Osteoarthritis of the knee joint

Causes of knee osteoarthritis( gonarthrosis)

Gonarthrosis, or arthrosis of the knee joint, is a chronic disease in which the cartilage is destroyed in the knee joint, which causes knee pain and joint deterioration, and less movement in the joint. If you find out the causes of osteoarthritis of the knees, then it will be easier to treat it.

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The first group of causes of this disease: hereditary and age factors
The second: diseases of the musculoskeletal system
The third group

For reasons of occurrence, the disease is divided into two large groups: primary and secondary arthrosis of the knee joint.

With the primary form of the disease, the exact cause that caused this disease is unknown.

The secondary form is spoken of when there is already a problem in the joint( for example, a previous inflammation, trauma, etc.), and osteoarthritis, as it were, is layered again on the already changed joint.

The exact cause of gonarthrosis is unknown to date. But the risk factors leading to the appearance of this disease are well studied.

There are three large groups of causes, or risk factors for knee arthrosis.

The first group of reasons: hereditary and age factors


predisposition to the disease may be hereditary

Arthrosis of the knee joint is a disease in which the hereditary predisposition to it is quite pronounced. So, if you are a woman and your mother suffered from osteoarthritis in some form( not necessarily - the knees), then the probability of getting this disease is 2-3 times higher than the average in the population. If you have sisters and they are also sick with arthrosis, then the likelihood of its appearance is even greater.

In addition, there are diseases with hereditary predisposition, in which connective tissue is affected - the so-called collagenoses, which include, for example, syndrome Stickler. In the presence of such defects from the collagen - a substance that is part of the ligaments - the likelihood of developing the disease also increases.

In part to this group of causes of arthrosis of the knee, endocrine system diseases also abut: diabetes, the lack of female sex hormones in menopause and a number of other conditions.


Unfortunately, the older a person becomes, the higher his risk of osteoarthritis. This is due to the fact that with age, the cartilage's ability to regenerate and restore decreases, and the metabolism in the joint area deteriorates.

So, if at the age of 45 this sickness suffers from 1.5 to 3-4% of the population( data for the USA), then in the interval from 45 to 65 years, almost every third person( 30%) suffers from it. And at the age of 65 to 85 years, the frequency of the disease jumps up to 80 and more percent!

There are countries where the incidence of the disease is very low and is less than 6% even in people 50-70 years old( as in Sweden), but Russia is not among these countries, and the incidence trend in our country is about the same as for the USand most other countries in the world.

In addition, in patients of adulthood, the development of the disease is affected not only by age in itself, but also by hormonal changes. Thus, in women in menopause, the probability of developing osteoarthritis increases dramatically. This is due to the fact that estrogens - female sex hormones - regulate metabolic processes in joints, cartilage, bones and ligaments. When they become less( with the onset of menopause), the metabolism in these tissues worsens and the risk of osteoarthritis increases dramatically.

The second group of causes: congenital and acquired diseases of the musculoskeletal system

Inflammation of the joint

Inflammation of the knee( arthritis, more precisely, gonorrhea) is one of the most common causes of gonarthrosis. Unfortunately, most of the microorganisms entering the joint and causing its inflammation, contribute to the fact that the tender cartilaginous tissue is deformed. At the same time, its nutrition deteriorates considerably, the shape of the cartilaginous surfaces of bones changes, etc.

Because of all these reasons, normal cartilage gliding in the jointed bones is disrupted. This leads to additional traumatization of the cartilage, worsens the volume of movements in the joint and, to the final degree, creates a very fertile soil for the development of osteoarthritis.

Knee Surgery and Trauma

Another common cause of the illness is knee injuries and surgical interventions on it. Very often, it happens, and the other - for example, when as a result of a sports injury, an operative removal of the meniscus is performed. The normal function of the joint is disrupted, the load on the cartilage changes, intensifying in atypical sites, and as a result, osteoarthrosis of the knee is formed.

Metabolic disorders in the body

Cartilage in the joints is one of the few that does not feed through the delivery of nutrients through the blood vessels. Cartilage "feeds" by diffusion of nutrients from the synovial fluid, as well as directly from the epiphyses of bones along the same principle.

This is a rather thin and fragile mechanism, so when there are various metabolic disorders in the body, it can break down and stop working. Therefore, some diseases in which the metabolism is severely impaired in the body can contribute to the onset of osteoarthritis.

These diseases include primary and secondary gout, joint chondromatosis, hemochromatosis, ochronosis, as well as Wilson-Konovalov's disease and a number of other diseases. In addition, this group can add endocrine diseases, which also affect the metabolism throughout the body - diabetes and the lack of female sex hormones( estrogens) in the elderly due to menopause.

The third group of reasons: increased loads and microtraumas of cartilage

Sports activities and heavy physical labor at work

sports can also provoke disease

As already mentioned, cartilage nutrition is a very delicate mechanism that can break not only metabolic problems butand increased stress on the knee joint.

This happens quite often with intensive sports, as well as when a person's work involves high physical activity, as well as a long standing on his legs without the possibility to sit down and relax.

In this case, certain muscle groups are strained( for example, the muscles of the lower leg and thigh).This worsens nutrition in the muscles and joints, which means that there are problems with the metabolism inside the cartilaginous tissue, when the cartilage simply does not have time to recover after such strong physical exertion on the joint.


Obesity, or overweight - is probably the main scourge of patients with knee osteoarthritis. If a person weighs 20 kg more than his normal rate, this means that his load is also increased by twenty kilograms - as if he had to constantly carry 2 large buckets of water.

As with high sports loads, the cartilage of the knees simply do not have time to recover during the rest time of the legs, and the recovery processes in the cartilaginous tissue begin to flow much more slowly, creating the basis for the development of the disease.

Therefore, one of the first recommendations that patients receive is to go on a diet and begin to systematically reduce weight. If you do not follow your diet, the course of osteoarthritis, if it occurs, is much harder and with more pain and discomfort.

Why is it important to know the main causes of knee osteoarthritis? As the old saying goes, "who is forewarned is armed".If you know that you are at risk of developing this disease, then the best service that you can provide to your body is to consult your doctor as soon as possible and start receiving the necessary treatment.

The sooner this treatment is started, the more likely that the disease will proceed peacefully, and the quality of your life will be minimized.


Causes of arthrosis of the knee: Origins, At a young age

Causes of arthrosis of the knee

For reasons of occurrence, the disease is divided into two large groups: primary and secondary arthrosis of the knee joint.

With the primary form of the disease, the exact cause that caused this disease is unknown.

The secondary form is spoken of when there is already a problem in the joint( for example, a previous inflammation, trauma, etc.), and osteoarthritis, as it were, is layered again on the already changed joint.

The exact cause of gonarthrosis is unknown to date. But the risk factors leading to the appearance of this disease are well studied.

There are three large groups of causes, or risk factors for the development of knee arthrosis.

Origins of

The primary form of the disease appears due to congenital defects in the knee joint and is caused by the incorrect formation of the joint surface, which during the walk takes on a very heavy load incommensurable with its capabilities and therefore it starts a degenerative process.

The secondary form of arthrosis of the knee joint may appear in adulthood and the reasons for its appearance are as follows:

- trauma. These are dislocations, fractures and bruises of the knee. It is injury to the knee joint is the most common cause of arthrosis. In such cases, normal nutrition is disturbed, including blood circulation of joints and as a result - the mechanism of development of the disease is triggered;

- operations to remove the meniscus. They break the structural integrity of the knee, and it begins to wear out quickly;

is a big load on the legs. This applies to athletes and people whose profession makes them constantly on their feet;

- excessive body weight. Excess weight weighs on the joints of the knee;

- arthritis. Prolonged arthritis leads to the formation of fluid in the joint cavity and this is complicated by arthrosis;

- impaired metabolism, which leads to the deposition of salts.

is an inflammation. As a rule, such a process arises because of the violation of immunity, in autoimmune diseases. It is much less likely to be caused by various infections that cause inflammation of the purulent contents in the joint. In the future, the cartilaginous tissue is destroyed, while its ability to regenerate is significantly reduced;

- changes associated with the hormonal background. Such changes can significantly affect the degenerative processes of connective as well as cartilaginous tissue;

- liver disease. Affected liver disease is not able to fully cope with its functions and begins to poorly filter blood. The appearance of chemical irritants in the content of the joint fluid causes a feeling of pain and rapid destruction of the cartilage of the joint, which leads to arthrosis.

Read more about what ointments are needed for the treatment of arthrosis of the knee joint.

Diet for arthrosis of the knee joint 1 degree by reference.

Osteoarthritis of the 2nd degree of the knee joint symptoms http: //sustavprof.ru/bolezni/ar/ artroz-kolennogo-sustava-2-stepeni.html # t1.

At a young age

Malosymptomatic forms of arthrosis are noted mainly at a young age. Patients are concerned about rare, weak intensity of short-term pain and / or crunch in 1 to 3 joints that appear after a significant load. Cramps of calf muscles, Geberden's nodules can be observed. The functions of the joint have not yet been violated. X-ray changes in stages 1, 2, 3 are determined in one or more joints.

Slowly progressing during the manifest form of arthrosis can be at any age. Articular pain syndrome is moderately pronounced. Significant clinical and functional manifestations in many joints arise or increase with cooling, changing weather, after overstraining of the joint. There are pains in the beginning of movement( starting pains).There are pains of a nagging or gnawing nature, they are accompanied by fatigue of regional muscles, joint stiffness, periodic "jamming" of the joint. After a while, joint deformations develop. On X-rays, mainly 1-2 stages of the disease are revealed.

The rapidly progressing course of the manifest form of arthrosis usually occurs at a young age, with significant clinical and functional changes developing up to 5 years from the onset of the disease. Frequent and rather intense pains are noted during exercise, prolonged rest. Disturb your leg cramps. Heberden's nodules, often Bushar's nodules, and other deformities of the joints are identified. Early there are periarthrosis, muscle atrophy, synovitis, neurological complications. X-ray changes reveal 2 - 3 stages of the disease.


Osteoarthritis of the knee joint symptoms, cause, degree |The ABC of Health

Deforming arthrosis of the knee joint, in medicine is called gonarthrosis, is a degenerative-dystrophic disease in the hyaline cartilage of the knee that covers the condyles of the femoral and tibia.

With arthrosis of the knee joint, the symptoms develop gradually over the years, the main manifestation of the disease are pain, stiffness during movement. It is gonarthrosis considered the most common disease among arthrosis of other joints, such as hip arthrosis, arthrosis of the elbows or shoulder joints, phalanges of the fingers.

Most often the disease affects people older than 40 years, women are most prone to arthrosis. Sometimes it develops in young people on the background of injury or sportsmen from excessive loads.

The causes of arthrosis of the knee joint

There is no one single cause of the development of such a disease as arthrosis of the knee joint, as a rule, it is a combination of several provoking factors that with age can lead to such a violation. The mechanisms of arthrosis in medicine are divided into:

  • Primary - which occurs in the elderly from the natural aging of body tissues and against the background of some factors that provoke this disease, such as obesity( 10% of cases), heredity, increased stress during life.
  • Secondary - it owns 30% of all cases of arthrosis of the knee, it usually manifests itself after trauma, fracture of the tibia, rupture of ligaments, damage to the meniscus. Moreover, with such arthrosis of the knee joint, the symptoms of the disease in most cases appear 3-4 years later, but after a serious injury it is possible and in 2-3 months.

It is also common cases( 7-8% of cases) of arthrosis, when a person after 40 years suddenly sharply begins physical activity, especially running and intense squats. It is at this age that there are age-related changes in the joints and sharp loads can provoke rapid dystrophic and degenerative changes in the joints.

Another cause of arthrosis of the knee joint may be not only injuries, serious injuries, but also concomitant diseases - rheumatoid, reactive or psoriatic arthritis( see how dangerous and infectious psoriasis is), gout, Bechterew's disease, overweight and varicose veinsveins( see the treatment of varicose veins at home).

Occupation of professional sports or just constant heavy physical activity, lifting weights or frequent long climbing stairs in old age - can be the reasons for the development of arthrosis of the knee joint. The risk of gonarthrosis in spinal injuries, neurological diseases, diabetes mellitus and other metabolic disorders, as well as genetic weakness of the ligamentous apparatus( 3-5% of cases) also increases.

In 50-60% of cases, the cause of arthrosis of the knee joint is spasm of the muscles of the anterior surface of the thigh. Until the patient's knees ache, such muscle spasm for a long time does not manifest itself in any way, and a person only experiences back pain, fatigue, heaviness in the legs. If the straight and ilio-lumbar muscles of the thigh are in a constant spasmodic state, then gradually "knee tightening" gradually occurs, which does not allow them to move freely.

An interesting discovery about the bony joint shocked scientists

Belgian orthopedic surgeons in the city of Leuven recently discovered an unexplored and previously unknown ALL ligament that is in the human knee, it is now called anterolateral or anterolateral.

The fact is that in some patients, even after successful operations after injuries and ruptures of knee ligaments, instability of the knee joint and pain during physical exertion were felt.

The carried out researches within 4 years on 40 knee joints, have allowed to find out this very sheaf about which medicine in general was not known. The main function of this ligament is the rotational movement of the tibia and, when traumatized, the doctors did not even guess about its surgical correction in operations. Read more about this discovery in our article The previously unknown binding is open in the knee joint of a person.

Degrees of arthrosis of the knee joint

Most often, arthrosis develops in one of the knee joints and, taking into account the intensity of pathological processes in medicine, 3 degrees of gonarthrosis are distinguished:

  • The first - at this degree of deformation of the bones of the joint is not present, however for initial manifestations stupid periodic pains after loading on the joint are characteristic. There may be swelling of the joint, insignificant and self-vanishing.
  • Arthrosis of the 2nd degree of the knee joint - with the symptoms of arthrosis beginning to increase significantly, the pain already occurs with minor physical exertion, while walking, lifting weights, they are more intense and lasting, there is a crunch in the joint, to the second degree, the development of joint deformation andmoderate movement restriction.
  • 3 degree of arthrosis of the knee joint is characterized by maximum symptoms of arthrosis of the knee joint. The gait of the patient from constant pain and appreciable deformation of the joint is violated, and also the mobility of the joint is limited. The pains intensify depending on weather conditions, often they are so strong that a person can not find a comfortable position, sleep is disturbed, and the limitation of mobility of the joint can be reduced to a minimum.

What is confused arthrosis of the knee joint?

  • Meniscus damage and knee joint blockage

This disease develops very quickly, with unsuccessful movement after a crunch in the knee, there is a sharp pain, which after 15 minutes subsides, knee edema occurs the next day.

  • Arthritis - rheumatoid, reactive, psoriatic, articular rheumatism, gout, Bechterew's disease

The arthritis can be distinguished from arthritis by a blood test, with arthrosis the general blood test shows no changes, but the blood test for arthritis always indicates an inflammatory process.

  • Inflammation of the knee tendons

Such pain occurs more often in women after 40 years of age when they are descended with stairs or heavy weights, it is localized on the inner surface.there is no restriction of knee movement.

  • Vascular pain in the knees

These are symmetrical pains that occur in both laps simultaneously and mostly in young people during accelerated bone growth, occur when weather changes, with colds, and physical exertion, are described by patients as "twisting their knees".

Symptoms of knee arthrosis in stages

This insidious disease develops gradually. First, the patient begins to worry only a slight discomfort, pain during movement, descent and climbing the stairs. Sometimes a person describes his sensations as a constriction in the popliteal region and a small stiffness of the joint. A distinctive sign of arthrosis of the knee joint is a symptom of starting pain, that is, when a person from a sitting position abruptly rises and starts moving, pain occurs at the first steps, but softens or disappears as the motion progresses. However, after a considerable load, again arises.

At the first degree, the knee does not externally differ from the healthy one, only sometimes the patients notice a small swelling in the affected area. Also, there are cases when fluid accumulates in the knee joint, it swells, becomes spherical, then the synovitis develops, the movement of the joint is limited, the heaviness is felt. Why are there such pains and changes in the joint?

At the first degree of arthrosis, blood circulation in the intraosseous small vessels occurs, which supply hyaline cartilage to nutrients. For this reason, the surface of the cartilage over time becomes not smooth, dry, cracks appear on the surface of the cartilage. The sliding of cartilage during movement should be soft, and unhindered, and in this case they cling to each other, this constant state of microtraumens thins the cartilaginous tissue, so it loses its damping properties.

With the development of pathological processes, changes in bone structures also occur when the articular area is flattened, osteophytes - spines or as they are called bony proliferation appear along the edges of the joint. The capsule of the joint is reborn, the synovial membrane wrinkles, the joint fluid thickens. All this leads to an even more significant decrease in the supply of food to the cartilage and degeneration begins to accelerate.

Therefore, with 2 degrees of arthrosis of the knee joint, the symptoms intensify, the pains are localized more often on the anterior part of the joint and arise even under weak loads, rest gives relief, but the movement again causes severe pain.

Also reduces the mobility of the joint, when you try to bend your foot to the maximum there is a sharp pain, when you hear a rough crunch is heard. Synovitis is already observed much more often than at the beginning of the disease, the fluid accumulates in a larger amount, the joint changes its configuration, it becomes as if enlarged.

With arthrosis of the knee joint of the third degree, there is a significant deformation of the bone, they seem to be pressed into each other, the cartilaginous tissue is practically absent, the restriction of the joint movement increases. The pains worry the patient, and during the day, and at night, and at rest, and when walking, bend or unbend the joint becomes problematic. The joint is deformed, the legs become X or O shaped, the gait is overwhelming, unstable, often in severe cases the patient needs crutches or canes.

Diagnosis and treatment of arthrosis

With the first degree of arthrosis, such a diagnosis during normal examination is not possible to establish. At 2-3 degrees already on examination, deformities of the bones and joint are noticeable, changes in the axis of the limbs, stiffness of the movement, a crunch is audible, swelling and swelling are noticeable with synovitis.

To date, in addition to standard radiography for the diagnosis of arthrosis of the knee, modern methods of MRI and CT are used, which allow more thorough examination of pathological changes in soft tissues and to study bone structure disorders.

Treatment of this disease is a whole complex of procedures and drug therapy. More details on the treatment of arthrosis of the knee joint can be found in our next article. Orthopedists prescribe physiotherapy, massage, therapeutic gymnastics, mud therapy.

Medical treatment includes the appointment of chondroprotectors, drugs that replace synovial fluid. Sometimes the introduction of steroid hormones intra-articular. Patients are also shown sanatorium treatment. If the treatment is ineffective, if a young patient and arthrosis with severe pain syndrome and movement restriction, then joint replacement with a subsequent rehabilitation period within 3-6 months is possible.

The causes of arthrosis

Unequivocally, there is no reason to prevent arthrosis of the knee joint, but knowing what can lead to the formation of the disease, one can try to avoid them or at least start treatment in time. Species that are secreted with arthrosis are divided into:

- the primary form of arthrosis is , it appears in a person at birth, due to defects in the knee joint. To develop such arthrosis begins in childhood , in some cases in adolescence. It occurs because of the incorrect development of the surfaces of the joints or ligaments, which subsequently leads to degenerative changes.

- secondary appearance of arthrosis - it occurs due to injuries or diseases.

The causes of arthrosis of the knee joint in the second form of the disease can be the following:

  • Meniscus removal operations - contribute to the rapid wear of the knee;
  • Fractures of bones, dislocation or any other knee injury that result in damage to the cartilaginous or osseous bases of the knee;
  • An immeasurable load on the knee joint area is especially common in athletes;
  • To provoke arthrosis can inflammation of the joints - arthritis;
  • Excess weight also contributes to the appearance of the disease, due to excessive load on the ligamentous and articular apparatus;
  • Incorrect metabolism leads to accumulation of salts in knee joints;
  • Any knee surgery can also cause arthrosis;
  • Other diseases can also affect the formation, accompanied by contraction of the muscles of the vessels or legs.

Whatever the types of knee arthrosis, the process can lead to the formation of unilateral or bilateral arthrosis. Injuries most often lead to unilateral arthrosis, but obesity can contribute to the formation of bilateral. If any kind is not treated, arthrosis of the knee joint can be formed, is an advanced form of the disease.

Symptoms of arthrosis

Arthrosis of the knee joint can develop after several years or months, since it develops gradually and no visible symptoms are immediately observed, however, unusual sensations and discomfort in the knees may arise. The disease is mainly women after forty, subject to varicose veins and obesity. Osteoarthritis has four degrees of development:

1 degree - does not cause severe pain and is practically not manifested, if not started treatment, the disease will progress, it will worsen the motor ability of a person.

2nd degree - there are pains while walking, but they can not stop even at rest.

3 degree - during this degree, a person begins to feel severe pain, almost unbearable. Pain fetters and immobilizes the patient, mainly this stage is common in the elderly. In these cases, surgical intervention is performed, sometimes the knee joint has to be replaced.

4th degree - The latest stage, when cartilage tissue is completely destroyed, one way is to perform a surgical treatment of .

The main symptoms of arthrosis of the knee joint are accompanied not only by pain, but also by swelling, especially these signs can be intensified after physical exertion. Stiffness of movements also forms, absence of treatment leads to non-recoverable processes.

Treatment of arthrosis of the knee joint

No matter what degree of arthrosis the knee joint is prone, it needs to be treated, the faster, the better for the general condition of a person. Any signs of the disease should be examined by a doctor so that the patient does not subsequently develop a knee arthrosis deforming arthrosis, which can be cured by combining conservative treatment with a medical one.

At an early stage of the disease, doctors try to identify the cause of arthrosis and apply more sparing methods. People suffering from excess weight, it is recommended to choose a balanced diet for arthrosis of the knee joint, in order to save excess burden on the knees. In general, the actions are aimed at alleviating pain, restoring the cartilaginous structure, and increasing the musculoskeletal function.

Treatment is selected by according to the stage of progression of the disease , mainly used: medicines, massage, manual therapy, surgeries, physiotherapy exercises. Drugs include various anti-inflammatory, analgesic tablets and ointments. The medicine is selected strictly by a doctor, you can not trust advertising and your own intuition. It may also require injections aimed at eliminating pain and inflammation.

Massage and manual therapy procedures help to reduce pain, relax the muscles of the knee joint, restore blood circulation, increase the motor system. In the event that the cartilage of the knees is destroyed, then prosthetics are carried out, the replacement of the joints with implants. But this method is very expensive and not so common. After the treatment, daily special exercises are required. Complex treatment, which includes therapeutic procedures, physical education, massage, ointments and manual therapy will normalize the functionality of the knee joint and facilitate the patient's condition.

Dietary nutrition for arthrosis

For arthrosis, in addition to all other medical procedures of , it is necessary to follow the power supply of .It should be balanced, useful and include only a healthy diet. At the time when the body recovers, you need to consume as much as possible of vitamin products, rich in calcium, magnesium, iron, vitamin A, B, C and D. It is necessary to exclude harmful foods, such as coffee, heavily salted foods, carbonated drinks, alcohol, allthese products wash out calcium from bones.

Diet for arthrosis of the knee joint is especially necessary for people with excess weight. Meals should be five times a day, during a snack it is better to eat vegetables and fruits, and a day you should drink at least 2 liters. In the diet also need to include broths, jelly, jelly, foods rich in protein: cheese, sour cream and other dairy products. People with excess weight are recommended to choose skim milk products.


Osteoarthritis of the knee joint: symptoms, treatment, causes, prevention

When you move, you feel a sharp pain, which is formed in the knee joint? The same signs are observed if you bend or unbend your leg? Doctors diagnose such a disease as arthrosis. In this case, it is impossible to delay the treatment of the disease. Take note of the fact that the faster you start to take effective measures, the faster you cope with the ailment, and the outcome of the disease will not be so dramatic. You can not run the disease itself, because with it the intraarticular cartilages wear out. Arthrosis of the knee joint is also referred to as gonarthrosis. The frequency of the disease, he takes a leading position. Statistical data showed that patients in clinics with this diagnosis are more likely than people with other serious illnesses. As for the treatment, it takes an impressive amount of time. Here the complex approach and the use of medicinal preparations is important. The disease is characterized by calcification in soft tissues and ligamentous apparatus, and also places in which tendons are fixed. Salt deposits have a limited character. The process is characterized by an imbalance of optimal circulation in the bone vessels, which provoke changes in the cartilaginous tissues.

Causes of

Pathological microtrauma, which is formed on the cartilage. The main causes of the disease can be attributed to excessive mechanical stress, which is on the surface of the cartilage. In other words, arthrosis of the knee joint is rapidly developing in those who are prone to frequent physical exertion and overstrain of joints. Osteoarthritis can develop in those who often squat. The magnitude of the load increases rapidly if a person suffers from excess weight. The main causes of arthrosis of the knee joint should be outlined:
  1. 1) Chronic defects. Dysplasia affects the formation of chronic microtrauma of the cartilage. Such a factor leads to an imbalance in the correct load on the joints. Take note that the risk of developing a terrible disease increases in people with defects in the musculoskeletal system.
  2. 2) Obesity. This factor is the main cause of the development of arthrosis. It has been clinically proven that with excessive kilograms, the likelihood of getting sick increases. Thus, every 6 kg.weight increase the possibility of developing arthrosis by 45%.
  3. 3) Genetic predisposition. The fact that arthrosis of interphalangeal joints is more common in females than in males is proved. This indicator is explained by autosomal-dominant inheritance.
  4. 4) Inflammation. The fact is that infectious and chronic arthritis provokes the formation of arthrosis. The appearance of immunoglobulins indicates the role of such factors during the development of arthrosis.
  5. 5) Neurogenic disorders. Violations provoke a decrease in muscle tone, which are near the joint. Thus, the load on the joints only increases.

Symptoms of arthrosis of the knee joint

The main symptoms of arthrosis include sharp pains that are observed in the knee joint. They arise with loads, and then disappear again, provided that the patient is at rest. With nodular arthrosis, dense formations appear that have a size - with a pea. In addition, near the nail bed may appear seals in the form of cysts-viscous fluids. If the development of the disease affects the knee joints, the pains increase with prolonged walking or walking on the stairs. The main sign of arthrosis is a crunch during movement. In hip arthrosis, pathology associated with the development of the hip joint is observed. Signs of the disease:
  • knee pain that does not pass for a long time
  • if you undergo an X-ray examination, then osteophytes are detected.
  • when taking the synovial fluid test confirms that the composition is really characteristic of the disease.
  • disease is characterized by the fact that the articulation gap is narrowed.
  • joint stiffness in the morning
  • changes occurring in soft tissues, osteoporosis and calcification of cartilage.
Optional signs: subluxations or dislocations, as well as various erosions and cysts. In total, the arthrosis of the knee joint is divided into three stages of development, which we consider below.

1 degree

Recognize the first degree is problematic enough. It is interesting that a person moves also habitually for him, but sometimes the disease can manifest itself in the form of pain and stiffness. But such signs are often written off for a change of weather or an uncomfortable position. And even if you go through an X-ray study, imperfection can not be immediately noticed. It will require skilled care, as well as palpation and a full examination, which will help to detect an uneven surface in the affected joint area. Those suffering from the disease turn to folk medicine as a first aid. And this is a competent approach to solving the problem, because at the initial stage the disease can hardly be treated.

2 degree

If, after noticing the first signs of the disease, you did not take action, then it tends to go to the second. At the same time, arthrosis is chronic, and the cartilage begins to collapse rapidly. Especially these signs are noticeable with increased physical exertion. However, to give preference to folk medicine does not make sense. However, it can be used as an effective supplement to traditional treatment. Osteoarthritis of the knee joint and its symptoms begin to manifest themselves more and more: there is unreasonable fatigue, and the joints of the legs begin to "whine", and after a while there are crunches. If you do not treat the disease, then it leads to deformation of the joints.

3 degree

It also happens that, observing obvious changes, the patient still does not take measures, while the mechanisms that work against him begin to be actively launched. Meanwhile, inaction provokes irreparable consequences. It is also remarkable that a severe pain arises in the joint. Such a factor does not depend on whether you are in action or at rest. There are also cases when joints do not allow a person to move.

Treatment of arthrosis of the knee joint

Arthrosis therapy is a very long process, and first of all will depend on the degree to which the disease is. Basically, the treatment of arthrosis of the knee joint is based on the following stages:
  1. 1) It is necessary to anesthetize the affected joint. As a rule, the doctor prescribes analgesics - analgesics.
  2. 2) Inflammation should be avoided. In the event that the affected area indicates inflammation, as well as swelling, then such a defect should be immediately eliminated. In this case, anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed.
  3. 3) Restoration of cartilaginous tissue. This is considered to be the most important factor of treatment. In the event that it can not be reconstructed, it is necessary to stop the degenerate course. From drugs, one should not expect instantaneous action, but they must be taken on the basis of individual characteristics.
If joint damage differs from absence of symptoms, then in this case the patient will be prescribed effective ointments that have a warming effect. Their main purpose is to increase blood circulation in the affected area. These drugs include Nikofleks, as well as Menovazine, which have no side effects. Treatment is accompanied by a pleasant sensation of warmth. Also, we recommend that you familiarize yourself with other forms of the disease:


Osteoarthritis of the knee( gonarthrosis): causes, symptoms and treatment

If the cartilage of the knee is damaged, chronic osteoarthritis can be diagnosed. Still it is called gonarthrosis.

Just note that there is no universal treatment for this disease, as there is no developed medication that could give a result with 100% confidence in the positive outcome of therapy.

Causes of the disease

When talking about the causes of the disease, it should be noted that gonarthrosis is divided into two types and into several degrees. Each species has its own causes, define them:

  • Primary gonarthrosis. The causes of the first type of disease is most often a violation in the metabolism in the tissues and vessels of the joint. Here you can also enter the process of natural aging of the body. An important factor is the level of loads on the knee joints, as well as their intensity. Usually the first signs appear after 40 years.
  • Secondary gonarthrosis. This type of disease can develop at any age, and the causes are infectious diseases, problems with metabolism, and trauma. In principle, any fracture of the knee can trigger the mechanism of development of gonarthrosis.

Important! Gonarthrosis is one-sided and bilateral. In the second case, the disease synchronously affects both knee joints.

Now let's look at the degrees of gonarthrosis, and note that there are only three of them:

  • The first, it is also the initial stage of the disease. Here you can see the appearance of pain in the knee joint after a long walk or a little physical exertion. After a short rest, the pain in the knee completely passes. Sometimes it is possible to diagnose swelling of the knee joint. All the signs are so erased that they practically remain invisible.
  • With the transition of the disease to the second degree, all manifestations increase and become more noticeable. First of all, this concerns the increase of the pain syndrome in the knee area. You can also hear distinct crunches in the knee joint area. What is noteworthy, at this degree of development of the disease in the morning it becomes difficult to unbend the knee joint, in which the stiffness is felt.
  • The third degree of gonarthrosis is a complicated stage of the disease. Knee joint, the knee hurts not only when walking or with loads, but constantly. You can observe how the person's gait changes, plus it becomes difficult for the patient to move normally. Pain syndrome here can often respond to weather changes. The knee joint is clearly deformed, and the knee itself increases in size due to inflammation.

Symptoms of

As we have already pointed out, the main symptom of gonarthrosis is pain in the knee joint. However, here it must be pointed out that the pain syndrome does not appear immediately. Gradually, the pain in the knee joint passes from a slightly noticeable state when walking, to almost constant.

Attention is drawn to the fact that in the morning the leg in the knee joint can hardly be extended and starts to bend normally approximately half an hour later.

A serious symptom, which directly indicates the neglect of the disease, is lameness. In this condition, the patient experiences already intolerable and persistent pains.

Treatment of arthrosis of the knee joint

Once the problem is diagnosed, the type of gonarthrosis and the stage is determined, it is possible to start treatment.

Therapy for this disease should always be comprehensive. Therefore, it is possible to identify all the areas in which the treatment is underway.

First you need to exclude the pain syndrome. For this, non-steroidal painkillers are used: paracetamol, diclofenac, indomethacin, aceclofenac.

Important! It should be understood that pain medications relieve a symptom, but do not have a therapeutic effect, so you can not stop at them.

Then you can start using anti-inflammatory drugs. Since with the development of arthrosis of the knee joint, not only pain syndrome, but also inflammation, it is necessary to take the appropriate drugs.

As a rule, we are talking about preparations of a corticosteroid group. With a strong effect, these drugs are recommended for injection into the joint as an injection.

This method is called intra-articular blockade of the knee joint. In addition to the fact that the injection reduces the inflammatory process, it also removes part of the pain syndrome, which is especially important if the painkillers cease to operate at 100%.

The next direction in treatment is the use of chondroprotectors. The drugs are designed not only to remove inflammation, but also to repair damaged cartilage tissue.

One of the most qualitative directions in the treatment of arthrosis is recognized therapeutic exercise together with physiotherapy and sanatorium approach. All together gives an amazing result. This is especially true of physical education, which allows you to gradually return to the knee joint normal circulation.

And finally, let us remind you about surgical treatment. This direction can consist of dibasic species:

  • arthroscopic debridement.
  • endoprosthetics.

When debridement is surgically removed particles of the destroyed cartilage, which lead to severe pain. As a rule, such treatment pushes the next request to the doctor for a year or two.

Endoprosthesis of the knee joint is a surgical procedure in which the destroyed joint is completely removed and replaced with an artificial prosthesis.


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