Disease of knee joints types of diseases

Diseases of knee joints: their symptoms and effective treatment


The knee is one of the largest and most complex joints of the human body, which constantly carries a heavy load. At the same time, he is very vulnerable: he suffers from injuries and various diseases quite often. With pains in the knees, almost any person is familiar, and each of us represents how painful it is to feel the feeling of limitation of mobility in the legs and difficulty in walking. Many diseases of the knee joint have similar symptoms, but the causes of development in each pathology are different. And besides common diseases, there are little-known, correctly recognized which can only be a qualified specialist.

Knee pain can indicate the onset of a wide variety of diseases

Nature and causes and diseases of knee joints

Any joint disease can be of the following nature:

  1. is inflammatory( infectious and noninfectious inflammation);

  2. dystrophic( disturbance of metabolic processes in articular or periarticular tissues);

  3. traumatic( acute or chronic injury).

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Various combinations of the above processes are possible. For example, the inflammatory process caused dystrophic disorders, or the disease of a dystrophic nature was complicated by inflammation. In such cases, it is not always easy to determine what caused the disease, but the success of treatment depends to a great extent on the correct identification of the cause.

The absolute majority of diseases of the knee joint belong to one of two groups:

  • arthritis is an inflammatory process of various nature, also called gonarthritis;
  • Arthrosis is a degeneration of the cartilaginous tissue and intraarticular structures( ligaments, meniscuses, etc.).

The following pathologies are more rarely diagnosed:

  • meniscopathy - dystrophic lesion of knee menisci with the formation of cysts( pathological cavities in tissues or organs that have walls and contents), calcifications( stones), tears, strains, deformations and other changes;
  • patellar dislocation - a disease of a dystrophic( less often traumatic) nature, associated with weakness or lesion of ligaments( instability of the patella);
  • dysplasia of the condyles of the femur, at which the furrow thickens between them, which also leads to instability of the patella;
  • bursitis - inflammation of the periarticular capsule without involvement of intraarticular structures;
  • tendonitis - inflammation of ligaments;
  • chondromatosis - partial transformation of the synovial membrane into a cartilaginous tissue with the formation of dense benign structures( nodules) - a chondromus;
  • Becker cyst - inflammatory lesion of the tendon shells of the gastrocnemius muscles in the region of the knee joint;
  • Ficus syndrome - twisting or thickening of ligaments;
  • tendonpathy( periarthritis) of tendons of the periarticular muscles( eg, biceps femoris muscle);
  • König disease( dissecting osteochondritis) - the formation of a limited area of ​​necrosis and detachment of the articular cartilage from the underlying bone in the region of the inner condyle of the thigh;
  • Osgood-Schlatter disease - chondropathy in the region of tuberosity of the tibia, damage to the attachment of the tendon under the patella;
  • Hoff's disease( lipoarthritis) - inflammatory lesion of adipose tissue of the pterygoid folds of the knee;
  • syndrome of the ileal-tibial tract - noninfectious inflammation of the synovial sac of the iliac-tibial aponeurosis( broad tendon) in the region of the external condyle of the knee joint;
  • intraarticular bodies - most often pieces of cartilaginous and bone tissue( articular "mouse").

Do not delay the visit to a traumatologist with prolonged pain, painful clicks, swelling, or limited movements

General symptoms of knee diseases

Inflammatory, dystrophic and traumatic injuries of the knee joint have many common manifestations: long-lasting pain, which is aggravated by flexing of the foot, clicks, difficulty in walking and resting on the aching limb, sometimes visible swelling or deformity of the knee.
Inflammatory diseases( arthritis, bursitis, tendinitis, etc.) are more often characterized by edema of the knee: either all or some part of it. With pronounced inflammation, there is usually a high body temperature and other symptoms characteristic of inflammatory processes. In addition, signs of the inflammatory process are determined by a general analysis of blood. Such pathologies often begin acutely, against the background of a healthy state of the body.

Dystrophic lesions( arthrosis, osteoarthritis, meniscopathy, tendopathy, etc.) usually have hereditary or congenital preconditions( defects in joint development, structural disorders of the cartilaginous tissue, tendons, etc.) and always develop gradually. Sometimes they occur against the background of a general metabolic disorder or chronic joint pathology. Often arise due to the fact that the knee carries too much load, disproportionate to its capabilities.

Dystrophic diseases of knee joints are prone to chronic course with an increase in symptoms. They last for years with periods of exacerbations and remissions. If a dystrophic knee joint disease is diagnosed, treatment will take a long time and is likely permanent.

Post-traumatic illnesses can also be inflammatory or dystrophic, but always result from injuries: either acute or chronic( minor and often repetitive injuries).

In every third case, knee pains are symptoms of gonarthrosis

Arthrosis and arthritis

About the most common diseases, arthritis and arthritis, we have repeatedly spoken on our site. You can read the articles:

Today we will get acquainted with other, less common pathologies.

Bursitis and tendonitis of the knee

Symptoms and differences

These names are inflammation of the joint or tendon capsule( bursitis), as well as inflammation of the tendons and ligaments( tendinitis).These diseases are often due to injuries or other injuries of the musculoskeletal system. Tendonitis can develop due to incorrect formation of the tendon of the knee, as well as due to their weakness. Bursitis and tendinitis are more common in middle-aged men.

Bursitis often arises as a complication of arthritis, when the infection from the joint cavity penetrates directly into the joint capsule. And sometimes, on the contrary, bursitis becomes the cause of arthritis. Symptoms of bursitis differ from the symptoms of arthritis in that the pain in the knee with bursitis is more pronounced, constant and arises without movement in the joint, as the pus or inflammatory fluid stretches the capsule and acts on its nerve endings. The more liquid accumulates, the more pain is accumulated.

Bursitis of small tendon capsules is sometimes called a cyst( for example, Becker's cyst).The pain in this case is usually not as strong as with bursitis of the articular knee bag, but it can be acute and occurs at some particular point. Under the skin at the site of the lesion, a "lump" is probed.

Tendonitis is also accompanied by pain and swelling of the knee in a certain area. Painful sensations are enhanced by contraction of the muscles associated with the affected tendon, as well as flexion and extension of the knee. The pain usually gives to the muscles of the thigh or lower leg.

Treatment of

In the treatment of bursitis and tendonitis, general anti-inflammatory therapy is performed, the affected limb is provided with rest. To reduce pain, punctures( punctures) of the joint capsule are performed to remove fluid and administer antibiotics. In severe cases and with chronic course, especially if the disease breaks the patient's quality of life - an operation is performed.

With mild or chronic forms of the disease, you can alleviate your condition with folk medicine. Here are a few popular recipes.

  • Cut a few leaves of Kalanchoe and put them in a refrigerator or other dark and cool place for a day. In a day, squeeze out the juice from the leaves and make compresses on the area of ​​inflammation. In the early days, compresses are often necessary( 5-6 times a day).In the following - it is enough to do compresses at night.
  • With chronic bursitis, compresses from fresh burdock and cabbage leaves are good. Lubricate the affected area with vegetable oil or cream and attach to it the inside of a leaf of cabbage or burdock. Wrap the knee with a food film and wrap it with a warm cloth. After 1-2 months of such treatment, the fluid will form less and the inflammatory manifestations will subside.

Meniscopathy, chondropathy, tendopathy

Symptoms of

This group of diseases includes dystrophic and post-traumatic non-inflammatory lesions of the tissues of the knee joint. Often they accompany arthrosis, but they can also occur on their own. At the initial stages of their development, these pathologies sometimes cause only minor discomfort, and for this reason patients often first consult a doctor already in the late stages of the disease. How do these diseases differ from arthrosis? In fact, a narrower localization - a lesion of either cartilage, or a meniscus, or a tendon, ligament or other joint structure. A variety of types of such diseases are often found in athletes.

According to the clinical course, these pathologies are usually accompanied by pain in flexing-extension of the leg, walking, difficulty in other movements, sometimes - joint instability, when, when advancing on a sore leg, it involuntarily bends. A crunch often occurs in the affected joint.

To place an accurate diagnosis in such pathologies according to clinical manifestations is usually impossible - for clarification, a survey is required: X-ray of the affected area, computer or magnetic resonance imaging, sometimes arthroscopy.

Treatment of

Treatment of lesions of the knee of a dystrophic nature is aimed primarily at eliminating the cause. Therapeutic measures in many cases are ineffective, and to return the patient the opportunity to walk freely or improve the quality of life - usually the operation is performed. First of all, it is shown to those who suffer from painful pains.

And to help your body recover faster, you can apply several proven folk recipes.

  • 50 grams of elecampane root pour 125 grams of vodka. Put it in a dark place and insist 2 weeks. After that, use a means for rubbing the diseased knee. After a while, relief will come.
  • Brew 5-6 spoons of ordinary oatmeal with water, so that a thick porridge turns out. Cool the porridge so it does not burn the skin. After applying it to a layer of cotton cloth and wrap around the affected joint. Top the bandage with a food film and wrap it with warm material. Keep until completely cool. Such warming compress can be done at night. Useful properties of oatmeal are preserved during the day, so do not prepare the medicine for future use.

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Pain in the knee joint

Diseases that cause pain in the knee joint

Pain in the knee joint is a discomfort that many people encounter when walking, performing physical exercises and even at rest.

The cause of discomfort can be trauma, as well as the following diseases:

  • Gonarthrosis;

  • Meniscopathy;

  • Arthritis;

  • Periarthritis;

  • Tendonitis of the knee joint;

  • Rheumatoid arthritis;

  • Bursitis;

  • Knee Gout;

  • Paget's disease;

  • Fibromyalgia;

  • Osteomyelitis;

  • of Baker Baker;

  • König disease;

  • Osgood-Schlatter disease;

  • Knee Infections: Lyme Disease, Reiter's Syndrome


Gonarthrosis

is the destruction of the cartilaginous tissue of the knee joint, resulting in its deformation and disruption of functions. From gonarthrosis women suffer more often than men. It is also called arthrosis of the knee joint.

In accordance with the causes of the onset, two types of disease are distinguished. Factor contributing to the development of primary or idiopathic gonarthrosis is the elderly patient. Exact external causes in medicine are not established. This type of disease is two-sided, that is, it affects both legs. The second type of gonarthrosis occurs due to a knee injury or as a complication after infections. It can develop in a patient at any age and can be either unilateral or bilateral.

The main reasons for the development of gonarthrosis are fractures of the bones of the knee joint, arthritis, bone tissue tumors, arthroses and spondylitis.

The disease develops gradually and at the first stages it is practically not manifested. Among his main symptoms - acute pain in the knee joint after being in a state of rest, changes in the gait. Gradually, during the movement, discomfort passes, but after a long rest appears again. With gonarthrosis, osteophytes may appear. This is the name for the growth of bone tissue. As a result of friction of the cartilage tissues, the joint membrane becomes inflamed about these formations. The skin in this place is redder, a tumor appears, the patient's temperature rises.

Stages of gonarthrosis:

  1. Deformation of the joint is almost imperceptible. Periodically, slight pain may occur;

  2. Deformation is clearly visible at this stage. The pain intensifies, the attacks become longer. A crunch in the knee joint is possible;

  3. The disease is progressing rapidly. Now the pain is felt both during movement and at rest, the gait changes.

Gonarthrosis is diagnosed on the basis of an X-ray and visual examination of the knee joint. It is recommended to perform foot massage to improve blood circulation. This will reduce pain. For the same purpose, venotonics and vasodilating agents are used. Analgesics help to get rid of pain. Chondroprotectors act on the cartilaginous tissue. At the third stage of the development of the disease, surgical intervention may be required. Endoprosthetics can replace the knee joint, completely restoring all its functions. With the help of arthroscopy, it is possible to slow down the development of gonarthrosis.


Meniscopathy

In the knee joint, there are two special cartilaginous pads that facilitate the load on the joint during the active movements. They are called menisci. The medial or inner meniscus is damaged less often than the lateral, known as the outer one. Such a trauma can occur in a person regardless of age and type of activity. The development of meniscopathy is promoted by jumping, squats, skiing. At risk are those who suffer from gout or arthritis, diabetes mellitus, have weak ligaments or excess weight, increasing the load on the joints.

The main symptom for a meniscus injury is a click in the knee joint, and then a sharp pain. The younger the person, the sharper he feels. In elderly people cartilage is not saturated enough moisture, so the sensations are weaker. When severe pain occurs, the patient stops moving. Gradually, the discomfort passes, and then again a person can hardly walk. The next day the knee swells up, but it is a protective reaction aimed at restoring a clamped meniscus after an injury. Otherwise, the disease becomes chronic. The duration of the attack of pain is several weeks. During this time the swelling is gone. In the absence of the necessary treatment meniscopathy is periodically manifested by attacks of severe pain and as a result can lead to arthrosis.

The most reliable diagnostic method in this case is magnetic resonance imaging. In the course of this, the nature and degree of damage to the meniscus is determined. If it is completely torn off, surgery is necessary. The surgeon removes completely the meniscus or part of it. Therapeutic methods are effective in pinching or tearing. Restore the functions of the knee joint in this case, you can in several sessions with a traumatologist or a chiropractor. Edema can remove corticosteroids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. But first of all it is necessary to eliminate the cause of the tumor.


Arthritis

Arthritis is considered the most common form of knee disease. It involves the defeat of the synovial membrane, capsules, cartilage. If there is no treatment for this disease, the patient may lose his ability to work, lose the opportunity to walk and actively move.

Arthritis can be of the following types:

  • rheumatoid - factors contributing to its development are unknown;

  • post-traumatic - is the result of sprains, bruises, tears, damage to the meniscus;

  • reactive - the cause of its appearance is considered food poisoning, infection of tissues;

  • deforming - occurs when circulatory disturbances occur;

  • gouty - is caused by malfunctions in metabolism in the body, by deposits of urate sodium.

In addition, arthritis is primary, when it occurs as a result of trauma and the development of infection against it, or secondary, when inflammation occurs in other tissues, and enters the knee joint with lymph or blood.

The development of the disease contributes to overweight, increasing the load on the joints, and the elderly, as over time the cartilage and bone tissue wear out. Significant physical activity, frequent weight lifting, and immunodeficiency also lead to arthritis.

Attacks of the disease are accompanied by unpleasant sensations in the knee joint, redness, swelling. They become longer and more painful as arthritis develops. With the formation of pus in the patient, the temperature rises.

Treatment involves measures aimed at eliminating edema, discomfort, restoring the functions of the knee joint, preventing new seizures. Relief from pain is carried out with the help of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics. Effective warming and distracting ointments, as well as restorative drugs. In the period of remission, physiotherapy, massage and therapeutic gymnastics are prescribed.

If conservative treatment does not produce the required results, surgical intervention is performed. Folk remedies can be used after consultation with a specialist when combined with medications prescribed by a doctor.


Periarthritis

This disease affects the periarticular tissues: muscles, ligaments, tendons, joint capsule. Periarthritis is more susceptible to places, which account for a significant load during movement, including the knee joint.

The cause of its development are chronic diseases, frequent hypothermia of the body, problems in the work of the endocrine system, peripheral vessels. Post-traumatic periarthritis occurs as a result of joint damage.

This disease is characterized by aching pain in the knee joint area, edema formation. Upon examination, the doctor can identify the presence of nodules and small seals. When you press on them, the patient experiences significant pain. When walking, there is discomfort in the knee joint.

During treatment it is recommended to limit movement and more often to be at rest. To remove inflammation and reduce the pain allow non-steroid drugs, such as diclofenac. With periarthritis, physiotherapy is performed. The most common exposure to cold is local cryotherapy, infrared laser therapy, the application of paraffin-ozocerite applications is used. It is necessary to improve the condition of the periarticular tissues.

Older women often suffer from a particular form of this disease - periarthritis of the goose paw bag. It involves inflammation of the knee tendons from the inside. Edema, joint deformation does not occur. Pain is felt only when moving on uneven surfaces, when wearing shoes with high heels. If the disease is diagnosed on time, then in the early stages of development it can be cured quickly. For this, it is necessary to carry out physiotherapy procedures, to administer the medications prescribed by the doctor.


Tendonitis of the knee joint

It consists in inflammation of the tendon tissue in the area of ​​its attachment to the bone or in the area of ​​the muscle-tendon junction. This disease is known as the "knee jumper".In many ways, this is due to the fact that the cause of tendonitis is the employment of such sports as basketball, cycling, volleyball. Athletes, older people, adolescents and children - that's who is most susceptible to the disease. It affects the patellar patch, responsible for the implementation of flexion and extensor movement. Tendonitis can appear only on one leg or both at once and can be of two types: tendobursitis and tendovaginitis. In the first case the tendon bag inflames, and in the second case the tendon sheath.

The causes of tendonitis are:

  • other diseases( gout, rheumatoid polyarthritis);

  • injury, sprains, bruises;

  • uncomfortable shoes;

  • muscle imbalance;

  • weak immunity;

  • constant physical activity;

  • fungal infections, parasites.

In tendinitis, pain often appears when weather changes. The knee joint swells, there is a restriction of its mobility, and when it moves - creaking. Attacks of pain provoke active movements. In later stages of tendonitis, a patellar ligament can be broken.

During X-rays, the disease is detected when the cause of its occurrence is the deposition of salts, bursitis or arthritis. Laboratory tests in diagnosis are effective when tendonitis occurs as a complication after infection. Detailed information on the deformation of the tendons allows obtaining different types of tomography.

In the first stages of the disease, conservative treatment methods can be managed. It is necessary to limit the motor activity. In some cases, the immobilization of the knee joint is required, so use gypsum or a langnet. The doctor prescribes medicines( non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory) and physiotherapy. In critical situations, injections of corticosteroids and antibiotics are necessary. From physical therapy, magnetic, iontophoresis and electrophoresis are often used. Surgical removal of degenerative tissues at the last stages of tendinitis. With the accumulation of pus in the region of the knee joint, an opening and pumping is performed. Medication can be combined with the use of traditional medicine to get the best result. Under the supervision of the trainer, it is also recommended that you exercise. After recovery, you can go to normal sports. Positive influence on the condition of the knee joint with tendinitis is provided by yoga.


Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis refers to a systemic disease and manifests itself in the form of inflammation of the connective tissue. The exact reasons for its appearance are not known. There is a genetic predisposition to rheumatoid arthritis. At the moment of weakening of immunity, the disease begins to develop actively. They suffer both men and women at any age. It affects the connective tissue in the region of the joints, which account for a significant load, including the knee. The lack of timely diagnosis and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in most cases leads to disability and even death. Death comes from infectious complications and kidney failure.

There are factors that contribute to the development of rheumatoid arthritis. This is a constant emotional tension, frequent hypothermia of the body.

In accordance with the symptoms, the following stages of development of rheumatoid arthritis are distinguished:

  1. There is edema and swelling of the knee joint. The patient is in pain. An increase in body temperature is possible;

  2. Inflamed cells actively divide. This causes the compaction of the synovium;

  3. At the last stage, bone and cartilaginous tissue is affected. The knee joint deforms and does not fulfill its functions. Attacks of pain become stronger and more lasting.

Rheumatoid arthritis develops slowly. The first time can manifest only in the form of stiffness in the knee joint after being in a state of rest for a long time, for example, in the morning on waking. Pain occurs at night and with a sharp change of weather.

Diagnosis of the disease on the basis of biochemical analysis of blood, X-rays and pronounced external symptoms: redness of the skin, swelling, joint deformation, pain in it. If arthritis is caused by an infection, then antibacterial drugs are prescribed. Relieve pain in the joint and inflammation is helped by corticosteroids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. It is also necessary to practice therapeutic gymnastics and regularly do massage.


Bursitis

Inflammation, which occurs inside the synovial bag, in medicine was called bursitis. Its cause is the accumulation of exudate, that is, a liquid containing dangerous microorganisms. Bursitis occurs as a result of a knee injury, significant physical exertion to it or as a complication of an infectious disease. Arthritis or gout also contribute to its development.

Bursitis can be determined from the stiffness of movements, pain in the knee joint area. Inflammation is especially noticeable after pressing movements on the skin. The patient experiences weakness, malaise, may lose appetite. If the cause of bursitis is an infectious disease, the body temperature rises. Its important difference from arthritis is the preservation of the ability to perform flexion-extensor movements.

During the diagnosis, the doctor examines the symptoms of the disease, examines the knee joint. To accurately determine the nature of the accumulated fluid, a puncture is performed. At the first stages of development of bursitis with it you can cope with the help of compresses, wraps. The patient must comply with bed rest. With chronic bursitis, a puncture is made to remove the accumulated fluid inside the bag, and then rinse the cavity.


Knee Osteoarthritis

This chronic disease is associated with deposits of sodium monoaurate, which provokes attacks of acute pain in the knee joint. Gout is more common in men than in women. The causes of its development is the violation of urinary metabolism, as a result of which the level of uric acid rises in the blood. This leads to the use of excessive amounts of products containing purines. These include meat and fish. Promotes the development of the disease and alcohol abuse.

Gout is manifested in the form of sharp pains in the knee joint and redness of the skin in this area. In soft tissues dense nodules - tofusi are formed. They are a collection of uric acid. Sometimes tofusi breaks, and it comes out. Attacks of pain with gout can last for several days or even a week.

To determine gout, you can by high content of uric acid in the blood. For this, a biochemical analysis is done. Also as part of the diagnosis, radiography is performed. To cope with the attack of gout, you should follow a diet, less to move. The patient should be provided with emotional and physical rest. The diet is combined with drug therapy.


Paget's disease

Disturbance of the processes of bone formation leads to deformation of the skeleton, brittle bones. In medicine, this phenomenon is called Paget's disease. It affects the tubular bones of the legs and can cause pain in the knee joint. In men, Paget's disease is more common than in women. It usually occurs in people in old age.

It is difficult to determine the presence of this disease, as it may not be accompanied by any symptoms. In some cases, patients can feel pain at night, and the place of the affected bone feels warm. Diagnosis of Paget's disease is carried out using a biochemical blood test, which shows an increased content of phosphatase, biopsy and x-rays.

Relieve pain with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In general, the treatment is aimed at preventing complications of Paget's disease: increasing the strength of bones, reducing their fragility. This is possible due to the use of bisphosphonates and preparations serving as a source of calcium. Regularly you should take tests and see a doctor. In neglected cases, rehabilitation is carried out in the clinic. With Paget's disease it is worth keeping to a diet, conducting physical education classes under the supervision of a specialist and avoiding falls and injuries. Because of the fragility of bones, the probability of fractures is high.


Fibromyalgia

This disease occurs in at least 5% of the population. Fibromyalgia is expressed in the form of symmetrical musculo-skeletal pain, often appearing in the region of the knee joint. The reasons for its occurrence are poorly understood, but it is known that discomfort is not caused by inflammatory processes.

The main complaints in patients other than musculo-skeletal pain are bad sleep, fatigue, loss of strength, intestinal disorders, convulsions and spasms, numbness and morning stiffness. The commonality of symptoms often leads to an incorrect diagnosis. Fibromyalgia can be confused with depression.

The cause of the disease is considered stress, emotional tension, accelerated exchange of serotonin, physical trauma. Diagnosis of fibromyalgia is carried out by various methods and is selected by the doctor individually. Often, the presence of the disease is determined even by excluding the presence of other ailments.

Treatment is medication and non-pharmacological methods. The patient in most cases necessarily prescribed antidepressants, painkillers. It is recommended to avoid stressful situations, play sports, keep to a diet, and perform massage sessions.


Osteomyelitis

The diagnosis of "osteomyelitis" is made if the patient develops a purulent-necrotic process of bone and soft tissues around her. They are caused by special bacteria that produce pus. Infectious agents penetrate in various ways: endogenously - through the blood, spreading from the focus of inflammation, exogenously - as a result of fracture treatment, tooth filling. Osteomyelitis can be caused by trauma or Staphylococcus aureus.

There are 2 main types of disease: hematogenous and traumatic. In the first case, osteomyelitis for a long time does not appear externally. However, the patient may experience malaise, weakness. Then there is a sharp increase in body temperature and there is a sharp pain. Inflammatory process proceeds very quickly. Possible sepsis, leading to the death of the patient. Traumatic osteomyelitis develops when the treatment was started too late. Attacks of pain in this case alternate with a state of rest.

Treatment of osteomyelitis is medicated with antibiotics and surgically. In the course of the operation, pus, dead tissue cells are removed.


Cyst Baker

In medicine, a Baker cyst is a knee or popliteal hernia. Its size can vary, but rarely exceeds several centimeters. Most often occurs in people after 30 years and in children aged 3-7 years. Baker's cyst is formed due to damage to the knee. Also, it is caused by diseases such as arthritis and osteoarthritis.

Because of the small size of the Baker cyst, sometimes even a doctor may not be detected. The patient does not cause any anxiety, changes in his state of health are not observed. There may be pain in the knee, swelling, unpleasant sensations when performing flexion-extensor movements. In some cases, the cyst eventually passes by itself.

In the presence of severe pain, aspiration occurs. It is also necessary if the cyst is large. Good help to ease the pain of non-steroid drugs, but they can only be taken under medical supervision. Remove inflammation allows the imposition of compresses, performing physical exercises aimed at strengthening the knee.


König disease

This disease is often called dissecting osteochondrosis. The area of ​​the cartilage can be detached along the bone and move freely in the knee joint. This makes it difficult and causes pain. This phenomenon is called König's disease. Most often it occurs precisely in the knee joint. Isolate the adult form of the disease, which is treated more difficultly, and nursery. In the course of development, König's disease passes through 4 stages.

To its symptoms include dull pain, in the joint accumulates synovial fluid. Unpleasant sensations are most strongly felt during movement. The separation of the cartilage exposes the bone, which is accompanied by inflammation, which is manifested by edema. The most informative is the radiation method of diagnosis in König disease.

In the initial stages, you can cope with it with the help of conservative methods of treatment. For older patients, as well as in later stages, surgical intervention is usually required. The patient needs physical and emotional rest.


Osgood-Schlatter disease

This disease manifests itself in the form of the formation of a painful cone in the region of the kneecap. Suffer them children and adolescents. A high risk of Osgood-Schlatter disease in those who engage in sports, for example, basketball, figure skating, ballet. The most common problems with the patella occur in boys. Doctors attribute this to the fact that they are subject to more serious physical exertion than girls.

The main symptoms of the disease are edema in the knee area, swelling, sharp pains moving: running, jumping. The tuberosity is noticeable to the touch. Osgood-Schlatter disease affects, as a rule, only the knee of one leg.

It goes by itself with age. But in some cases, physical therapy or medication is required, which involves taking painkillers. You can make cold compresses on your own. It is necessary to use the patella when doing physical exercises. Therapeutic gymnastics helps to strengthen the tendons, but it must be conducted under the supervision of a doctor.


Infectious diseases of the knee: Lyme disease, Reiter's syndrome

Lyme disease develops after a bite of an infected tick. It acquires a chronic and recurrent character as the pathogens multiply in the body. Diagnosis of the disease can be based on a biochemical blood test.

In Lyme disease, the patient experiences pain in the muscles and tendons. Most often it affects the knee joints. Possible arrhythmia, headaches, depression, weakness. When diagnosed, Lyme disease is easily confused with another disease, so at the first suspicions it is necessary to consult a doctor so that he confirms the presence of infection and prescribes antibiotics.

Reiter's syndrome is called inflammation of the urinary tract, eyes and joints, including the knee. When urinating, patients feel itching, stinging and burning. In the knee joints, severe pain is felt, and the lesion is usually asymmetric. The skin in the region of the knee acquires a reddish hue, the swelling is formed. The disease can have both acute and chronic form. The cause of it becomes a genito-urinary or intestinal infection. After diagnosis, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are treated.

Author of the article: Muravitsky Igor Valerievich, rheumatologist

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Knee joint diseases list

Knee joint diseases list

Knee joint is an important component of the musculoskeletal system, which has a rather complex structure. If there is pain in the knee area, it may indicate the presence of a certain disease, which can lead to very serious consequences. In this regard, it is worth considering the diseases of the knee joint list, as well as the reasons for their development, the features of manifestation and treatment.

Knee joint

Causes of knee arthritis

Before considering all the existing diseases that can affect the knee, you need to determine the main reasons for their development in order to be able to avoid the appearance of ailments. All the reasons can be gathered in the following list:

  • is an inflammatory process provoked by all sorts of infections. There may also be inflammation of a non-specific nature;
  • is a dystrophic process. Often its appearance is associated with impaired metabolism, premature wear and aging of tissues;
  • injury, which affected the knee joint.

Inflammation is the cause of most diseases of the knee joint

Diseases of the knee joint

First of all, we will identify the main diseases of the knee joint, and also consider all their features:

  • arthrosis is the most common disease associated with degenerative processes in the joint. The disease is most common in middle-aged or elderly people, accompanied by the destruction of articular cartilage. Also, changes are observed in the bone surface of the joint. As a consequence - pain in the affected joint area, limiting its mobility. With time, the mobility of the knee joint may not be possible at all;
  • Baker's cyst - it's about a hernia popliteal fossa, which is formed due to inflammation of the knee joint. Visually, it looks like a kind of protrusion, localized in the popliteal fossa. While the cyst is at the initial stage, it does not interfere in any way with a person, it can only be detected by palpation. With an increase in its size, nerve compression occurs, causing severe pain, numbness of limbs, limited mobility. Treatment is conservative and surgical. In the absence of treatment, there may appear complications of Baker's cyst, in particular, its rupture;

Keysta Baker

  • König disease - the reasons for its appearance are not fully understood. There are several opinions on this matter. It is believed that the disease develops as a result of circulatory disorders in the middle knee artery. It is also believed that König's disease can be caused by a knee injury. Most often, the disease occurs in young people. It is manifested by painful sensations in the region of the knee joint, which can be strengthened during exercise, move when probed;
  • König's disease

    meniscus - a disease that affects the meniscus joint. It is accompanied by the formation of tumors in the tissues, close to the joint. Also, the disease provokes deformity of the knee itself;

  • intraarticular "mouse" - for all its unusual name the disease can deliver a lot of inconvenience to a person. It is associated with the ingress of particles of bone or cartilaginous tissue into the joint;
  • bursitis - is an inflammatory process located in the joint capsule;
  • tendonitis is an inflammation of the ligaments surrounding the knee joint.

This list lists the main diseases of the knee joint, which occur more often than others. But, the list can be supplemented with more rare ailments, which also take place in medical practice. It is also worth noting that all diseases of the knee joint are almost identical.

Symptoms of knee joint diseases

If to consider the symptoms of diseases, they can be combined into a small list:

  • the pain can be of different character, localized in different parts of the knee. But, if the pains are constantly troubled, they should become a signal for an urgent visit to the doctor;
  • clicks and crunch - if a person feels clicks when moving in the knee joint, this may indicate the presence of the disease, especially if the clicks are accompanied by pain;
  • edema - swelling of the knee is a sign of inflammation, necessarily requires attention and seeking medical help;

Edema is the main symptom of knee joint disease

  • , the limitation of mobility is a symptom of almost all diseases associated with the knee joint.

Arthritis - the most common disease of the knee joint

Above it was mentioned that of the numerous ailments of the knee joint arthritis is necessary. This disease occurs in people of different ages, is divided into many varieties:

  • arthrosis is a form of arthritis. It is accompanied by the deletion of articular cartilage. Requires immediate treatment, is capable of leading to a complete limitation of joint mobility;
  • rheumatoid arthritis - like arthrosis is accompanied by destruction of articular cartilage. Occurs in the case of immune changes, usually affects two joints at once;
  • post-traumatic arthritis - as the name suggests, the disease as a consequence of a knee injury can occur not immediately, but even after two to five years;
  • gout - also refers to arthritis, accompanied by the deposition of salts of uric acid in the joint. Requires immediate treatment to avoid serious consequences.

As for the diagnosis, arthritis, like any other knee disease, is confirmed by the doctor after a thorough examination. The first thing is going to anamnesis, which fixes all the symptoms and complaints of the patient. Then the radiography is carried out, which allows to see all the changes in the structure of the joint, to diagnose its deformation. Thanks to the analysis of blood, one can draw a conclusion about the inflammatory process in the body, in particular, the knee joint.

X-ray is an informative way to diagnose knee joint diseases

If we talk about the treatment of arthritis and other diseases of the knee joint, then we can identify several common methods and directions. In the first place - this drug treatment, aimed at anesthetizing the joint, removing inflammation. Most often, drugs from the category of NSAIDs are used, sometimes doctors can prescribe hormonal anti-inflammatory ointments. In some cases, the patient is given analgesic injections. Chondroprotective drugs should also be prescribed, which can artificially raise the chondroitin content in the cartilage.

A mandatory component of the treatment of diseases of the knee joint should be a diet. In this case, the patient should limit, and if possible, exclude the use of salt, fatty, spicy dishes, smoked foods.

Diet is very important in the treatment of joint diseases

In combination with drug therapy, physiotherapy is always performed, which also helps to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and also contribute to a faster recovery. Patients may be assigned paraffin therapy, UHF, electrophoresis.

It is impossible to exclude exercise therapy, such exercises are highly effective not only for arthritis, but also for other diseases of the knee joint. The main thing is to perform exercise therapy only under the supervision of a specialist, without fail follow his recommendations. Load gradually. It is possible to start LFK with the beginning of the rehabilitation period, when treatment is performed, the patient is recommended to rest, the load on the diseased joint is recommended. For this purpose, you can use crutches when walking.

If treatment and rehabilitation are carried out correctly, the patient will soon be able to return to a fulfilling life. But, henceforth to health of the joints it is necessary to be more attentive. It is also worthwhile to revise the way of life, include sports, health procedures. Be sure to eat a full meal.

Video - Knee joint diseases list

med-shkola.ru

Knee joint diseases: symptoms and treatment

Knee joint diseases

The knee joint is one of the largest in the human body. It is extremely complicated device. It is formed with the help of three bones( femoral + tibial + knee cap).The first two have enlarged protruding areas called the condyles. There are only two of them, one outside and the other inside. The main function of the articular part of the knee is flexion, in which the knee bone is displaced into the depression in the region of the condyles.

Causes of pain in the knee joint

Basically, the causes of hip pain can be divided into four groups:

There are four large groups of causes causing pain in the knee joint:

  1. The presence of injuries of the joint and the consequences:

- bruising and hemarthrosis symptoms;

- fractures in the region of the distal parts of the thigh;

- osteochondral;

- with a ruptured proximal tibiofibular junction and unstable position.

  1. Presence of diseases and individual joints in the structure of the knee joint:
  1. The presence of the disease of any other organ or system manifesting a rebound in the knee:

- neurological diseases of the spinal column;

- infections.

Methods of treatment

To cure most diseases of the knees, medicines are used, a set of which is quite extensive. Application allows to reduce inflammation and significantly remove the edema in the affected area. The disease itself does not heal, but it helps to reduce pain. It is worth remembering the contraindication of long-term use of such medications.

In addition, the so-called chondroprotectors are used. Drugs can overcome gonarthrosis symptoms and prevent a number of destructive processes in the cartilage tissues. However, if the disease has reached its late stage, they become ineffective, which is due to the complete destruction of the cartilage.

Chondroprotectors are not able to eliminate a number of bone changes and build up new cartilaginous tissues. In the initial phase, their action is rather slow. Significant changes can be achieved only with a long course of treatment. It is equal to half a year or year.

Vasodilator drugs eliminate stagnant blood in order to relieve the patient of night pain. Spasms decrease and normal blood supply is restored. It is shown to be taken in combination with chondoprotectors.

With the help of intra-articular injections, emergency care is provided in order to save a person from significant pain. They help to reduce swelling and swelling. Kolyat such injections once a month. However, it is worth considering that there are contraindications for patients with pronounced bone deformities. If the swelling is great, such injections are contraindicated.

The effect of using a local remedy causing a number of positive effects is invaluable. They help the blood circulation to recover and quench the pain. However, it is worth remembering the caution when using them, due to the risk of an allergic reaction. It is worth trying out the drug, applying it to the skin area.

Physiotherapy procedures are also indicated for knee injuries. They involve the use of massage, electrophoresis, cold treatment, laser therapy, etc. The application contributes to the improvement of the general condition of tissues and blood supply and the reduction of inflammation. However, these procedures are also not suitable for everyone, becausethey are contraindicated to hypertensive patients, cores, people with vascular diseases, infected. Physiotherapeutic procedures are indicated in case of serious exacerbation, aggravated by swelling.

Operative intervention is an extreme measure, which is resorted to in the case of insolvency of all others. Surgery usually occurs in the late stage of the disease. The joint has to be replaced. It takes a huge amount of time to rehabilitate.

What can be arthritis?

1) specific( consequence of various diseases);

2) rheumatoid;

3) allergic-infectious;

4) aseptic;

It is worthwhile to talk in detail about the most common form of arthritis - rheumatoid. The development of this disease can be acute or chronic. The first is characterized by the accumulation of special fluids in the joint cavity( pus or sulfur).Complaints refer to severe pain and swelling, as well as to limited movement.

Accumulation of liquids can lead to severe thermal shock, chills and edema. With a purulent lesion, there is a threat of getting purulent clusters in the area of ​​healthy tissues and blood.

With chronic nature of the disease, there are pain and swelling. The cause of gonitis is the presence of a strong inflammatory process in the joint, weakened immunity and unproductive treatment. The disease is characterized by slow flow. The consequence may be the development of ankylosis of the articular part of the knee. The ailment does not allow the patient to make a bend and limb of the limb.

In summing up, it is worth emphasizing the length of the treatment procedures of knee joints. Take extreme care of your health. At the slightest indisposition, consult your doctor.

It is worth noting the prevalence and trouble of the disease - pain in the legs. In order to understand what the diagnosis may be, and also the consequences, read in detail the types of diseases of the limbs, as well as what you need to do if you feel pain in the knee.

bol-v-kolene.com

Types of arthrosis of the knee joint - how to discern and what to do

Types of arthrosis of the knee joint

What are the types of arthrosis diseases.

Post-traumatic

Posttraumatic gonarthrosis can occur due to chronic trauma to the knee joint, as well as due to its acute mechanical damage. Osteoarthritis of the knee joint, as a rule, occurs after 5-6 years after injury, but changes in the joint may appear earlier - 2-3 months after trauma. The trauma can be both a dislocation and fracture of the knee, as well as jamming, tearing and tearingmeniscus with wedging of the knee joint, as well as damage to the cartilage and ligament apparatus. Light and minor injuries rarely become a source of serious problems, but they can lead to the development of aseptic( avascular) necrosis of the condyle of the hip and tibia.

Subsequently, all this can lead to post-traumatic gonarthrosis with all its characteristic manifestations. Most often, the cause of gonarthrosis in patients of middle and young age is instability of the knee, caused, as a rule, by its significant damage. In addition, such frequently used measures for post-traumatic joint stabilization, as reconstruction of its ligamentous apparatus, do not contribute to preventing the development of deforming arthrosis, but, on the contrary, increase uncontrolled physical exertion and joint overload.

Source gryzha-lechenie.ru

Arthritis arthrosis of the knee joint

A - Osteoarthritis. Deformation of articular surfaces. B - Arthritis. The growth of the synovium and the accumulation of fluid. Most often the knees begin to hurt like without any apparent reason. However, with careful questioning, the patient notes that he either went too long, or suffered something heavy, or lately gained weight, or simply stumbled, etc. But, since the knee joint is a supporting one, any of the above causes lead to its overload and, as a consequence, to the disturbance of microcirculation in the soft tissues of the joint, which causes the development of stagnant phenomena, i.e.swelling that leads to pain. And this condition is the exact name - arthritis of the knee joint( from the Greek arthron - joint + -itis - inflammation).

On the roentgenogram, as a rule, bone changes are not detected or expressed minimally, joint gap, i.е.the distance between the articular surfaces of the bones is not changed. You can argue, they say, the load was not great. For information, the biggest burden for the joints of the lower limbs is the movement of the weight of one's own body in space without outside help. We need to prepare for any load, i.e.train your muscles. And how long have you been crouched for the last time, at least 300-400 times a day? In this case, the function of the knee joint, i.e.the volume of movements in the joint is limited due to soft tissue edema and acute pain. Unfortunately, very often doctors resort to pumping out fluid from the joint in order to reduce swelling, repeatedly penetrating with the help of a needle and a syringe in the cavity of periarticular bags and the cavity of the joint space.

In fact, there is a struggle with one of the symptoms of inflammation, and not with its cause - impaired microcirculation in muscles and ligaments. Then the question arises: how much fluid must be pumped out in order not to harm and what kind of liquid is it: inflammatory exudate, lymph or normal synovial fluid? And after such manipulations, antibiotics and hormones are injected into the joint cavity. But in the beginning we agreed with you that arthritis of the knee joint is not an infectious process! Then why antibiotics? !As a result of this "treatment", dystrophic processes develop in the knee joint, which lead to abnormal rearrangement of the bone-cartilage apparatus of the joint, degenerative changes in the joint ligaments of the joint, and all this is accompanied by constant aching, stupid, walking-obstructing pains that limit mobility in the knee joint. And these changes are called gonarthrosis, or arthrosis of the knee joint. Thus, arthritis and arthrosis are different stages of one disease - degenerative process - degenerative process, in which, due to malnutrition of the joint at the stage of arthritis, pathological restructuring of its structures develops with a decrease in the joint gap, osteophyte growth, deformation of articular surfaces, thinningarticular cartilage at the stage of arthrosis, followed by complete closure of the joint gap - the development of ankylosis of the knee joint with complete absence of movement in the joint. On what does the nutrition of the knee joint depend? All nutrients needed by the joint are delivered by blood, which circulates through the vessels.

Vessels, in turn, are in the muscles and ligaments, which are the most important components of the joint. Muscles, in addition to the motor function, also fulfill the role of blood pumps. They pump a huge amount of blood, providing nutrition to the knee joint and uninterrupted metabolism. If the muscles-pumps provide adequate blood flow, good microcirculation - the knee joint is healthy. If the microcirculation is disrupted as a result of deterioration of the muscles due to their atrophy - the joint turns out to be on a starvation ration and its slow dying begins.

Source kriosauna-kazan.ru

About what causes of arthrosis of the knee joint is better to read carefully.

To find out what exercises are needed for treatment, everything is explained in detail here.

Follow the diet in the treatment of osteoarthritis, details on the link http: //sustavprof.ru/lk/ vidy-lecheniya-pri-artroze-kolennogo-sustava.html

Acute

osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis of the knee( gonarthrosis) - a degenerative disease of the knee caused by inflammation of the articular cartilage. It is the most common in the group of joint diseases. According to the World Health Organization, gonarthrosis affects every fifth inhabitant of the planet. In 10% of cases, it leads to disability.

Reasons for

There are several causes of the disease. The main ones are: a knee injury and repeated microtrauma are the most common causes of gonarthrosis;inflammation of the joint;Dysplasia and genetically caused changes in the knee joint. The risk group includes: Older people. With age, the elasticity of the articular cartilage decreases, its ability to self-repair is lost. After 50 years, the risk of getting gonarthrosis increases dramatically. Women are susceptible to this disease more than men. Especially often it develops after the onset of menopause.

Professional athletes and people whose activities are associated with constant high physical stress. Football players, tennis players, hockey players are subjected to frequent increased physical exertion, which very often leads to the development of such a disease as deforming osteoarthritis of the knee joint. People with overweight. With obesity, the load on the knee joints increases, which is what leads to their premature "wear".People with "weak" heredity. Hereditary disorders of connective tissue, mutations also lead to the development of the disease.

Source zdorovye-sustavi.ru

Patellofemoral arthrosis

There is no such diagnosis as patellofemoral arthrosis in the international classification of diseases. There is a patellofemoral syndrome. However, the term is often used in domestic and foreign specialist literature. That is, patellofemoral arthrosis is the same as the patellofemoral syndrome.

Clinical picture of

Osteoarthritis of the knee joint often begins with a patellofemoral syndrome. The same syndrome is observed if a certain part of the body is subjected to excessive load or there are repeated injuries associated with the performance of physical exercises. The main symptoms are: stiffness in the patella( on the inner or front side);pain along the front side of the knee joint, increasing with additional load( climbing or descending stairs, running, squats, jumps, etc.);increased pain in sitting position with bent legs.

Diagnosis

Pain syndrome develops between the surfaces of the patella joint and the adjacent part of the thigh. At the same time, there are no inflammatory phenomena in this area. Patellofemoral syndrome in initially healthy people is diagnosed clinically. Visual and laboratory studies, as a rule, are not required. The patient is offered to lie on his back and relax the knee joints. With one hand, the doctor moves the patella inward, and with the other hand, from the inside, palpates under the edge of the patella. Thus there are painful points. Then the procedure is repeated, shifting the patella outward and palpating under its outer edge. Pain may also appear when the hamstrings contract with the retention of the patella from upward movement.

Source opozvonochnike.com

Two-way

There are other factors that adversely affect the health of knee joints: First, these are any damages resulting in posttraumatic arthrosis: ligament rupture, meniscus injury, hip fracture, etc.

Especially often such injuries happen to athletes. Secondly, the cause is a disease that causes destruction of cartilage, such as, for example, chondromatosis or arthritis. Thirdly, a person can be simply genetically predisposed to this disease.

Also, gonarthrosis is often found in people who are overweight, with varicose veins and in those who take drugs of a certain group for a long time. Two-sided gonarthrosis affects both knees at once.

Here's what happens:

Blood circulation in small bone vessels disrupted,

This triggers a degenerative-dystrophic process in cartilage that begins at the molecular level,

Gradually the cartilages become less dense and elastic, gradually becoming turbid, delaminating and cracking andcavities,

The result of this process is the partial or complete disappearance of the cartilage and exposure of the bone lying beneath it.

Any motor activity in this case causes difficulties, since it is associated with painful sensations.

Further development of the disease leads to tissue damage around the joint. The synovial membrane becomes inflamed, and the fluid it produces loses its functionality. Thickening of the joint capsule. Osteophytes appear on bare bony surfaces - bone spines, which cling to each other during movement, further complicating it. Moreover, with the development of the disease, the muscles around the joint also atrophy. There is a contracture - the inability to fully bend or unbend legs. This leads to almost complete immobility of the knee joint.

In complex cases, full fusion of bones may occur. How does the disease manifest at different stages? There are three stages of development of gonarthrosis: Disease of the 1st degree is characterized by slight discomfort and weak pain in the knee joints with long walking and physical exertion. Sometimes the area of ​​the joints can swell, recovering from rest.

Stages of development

Two-sided gonarthrosis of the 2nd degree is associated with stronger and prolonged manifestations: "creaking", "crunching", "starting pain", which occurs with prolonged rest and passing through some time;stiffness of movements and increase in the size of knee joints. When the disease of the third degree becomes pronounced contracture, joints are deformed, legs are bent and the gait is disturbed. Acute pain accompanies the patient both in motion and at rest, which often leads to sleep disturbances. In addition, sick joints react sharply to weather changes.

sustavprof.ru

Are knee joints aching? Treatment with the traditional method

When the knee is aching, treatment should be carried out after the doctor has made an accurate diagnosis. Symptoms of diseases, especially at the beginning, are similar. Self-medication can cause irreparable harm.

Arthritis

Depending on the degree of development of the disease, anti-inflammatory and analgesic medications are used!

Often carries a chronic nature. It happens to be primary and secondary. There is pain - at first periodically, then permanently. The knee is swollen, the symptoms indicate an inflammatory process.

Treatment. Depending on the degree of development of the disease, anti-inflammatory and analgesic medications are used. In rare cases, injections of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are administered to the interior of the joint. A prerequisite for successful treatment is the elimination of the cause of the disease.

Osteoarthrosis

In the treatment of osteoarthritis I use vasodilator preparations to improve blood supply

It is characterized by deformation of the cartilaginous tissues of the joint, synovial membrane, ligaments, capsules. The disease in its beginning manifests itself in painful sensations when walking, while climbing the stairs, standing for a long time. As the disease progresses, the knees begin to swell, the pain syndrome builds up, the pain gives to the calf muscles.

Treatment. Anti-inflammatory drugs are used to relieve inflammation and reduce pain, but long-term use is not recommended because of side effects. Vasodilator drugs are needed to improve blood circulation in the affected joint and to relieve spasm of small blood vessels.

Chondroprotectors contribute to the rapid restoration of cartilage joint tissue. Intra-articular injections of non-steroidal drugs can provide rapid relief of pain, but they can not be used with severe swelling and knee deformities. Sometimes injections of hyaluronic acid are used - this allows you to quickly restore the mobility of the joint. Ointments and creams help reduce pain and reduce puffiness. For the treatment of osteoarthritis, physiotherapy is used: electrophoresis, massage, cold treatment. But such therapy is contraindicated in the period of exacerbation of the disease and with a strong swelling of the joint.

Synovitis

Inflammation of the synovial membrane of the joint. The main cause is infection and metabolic disorders. The pain with this disease is not always strong and often does not occur immediately. Swelling of the knee joint is observed, often on the background of infection, the body temperature rises. For an accurate diagnosis, a puncture is prescribed.

Treatment. If the disease is not treated, there is a risk of sepsis. For the treatment of acute synovitis, a part of the fluid is pumped out of the intra-articular space, after which a bandage is applied. For medicinal treatment, anti-inflammatory drugs, inhibitors( lysozyme, proteins), heparin are used. If the disease has become chronic, corticosteroids are prescribed. In particularly neglected cases, surgery may be required. The joint cavity is opened, foreign bodies and deformed menisci are removed, the pathologically altered parts of the cartilage are excised. Restorative treatment is based on anti-inflammatory therapy and thorough hemostasis.

Bursitis

Inflammation of the bursa( periarticular bag).It can be caused by infections, injuries, arthritis, joint overload, metabolic disorders. Around the knee joint are three bursa: above the knee, in front of the knee and under the knee. The main sign of bursitis is swelling, which can lead to impaired mobility and the onset of pain syndrome, an increase in body temperature and an increase in regional lymph nodes. For the diagnosis of infectious bursitis, a puncture of the periarticular bag is made with taking fluid from the damaged area.

Treatment of bursitis should be carried out depending on the type of disease!

There are acute and chronic types of bursitis. The acute bursitis begins suddenly, with acute pain, provoked by the movement of the affected limb. Swelling is observed over the affected area.

Chronic disease is characterized by a less pronounced, but more prolonged pain syndrome. Often in the region of the synovial bag, calcium deposits are formed. The limb function is not broken, under the skin in the affected area is a dense formation.

Treatment. Treatment of infectious bursitis requires the use of antibiotics, sometimes intravenously. Aspiration of fluid from the bursal cavity is also used. In particularly neglected cases, a bursectomy is performed( removal of the inflamed bursa).

In the treatment of chronic bursitis, anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs are used, injections of corticosteroids into the periarticular bag. To ease the pain syndrome and reduce swelling, treatment with cold is shown - in the form of ice compresses. When chronic bursitis is often required removal of calcium deposits. The popular treatment of bursitis with folk remedies is also quite popular.

Cyst

It is formed due to inflammation, trauma, excessive physical exertion, metabolic disorders, arthritis or arthrosis. Symptoms of cyst: pain, difficulty in movement, appearance of bulging out under the knee, rounded tumor.

Treatment. Is treated promptly and conservatively. In the treatment of cysts in a conservative way, aspiration of fluid from the neoplasm is performed, after which corticosteroid preparations are administered to relieve inflammation. The operating method is indicated for significant cyst size.

In all cases, when the knee is hurting, it is necessary first of all to unload the legs, give them rest. If the pain does not pass, or again occurs when the motor activity resumes, you should see a doctor. The doctor will diagnose, help identify the cause and prescribe effective treatment.

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