nodules, which have such characteristics: dense, mobile, painless;
  • morning stiffness in the joints for at least 1 hour;
  • by the factor that there has been inflammation of at least three "characteristic" joints, and this continues for at least 6 weeks.
First of all, treatment of rheumatoid arthritis begins with the appointment of anti-inflammatory drugs( Indomethacin, Orthofen, Ibuprofen);In addition, intra-articular hormone glucocorticoids( Kenalog, Hydrocortisone) are administered several times, if the disease still progresses, a second series of drugs, the so-called basic ones, is prescribed. These are slow acting, but effective anti-inflammatory drugs:
  • "Hingamin";
  • The regulator of differentiation of the T-lymphocyte: "Halofuginon";
  • Antibodies to the alpha factor of tumor necrosis: "Etanercept", "Infliximab".
If the above drugs are ineffective and evaluated after six months of continuous treatment, immunosuppressant medications are prescribed:
  1. 1) Methotrexate;
  2. 3) "Prednisolone" or other glucocorticoid hormone.
In addition to medical treatment, also carried out:

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